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cum (archaic form COM, found in an inscr., COM PREIVATVD; in MSS. sometimes quom or quum), prep. with abl. [for skom, Sanscr. root sak, together; cf. sequor, and Gr. koino/s, su)n], designates in gen. accompaniment, community, connection of one object with another (opp. sine, separatim, etc.), with, together, together with, in connection or company with, along with; sometimes also to be translated and.

I. In gen., Plaut. Am. prol. 95: qui cum Amphitruone abiit hinc in exercitum, id. ib. prol. 125: cum Pansā vixi in Pompeiano, Cic. Att. 14, 20, 4: semper ille antea cum uxore, tum sine eā, id. Mil. 21, 55: quibuscum essem libenter, id. Fam. 5, 21, 1; cf.: cum quibus in ceteris intellegis afuisse, id. Sull. 3, 7: si cenas hodie mecum, Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 70: vagamur egentes cum conjugibus et liberis, Cic. Att. 8, 2, 3: errare malo cum Platone, etc., id. Tusc. 1, 17, 39: qui unum imperium unumque magistratum cum ipsis habeant, Caes. B. G. 2, 3 et saep.—

b. In an expression of displeasure: in' hinc, quo dignus, cum donis tuis Tam lepidis, Ter. Eun. 4, 3, 9; cf. Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 33; Ter. And. 5, 4, 38; id. Eun. 1, 2, 73; id. Heaut. 4, 6, 7 al.

B. In a designation of time with which some action concurs: egone abs te abii hinc hodie cum diluculo? Plaut. Am. 2, 2, 121; so, cum primo luci, id. Cist. 2, 1, 58: cras cum filio cum primo luci ibo hinc, Ter. Ad. 5, 3, 55; Cic. Off. 3, 31, 112; cf.: cum primā luce, id. Att. 4, 3, 4; and: cum primo lumine solis, Verg. A. 7, 130: cum primo mane, Auct. B. Afr. 62: cum mane, Lucil. ap. Diom. p. 372 P: pariter cum ortu solis, Sall. J. 106, 5: pariter cum occasu solis, id. ib. 68, 2; cf.: cum sole reliquit, Verg. A. 3, 568 et saep.: mane cum luci simul, Plaut. Merc. 2, 1, 31; v. simul: exiit cum nuntio (i. e. at the same time with, etc.), Caes. B. G. 5, 46; cf.: cum his nuntius Romam ad consulendum redit ( = a(/ma toi=sde), Liv. 1, 32, 10: simul cum dono designavit templo Jovis fines, id. 1, 10, 5; cf.: et vixisse cum re publicā pariter, et cum illā simul extinctus esse videatur, Cic. de Or. 3, 3, 10.—

C. In designating the relations, circumstances, way, and manner with which any act is connected, by which it is accompanied, under or in which it takes place, etc., with, in, under, in the midst of, among, to, at: aliquid cum malo suo facere, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 4, 4; cf.: cum magnā calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 24, 63: cum summā rei publicae salute et cum tuā peste ac pernicie cumque eorum exitio, qui, etc., id. Cat. 1, 13, 33: cum magno provinciae periculo, Caes. B. G. 1, 10: cum summo probro, Ter. And. 5, 3, 10: cum summo terrore hominum, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 24, 6: cum summā tuā dignitate, Cic. Fin. 4, 22, 61: cum bonā alite, Cat. 61, 19: ferendum hoc onus est cum labore, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 21; cf. Cic. N. D. 2, 23, 59: multis cum lacrimis aliquem obsecrare, amid many tears, Caes. B. G. 1, 20; cf.: hunc ipsum abstulit magno cum gemitu civitatis, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 19, 49: orare cum lacrimis coepere, Liv. 5, 30, 5: si minus cum curā aut cautelā locus loquendi lectus est, Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 6 Ritschl; so, cum curā, Cic. Inv. 1, 39, 70; Sall. J. 54, 1; Liv. 22, 42, 5 et saep.; cf.: cum summo studio, Sall. C. 51, 38: cum quanto studio periculoque, Liv. 8, 25, 12 al.: cum multā venustate et omni sale, Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 9: summā cum celeritate ad exercitum rediit, Hirt. B. G. 8, 52: maximo cum clamore involant, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 89: cum clamore, Liv. 2, 23, 8; 5, 45, 2: cum clamore ac tumultu, id. 9, 31, 8; cf.: Athenienses cum silentio auditi sunt, id. 38, 10, 4; 7, 35, 1: illud cum pace agemus, Cic. Tusc. 5, 29, 83: cum bonā pace, Liv. 1, 24, 3; 21, 24, 5: cum bonā gratiā, Cic. Fat. 4, 7: cum bonā veniā, Liv. 29, 1, 7; cf.: cum veniā, Ov. Tr. 4, 1, 104; Quint. 10, 1, 72: cum virtute vivere, Cic. Fin. 3, 8, 29; cf. id. ib. 2, 11, 34: cum judicio, Quint. 10, 1, 8: cum firmā memoriā, id. 5, 10, 54: legata cum fide ac sine calumniā persolvere, Suet. Calig. 16: spolia in aede ... cum sollemni dedicatione dono fixit, Liv. 4, 20, 3.—

