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Cum (ante-class. quom; freq. in MSS. of Cicero; the post-class. form quum is incorrectly given in many MSS. and edd.), conj. [pronom. stem ka- or kva- with acc. case ending].

I. Of time, when, as, while, sometimes = after, since.

A. In adverbial clauses dependent on non-preterite predicates.

1. The time designated by cum being indefinite, when, if, whenever, always with indic., except in the instances A. 2.

a. Cum with pres. indic., often equivalent to si.

(a). With principal predicate in pres.: nam omnes id faciunt quom se amari intellegunt, Plaut. Truc. prol. 17: facile, quom valemus, recta consilia aegrotis damus, Ter. And. 2, 1, 9; Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 44; id. Poen. 4, 2, 20; id. Truc. 1, 1, 46; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 11: cum semen maturum habet, tum tempestiva est, Cato, R. R. 17; 41: quid? tum cum es iratus, permittis illi iracundiae dominationem animi tui? Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59: cum permagna praemia sunt, est causa peccandi, id. Off. 3, 20, 79; id. de Or. 3, 23, 87: quidam vivere tunc incipiunt cum desinendum est, Sen. Ep. 23, 11.—

(b). With principal predicate in fut. (rare): ad cujus igitur fidem confugiet cum per ejus fidem laeditur cui se commiserit? Cic. Rosc. Am. 40, 116; id. Leg. 3, 10, 24; id. Fl. 17, 40; Verg. A. 12, 208.—

(g). With principal predicate in logical perf. (mostly poet.): haud invito ad auris sermo mi accessit tuos, Quom te postputasse omnis res prae parente intellego, Ter. Hec. 3, 5, 33: qui cum levati morbo videntur, in eum de integro inciderunt, Cic. Fam. 12, 30, 2: (dolor) Cum furit ... Profuit incensos aestus avertere ( = prodest), Verg. G. 3, 457: nemo non, cum alteri prodest, sibi profuit, Sen. Ep. 81, 19; Cic. Att. 4, 18, 1; Liv. 8, 8, 11; Verg. A. 9, 435; id. G. 1, 288.—

b. With logical perf. indic.

(a). With principal predicate in pres. (very freq.), the perf. translated either by English pres. perf. or by pres.: omnia sunt incerta cum a jure discessum est, when we (once) disregard the law, Cic. Fam. 9, 16, 1: gubernatores cum exultantes loligines viderunt ... tempestatem significari putant, id. Div. 2, 70, 145: cum depulsi sunt agni a matribus, diligentia adhibenda est ne, etc., Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 17: cum ejus generis copia defecit, ad innocentium supplicia descendunt, Caes. B. G. 6, 16, 5: (hostis) cum intravit ... modum a captivis non accipit, Sen. Ira, 1, 8, 2: quia enim, cum prima cognovi, jungere extrema cupio, Plin. Ep. 7, 10, 1; Cic. Or. 1, 33, 153; id. Div. 2, 26, 56; id. Brut. 24, 93; id. Cat. 4, 6, 12; id. Fam. 6, 3, 3; Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63; Caes. B. G. 4, 33; 5, 21; Liv. 22, 9, 8; 34, 31, 4; Val. Max. 8, 10 prooem.; 9, 6 init.; Sen. Ep. 3, 2; 21, 9; id. Cons. Helv. 13, 2; Curt. 3, 3, 18; Plin. 18, 7, 10, 60; Quint. 4, 2, 122; 10, 7, 14.—In oblique clauses the perf. indic. may remain, or may be changed into perf. subj., even after preterites, Cic. Off. 1, 28, 26; 2, 20, 69.—

(b). With principal predicate in fut. (poet.), Ov. P. 1, 5, 47.—

(g). With two logical perff. (rare): cum id factum est, tamen grex dominum non mutavit, Varr. R. R. 2, 2, 6: quae cum se disposuit ... summum bonum tetigit, Sen. Vit. Beat. 8, 5; id. Tranq. 17, 11; id. Ben. 1, 1, 5. —

c. With fut.

(a). With principal predicate in fut.: ita fere officia reperientur, cum quaeretur, quid deceat, etc., Cic. Off. 1, 34, 125; Auct. Her. 2, 7, 10; 2, 12, 17.— So with principal predicate in fut. imper: etiam tum cum verisimile erit aliquem commisisse ... latratote, Cic. Rosc. Am. 20, 57, id. Mur. 31, 65; id. Att. 3, 8, 4; Liv. 35, 19, 6.—

(b). With principal predicate in pres.: in talibus ... stabilitas amicitiae confirmari potest, cum homines cupiditatibus imperabunt, Cic. Lael. 22, 82; Val. Max. 4, 8 prooem.—

d. With fut. perf.

(a). With principal predicate in pres.: quam (spem), cum in otium venerimus, habere volumus, Cic. Att. 1, 7: nec irascimur illis cum sessorem recusaverint, Sen. Const. 12, 3; id. Cons. Marc. 7, 2.—

(b). With principal predicate in fut. indic.: cum haec erunt considerata, statim nostrae legis expositione ... utemur, Auct. Her. 2, 10, 15: cum viderit secari patrem suum filiumve, vir bonus non flebit? Sen. Ira, 1, 12, 1.—In oblique clauses, dependent on preterites, it is changed to the pluperf. subj.: qui tum demum beatum terrarum orbem futurum praedicavit cum aut sapientes regnare, aut reges sapere coepissent, Val. Max. 7, 2, ext. 4.—

(g). With principal predicate in fut. imper.: cum tempestates pluviae fuerint, videtote quot dies, etc., Cato, R. R. 2, 3; 25 init.; 38.—

(d). With two fut. perff.: cum bene cesserit negotiatio, multum militia retulerit, Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 6.—

e. In partic.

(a). In definitions with pres, indic.: humile genus est (causae) cum contempta res adfertur, Auct. Her. 1, 3, 5: purgatio est cum factum conceditur, culpa removetur, Cic. Inv. 1, 11, 15: maxima est capitis deminutio cum aliquis simul et civitatem et libertatem amittit, Gai Inst. 1, 160; Auct. Her. 1, 46; 2, 4, 6; 4, 12, 17; 4, 53, 66 et saep. —

(b). Etiam cum (less freq. cum etiam), even when (nearly = etiamsi), always with indic. if dependent on other than preterite predicates. (1) With pres.: qui cavet ne decipiatur, vix cavet, quom etiam cavet, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 5: in quo scelere, etiam cum multae causae convenisse ... videntur, tamen non temere creditur, Cic. Rosc. Am. 22, 62: qui incolunt maritimas urbis, etiam cum manent corpore, animo tamen excursant, id. Rep. 2, 4, 7; Curt. 6, 3, 10; Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 6.—(2) With fut.: etiam cum potentes nocere intendent, Sen. Const. 4, 1. —(3) With fut. perf.: cum etiam plus contenderimus, etc., Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 7; Sen. Ben. 4, 13, 3.—(4) In oblique clauses with imperf. subj., Cic. Fragm. Tog. Cand. 15.—

(g). Anteclass. with indic. in addressing indefinite persons in rules, after imper.: sorba in sapā cum vis condere, arida facias, Cato, R. R. 7 fin.— Always with indic. if a certain person is addressed; cf. Cic. Rep. 1, 38, 59 (l. A. 1. a. a supra); id. Verr. 2, 1, 18, 47.—

2. With subj. referring to indefinite time.

a. With the 2d pers. sing., used in an indefinite sense (you = one, any one).

(a). With pres. subj.: acerbum'st pro benefactis quom mali messim metas, Plaut. Ep. 5, 2, 53: quom faciem videas, videtur esse quantivis preti, Ter. And. 5, 2, 15; Plaut. Cas. 3, 2, 32; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 38; id. Merc. 3, 2, 7 and 8 et saep.: difficile est tacere cum doleas, Cic. Sull. 10, 31: etiam interpretatio nominis habet acumen cum ad ridiculum convertas, id. de Or. 2, 63, 257; 2, 64, 259; 2, 67, 269; 2, 75, 305; 3, 38, 156; Sen. Ep. 75, 4 et saep.—