b. Attributively, with subst.: et huic proelium cum Tuscis ad Janiculum erat crimini, Liv. 2, 52, 7 Weissenb. ad loc.: frumenti cum summā caritate inopia erat, id. 2, 12, 1; 2, 5, 2; 7, 29, 3.—

2. Cum eo quod, ut, or ne (in an amplification or limitation), with the circumstance or in the regard that, on or under the condition, with the exception, that, etc. (except once in Cic. epistt. not ante-Aug.).

(a). Cum eo quod, with indic., Quint. 12, 10, 47 Spald.; 10, 7, 13; so, cum eo quidem, quod, etc., id. 2, 4, 30. —With subj.: sit sane, quoniam ita tu vis: sed tamen cum eo, credo, quod sine peccato meo fiat, Cic. Att. 6, 1, 7.—

(b). With ut: Antium nova colonia missa cum eo, ut Antiatibus permitteretur, si et ipsi adscribi coloni vellent, Liv. 8, 14, 8; so id. 8, 14, 2; 30, 10, 21; 36, 5, 3; Cels. 3, 22.—So with tamen: cum eo tamen, ut nullo tempore is ... non sit sustinendus, Cels. 3, 5 fin.; 4, 6 fin.

(g). With ne: obsequar voluntati tuae cum eo, ne dubites, etc., Col. 5, 1, 4: cum eo, ne amplius quam has urant, Cels. 7, 22; and with tamen: cum eo tamen, ne, etc., id. 2, 17.—

3. Cum dis volentibus, etc., with God's help, by the will of the gods, su\n qew=|: cum divis volentibus quodque bene eveniat mando tibi, Mani, etc., Cato, R. R. 141, 1: volentibu' cum magnis dis, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38: agite, cum dis bene juvantibus arma capite, Liv. 21, 43, 7; so, cum superis, Claud. Cons. Stil. III. p. 174.—

4. Cum with an ordinal number (cum octavo, cum decimo, etc.) for our -fold, in economical lang., of the multiplication of cultivated products: ut ex eodem semine aliubi cum decimo redeat, aliubi cum quinto decimo, ten-, fifteenfold, Varr. R. R. 1, 44, 1; so, cum octavo, cum decimo, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 47, 112: cum centesimo, Plin. 18, 10, 21, 95; cf. with a subst.: cum centesimā fruge agricolis faenus reddente terrā, id. 5, 4, 3, 24.—

D. With a means or instrument, considered as attending or accompanying the actor in his action (so most freq. anteclass., or in the poets and scientific writers): acribus inter se cum armis confligere, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 261, 6: effundit voces proprio cum pectore, Enn. ap. Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 424: cum voce maximā conclamat, Claud. Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 10: cum linguā lingere, Cat. 98, 3: cum suo gurgite accepit venientem (fluvius), Verg. A. 9, 816: cum vino et oleo ungere, Veg. 1, 11, 8 et saep.: terra in Augurum libris scripta cum R uno, Varr. L. L. 5, 21 Müll.

II. In partic.

A. Completing the meaning of verbs.

1. With verbs of union, connection, and agreement: cum veteribus copiis se conjungere, Caes. B. G. 1, 37: ut proprie cohaereat cum narratione, Auct. Her. 1, 7, 11: (haec) arbitror mihi constare cum ceteris scriptoribus, id. 1, 9, 16: interfectam esse ... convenit mihi cum adversariis, id. 1, 10, 17; cf. Cic. Inv. 1, 22, 31: quī autem poterat in gratiam redire cum Oppianico Cluentius? id. Clu. 31, 86: hanc sententiam cum virtute congruere semper, id. Off. 3, 3, 13: foedera quibus etiam cum hoste devincitur fides, id. ib. 3, 31, 111: capita nominis Latini stare ac sentire cum rege videbant, Liv. 1, 52, 4: cum aliquo in gratiam redire, id. 3, 58, 4: stabat cum eo senatūs majestas, id. 8, 34, 1: conjurasse cum Pausaniā, Curt. 7, 1, 6: Autronium secum facere, Cic. Sull. 13, 36; cf. also conecto, colligo, consentio, compono, etc.—