(b). With perf. subj.: difficile est cum praestare omnibus concupieris, servare aequitatem, Cic. Off. 1, 19, 64: quos (versus) cum cantu spoliaveris, nuda paene remanet oratio, id. Or. 55, 183; id. Lael. 21, 77; id. Inv. 1, 47, 88; Sall. C. 12, 3; 51, 24; 58, 16.—

b. In the jurists, in a clause exemplifying a general rule: cum ergo ita scriptum sit Heres Titius esto, addicere debemus, Gai Inst. 2, 165; so id. ib. 4, 97; 3, 161; Auct. Her. 4, 31, 42.—

c. In the phrase audio cum dicat (I. F. 1, b. infra): saepe soleo audire Roscium cum ita dicat se, etc., Cic. de Or. 2, 28, 129.—

d. When, after cum, an imperfect or pluperfect is used as a logical tense (post-Aug.): non tulit gratis qui cum rogasset accepit, who has asked for the favor, and, etc., Sen. Ben. 2, 1, 4; 2, 3, 1; 2, 13, 2; id. Ep. 86, 8.—

e. If the principal predicate is a potential subjunctive, an indefinite clause with a present or future after cum is always in the same mood: caveto quom ventus siet aut imber, effodias aut seras, Cato, R. R. 28: quis tam dissoluto animo est qui, haec cum videat, tacere ac neglegere possit? Cic. Rosc. Am. 11, 32; id. Planc. 39, 94; id. Clu. 55, 153; id. Inv. 1, 4, 87; 1, 51, 95; Auct. Her. 4, 6, 9; 4, 32, 43.—

3. Of definite time, always with indic. (for exceptions, v. 4. infra), when, if, while (for the distinction between cum and si, cf.: formam mihi totius rei publicae, si jam es Romae, aut cum eris, velim mittas, Cic. Att. 6, 3, 4: quae si prodierit, atque adeo cum prodierit—scio enim proditurum esse—audiet, id. Rosc. Am. 25, 100: si damnatus eris, atque adeo cum damnatus eris—nam dubitatio quae poterit esse? etc., id. Verr. 2, 3, 29, 70; id. Or. 2, 75, 304; Sen. Ep. 83, 10).

a. Cum with pres. indic.

(a). Principal predicate in pres.: certe, edepol, quom illum contemplo et formam cognosco meam ... nimis simili'st mei, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 288; so id. Poen. 1, 2, 71; id. Pers. 4, 4, 15; Ter. Hec. 3, 3, 45: Py. Ne fle. Ph. Non queo Quom te video, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 14; id. Am. 1, 1, 260; id. Rud. 3, 4, 38: potestne tibi ulla spes salutis ostendi cum recordaris in deos immortalis quam impius ... fueris? Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 18, 47: cum hoc vereor, et cupio tibi ... parcere, rursus immuto voluntatem meam ( = while), id. Rosc. Am. 34, 95; Serv. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 4: equidem cum ... recordor, vix aetatem Alexandri suffecturam fuisse reor ad unum bellum, Liv. 9, 19, 12; Cic. Planc. 12, 29; id. Clu. 10, 29; Liv. 40, 46, 3: quod cum ita est, if this is so, Quint. 24, 58 (cf.: quodsi ita est, Cic. Mur. 2, 5); so, often, nunc cum: qui modo nusquam conparebas, nunc quom conpares, peris, Plaut. Aul. 4, 4, 2; so id. ib. 1, 3, 35; 2, 2, 17; id. As. 1, 2, 18; Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 39: nos de injusto rege nihil loquimur, nunc cum de ipsā regali re publicā quaerimus, Cic. Rep. 3, 35, 47; Liv. 44, 39, 7.—So with logical perf. for the pres., Quint. 4, 2, 122.—But Cicero always uses nunc cum with a subj. when the clause, while designating present time, generally in opposition to a former time, implies a reason for the principal action, now that: quodsi tum, cum res publica severitatem desiderabat, vici naturam, etc., nunc cum omnes me causae ad misericordiam ... vocent, quanto tandem studio, etc., Cic. Mur. 2, 3, 6; id. Fam. 9, 16, 7; id. Font. 15, 35 (25); id. Imp. Pomp. 10, 27; 17, 50; not found in later writers, except in the Gallic panegyrists, e. g. Eum. Grat. Act. 2 init.

(b). With principal predicate in the logical perf., if (ante-class.): Curculio hercle verba mihi dedit quom cogito, Plaut. Curc. 4, 4, 27: sed tandem, quom recogito, qui potis est scire, haec scire me? id. Stich. 2, 1, 29; id. Mil. 4, 8, 64.—

b. Cum with logical perf. indic.

(a). Principal predicate in pres.: ergo quom optume fecisti, nunc adest occasio Benefacta cumulare, after doing excellently, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 63: quo etiam major vir habendus est (Numa), cum illam sapientiam constituendae civitatis duobus prope saeculis ante cognovit, quam, etc. ( = siquidem, if he has; seeing that he has), Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154; Verg. A. 9, 249.—

(b). With principal predicate in fut. (poet.): at cumst imposta corona, Clamabis capiti vina subisse meo (est imposta = erit imposta), Prop. 4 (5), 2, 30.—

c. With fut.

(a). With principal predicate in fut.: quom videbis tum scies, Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 37; id. Am. 3, 3, 15; id. Men. 5, 7, 7; Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 82; id. Heaut. prol. 33: sed cum certum sciam faciam te paulo ante certiorem, Cic. Fam. 9, 23; 3, 11, 3; 12, 30, 5; 14, 3, 4; id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 2; Liv. 3, 53, 10.—

(b). With principal predicate in fut. perf.: cum tu haec leges, ego jam annuum munus confecero, Cic. Fam. 2, 12, 1.—

(g). With principal predicate in imper. fut.: mox quom imitabor Sauream, caveto ne succenseas, Plaut. As. 2, 2, 105; id. Mil. 3, 3, 59.—

(d). With principal predicate in subj. (potential): cum testes ex Siciliā dabo, quem volet ille eligat, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 22, 48; id. Off. 1, 34, 122; 3, 10, 46; id. Att. 4, 9, 1; 4, 10, 2; 4, 17, 1 et saep.—(e) In oblique clauses, after preterites, changed into imperf. subj., Caes. B. C. 2, 40; after other tenses it is either changed into pres. subj. or remains unchanged, Cic. Fam. 1, 56, 2; 1, 7, 4; Sall. C. 58, 8.—

d. With fut. perf.

(a). With principal predicate in fut.: mox dabo quom ab re divinā rediero, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 193; id. Am. 1, 1, 43; 1, 2, 4; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 8: cum haec docuero, tum illud ostendam, etc., Cic. Clu. 4, 9; id. Verr. 2, 1, 1, 3; id. de Or. 2, 33, 143; 2, 59, 239; id. Att. 3, 23, 5 et saep.—In oblique clauses, after preterites, the fut. perf. is changed into pluperf. subj., Cic. Rosc. Am. 10, 28; 28, 78; Liv. 1, 56, 11; 5, 30, 1; after other tenses, and often in oblique oration, it remains unchanged, or is changed into perf. subj., Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 71, 183; id. Fam. 2, 5, 2 dub.; Liv. 21, 13, 8; 3, 56, 10.—

(b). With principal predicate in imper. (almost always fut. imper.): quod quom dixero, si placuerit, Facitote, Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 37: cum ego Granium testem produxero, refellito, si poteris, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 59, 154; id. Marcell. 9, 27; id. Fam. 16, 4, 3; Tac. A. 1, 22.—With pres. imper., Liv. 24, 38, 7.—

(g). With principal predicate in subj. (potential): quae cum omnia collegeris, tum ipse velim judices satisne videatur, Cic. Fam. 5, 2, 4; id. Or. 13, 41 dub.—In oblique clauses, after non-preterites, the fut. perf. remains unchanged: oro, ne me hodie, cum isti respondero, putetis, etc., Cic. Phil. 2, 5, 10; id. Clu. 2, 6.—

4. With subj. in definite time.

a. Sometimes in oblique construction (3. c. e; 3. d. a).—

b. Sometimes by attraction: curata fac sint quom a foro redeam domum, Plaut. Aul. 2, 3, 6; 2, 3, 11; id. Stich. 1, 2, 8; id. Curc. 2, 2, 3: non admirere cum ego ipse me id ex te primum audisse confitear? Cic. Planc. 24, 58. —

c. In the semi-causal connection nunc cum, v. 3, a. a fin. supra.

B. In adverbial anterior clauses dependent on preterite predicates, the time of the cum clause preceding that of the principal sentence (always with subj., except in the instances mentioned 2.; 3. a; and 5.), when, after.