2. Of companionship, association, sharing, etc.: cum his me oblecto, qui res gestas aut orationes scripserunt suas, Cic. de Or. 2, 14, 61: quoniam vivitur, non cum perfectis hominibus, sed cum iis, etc., id. Off. 1, 15, 46: nulla (societas) carior quam ea quae cum re publicā est unicuique nostrum, id. ib. 1, 17, 51: cum civibus vivere, id. ib. 1, 34, 124: cum M. Fabio mihi summus usus est, id. Fam. 9, 25, 2; cf.: cum quibus publice privatimque hospitia amicitiasque junxerant, Liv. 1, 45, 2: partiri cum Dinaeā matre jussit, Cic. Clu. 7, 21: cum Baebio communicare, id. ib. 16, 47; cf. of local association, nearness: cum mortuā jugulatum servum nudum positurum ait, Liv. 1, 58, 4: duos tamen pudor cum eo tenuit, id. 2, 10, 5.—

3. Of intercourse, traffic, etc.: cum aliquo agere, to deal with, Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112; Caes. B. G. 1, 13: cum eo Accius injuriarum agit, Auct. Her. 1, 14, 24: si par est agere cum civibus, Cic. Off. 2, 23, 83; 3, 22, 88; id. Scaur. 10, 20; cf. id. Fam. 5, 18, 1; Liv. 1, 19, 7; 3, 9, 13; 4, 15, 2; Val. Max. 4, 3, 8: si mihi cum Peripateticis res esset, Cic. Ac. 2, 35, 112: tecum enim mihi res est, id. Rosc. Am. 30, 84: uni tibi et cum singulis res est, Liv. 2, 12, 11: pacem cum Sabinis facere, Cic. Off. 3, 30, 109.—Esp.: agere cum aliquo, to have a lawsuit with, Gai Inst. 4, 87; 4, 114 et saep.; v. ago, II. B. 8. a., and II. B. 9.; consisto, I. B. 5.; cf. also pango, etc.—

4. Of deliberation and discussion: haec ego cum ipsis philosophis disserebam, Cic. de Or. 1, 13, 57: tempus cum conjuratis consultando absumunt, Liv. 2, 4, 3 et saep.; v. also cogito, reputo, dubito, etc.—

5. Of strife, difference, etc.: quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt, Caes. B. G. 1, 1: cum Cleanthe quam multis rebus Chrysippus dissidet! Cic. Ac. 2, 47, 143: neque tam quererer cum deo quod, etc., id. ib. 2, 25, 81: cum quo Antiochum saepe disputantem audiebam, id. ib. 2, 4, 11: cum stomacheretur cum Metello, id. Or. 2, 66, 267: manu cum hoste confligere, id. Off. 1, 23, 81: utilia cum honestis pugnare, id. ib. 3, 7, 34: cum Catone dissentire. id. ib. 3, 22, 88: cum majoribus nostris bella gessit, id. Scaur. 19, 45; Liv. 1, 35, 7; 7, 22, 4: cum Auruncis bellum inire, id. 2, 16, 8; cf.: cum Volscis aequo Marte discessum est, id. 2, 40, 14: inimicitias cum Africano gerere, Val. Max. 4, 1, 8; Sen. Vit. Beat. 2, 3: cum Scipione dissentire, Val. Max. 4, 1, 12: cum utrāque (uxore) divortium fecit, Suet. Claud. 26; cf. also certo, pugno, discrepo, differo, distraho, dissentio, etc.—

6. Of comparison: nec Arcesilae calumnia conferenda est cum Democriti verecundiā, Cic. Ac. 2, 5, 14: hanc rationem dicendi cum imperatoris laude comparare, id. de Or. 1, 2, 8: conferam Sullamne cum Junio, id. Clu. 34, 94: (orationem) cum magnitudine utilitatis comparare, id. Off. 2, 6, 20.—

B. Pregn., implying the notion of being furnished, endowed, clothed with any thing, or of possessing, holding, suffering under, etc., in a lit. and trop. sense: ille vir haud magnā cum re sed plenus fidei, Enn. ap. Cic. Sen. 1, 1 (cf. the antith.: hominem sine re, sine fide, Cic. Cael. 32, 78): a portu illuc nunc cum laternā advenit, Plaut. Am. prol. 149: cadus cum vino, id. Stich. 5, 1, 7; cf. id. Pers. 2, 3, 15: olla cum aquā, Cato, R. R. 156: arcula cum ornamentis, Plaut. Most. 1, 3, 91: fiscos cum pecuniā Siciliensi, Cic. Verr. 1, 8, 22: onerariae naves cum commeatu, Liv. 30, 24, 5 et saep.: cum servili schemā, Plaut. Am. prol. 117; so of clothing, id. Rud. 1, 4, 31; Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, 54; 2, 5, 13, 31; id. Rab. Post. 10, 27; Liv. 35, 34, 7; Suet. Claud. 13; Sil. 1, 94 et saep.: ut ne quis cum telo servus esset, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 3, 7; so of weapons, id. Phil. 2, 8, 19; cf.: inmissi cum falcibus, etc., id. Tusc. 5, 23, 65: vidi argenteum Cupidinem cum lampade, holding, id. Verr. 2, 2, 47, 115: simulacrum Cereris cum faucibus, id. ib. 2, 4, 49, 109: cum elephanti capite puer natus, Liv. 27, 11, 5; cf.: cum quinque pedibus natus, id. 30, 2, 10; 33, 1, 11; 27, 4, 14 al.: omnia cum pulchris animis Romana juventus, Enn. ap. Don. ad Ter. Phorm. 3, 1, 1; cf. Ter. ib.: Minucius cum vulnere gravi relatus in castra, Liv. 9, 44, 14: te Romam venisse cum febri, Cic. Att. 6, 9, 1; so id. de Or. 3, 2, 6; id. Clu. 62, 175: cum eisdem suis vitiis nobilissimus, with all his faults, i. e. in spite of, id. ib. 40, 112: ex eis qui cum imperio sint, id. Fam. 1, 1, 3 Manut.; cf.: cum imperio aut magistratu, Suet. Tib. 12 Bremi; v. imperium.—

C. With idem (never of the identity of two subjects, but freq. of the relation of two subjects to the same object, etc.; v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 538): tibi mecum in eodem est pistrino vivendum, Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 144: quandoque tu ... omnibus in eisdem flagitiis mecum versatus es, id. Verr. 2, 3, 80, 187: Numidae ... in eādem mecum Africā geniti, Liv. 30, 12, 15; 28, 28, 14; Tac. A. 15, 2; Val. Max. 6, 5, 3.—

D. In the adverb. phrase, cum primis, with the foremost, i.e. especially, particularly (rare), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 28, 68; id. Brut. 62, 224.—Post-class. also as one word: cumprīmis, Gell. 1, 12, 7 al.!*?

a. Cum in anastrophe. So always with the pers. pron.: mecum, tecum, secum, nobiscum, etc.; cf. Cic. Or. 45, 154; Prisc. pp. 949 and 988 P.; and in gen. with the rel. pron.: quocum (quīcum), quacum, quibuscum, quīcum (for quocum), Cic. Or. 45, 154; Liv. 38, 9, 2; Cic. Att. 5, 1, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 31, 76 and 77; Caes. B. G. 1, 8; Cic. Rep. 1, 10, 15; id. Att. 4, 9, 2; id. Off. 1, 35, 126; Quint. 8, 6, 65; 10, 5, 7; 11, 2, 38. But where cum is emphatic, or a demonstrative pron. is understood, cum is placed before the rel.; cf.: his de rebus velim cum Pompeio, cum Camillo, cum quibus vobis videbitur, consideretis, Cic. Fam. 14, 14, 3: adhibuit sibi quindecim principes cum quibus causas cognovit, id. Off. 2, 23, 82; Liv. 1, 45, 2.—

b. Before et ... et, connecting two substt.: cum et diurno et nocturno metu, Cic. Tusc. 5, 23, 66.

III. In compounds the primitive form com was alone in use, and was unchanged before b, p, m: comburo, compono, committo, and a few words beginning with vowels: comes, comitium, and comitor; m was assimilated before r: corripio; often before l: colligo or conligo; rarely before n, as connumero, but usually dropped: conecto, conitor, conubium; with the change of m into n before all the remaining consonants: concutio, condono, confero, congero, conqueror, consumo, contero, convinco; so, conjicio, etc., but more usually conicio; and with the rejection of m before vowels and before h: coarguo, coëo, coinquino, coopto, cohibeo.—

B. It designates,

1. A being or bringing together of several objects: coëo, colloquor, convivor, etc.: colligo, compono, condo, etc.—

2. The completeness, perfecting of any act, and thus gives intensity to the signif. of the simple word, as in commaculo, commendo, concito, etc., comminuo, concerpo, concido, convello, etc.