1. With pluperf. subj. (so generally): quom socios nostros mandisset impius Cyclops, Liv. And. Fragm. ap. Prisc. 8, p. 817 (Lübbert conjectures, without sufficient reason, mandit sex): quom saucius multifariam ibi factus esset, tamen volnus capiti nullum evenit, Cato, Orig. ap. Gell. 3, 7, 19: portisculus signum cum dare coepisset, Enn. Ann. v. 234 Vahl.: quom testamento patris partisset bona, Afran. Com. Rel. v. 50 Rib.: quem quom ibi vidissent Hortensius Postumiusque, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 4, 32; Enn. Ann. v. 241 Vahl.; Turp. Com. Rel. v. 48 Rib.; Lucil. ap. Non. p. 394, 27 (the MSS. reading: quom venisset, Plaut. As. 2, 3, 15, is corrupt): audivi summos homines cum quaestor ex Macedoniā venissem Athenas, Cic. de Or. 1, 11, 45: haec cum Crassus dixisset, silentium est consecutum, id. ib. 1, 35, 160: cum Thebani Lacedaemonios bello superavissent ... aeneum statuerunt tropaeum, id. Inv. 2, 23, 69: Dionysius cum fanum Proserpinae Locris expilavisset, navigabat Syracusas, id. N. D. 3, 34, 83: eo cum venisset, animadvertit ad alteram ripam magnas esse copias hostium, Caes. B. G. 5, 18: Tarquinius et Tullia minor ... cum domos vacuas novo matrimonio fecissent, junguntur nuptiis, Liv. 1, 46, 9 et saep. —

2. With pluperf. indic.

a. Ante-class. in place of the class. subj.: idem me pridem quom ei advorsum veneram, Facere atriensem voluerat, Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 28: Quid ais? Quom intellexeras, id consilium capere, quor non dixti extemplo, Ter. And. 3, 2, 38.—

b. If the pluperfect is a virtual imperfect, designating the time at which the main action took place, the principal predicate being likewise in the pluperfect, when the clause would require an indicative if placed in the imperfect (3. a. a): exspectationem nobis non parvam adtuleras cum scripseras Varronem tibi confirmasse, etc. ( = exspectabam cum legebam; cf. C. 3, a. a, 2.), Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; cf. Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 9, 2, where the cum clause is relative; v. E.: Romae haud minus terroris ... erat quam fuerat biennio ante cum castra Punica objecta Romanis moenibus fuerant (C. 3. a. a, 1.), Liv. 27, 44, 1; so id. 5, 28, 1; 26, 40, 17; 44, 10, 1.—

c. If the clause indicates that the time of the main action is a period, subsequent to that of the action designated by the pluperfect: nam tum cum in Asiā res magnas permulti amiserant, scimus Romae, solutione impeditā, fidem concidisse, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 7, 19: cum ea consecutus nondum eram ... tamen ista vestra nomina numquam sum admiratus, id. Fam. 3, 7, 5; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, 178; id. Inv. 2, 42, 124; Caes. B. G. 7, 35; Liv. 24, 7, 1 sq.; Nep. Dat. 6, 5; Curt. 9, 10, 12; Verg. A. 5, 42.—

3. If both predicates denote repeated action, the anterior clause with cum has the pluperf. indic. or subj.

a. With pluperf. indic.

(a). With principal predicate in imperf. indic. (so almost always in Cicero and Caesar; not in the poets, nor in Vell., Val. Max., Tac., Suet., or Plin.), whenever: cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usque ad cubiculum deferebatur, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 11, 27; 2, 1, 46, 120; 2, 3, 67, 156; 2, 4, 61, 137; 2, 5, 10, 27; id. Fl. 7, 16; 10, 21; id. Agr. 2, 26, 68; id. Or. 32, 113; id. Brut. 24, 93: (Cassi vellaunus) cum equitatus noster se in agros ejecerat, essedarios ex silvis emittebat, Caes. B. G. 5, 19; 3, 14; 3, 15; 4, 7; 5, 35; 7, 22; id. B. C. 1, 58; Sall. J. 92, 8; 44, 4: cum comminus venerant, gladiis a velitibus trucidabantur, Liv. 38, 21, 12; Nep. Epam. 3, 6; Sen. Ep. 11, 4; Curt. 3, 10, 8; 3, 10, 11; Quint. 7, 1, 4; Gell. 15, 22, 5; 17, 18, 3; Gai Inst. 4, 15; Pacat. 9.—

(b). With principal predicate in perf. indic.: Pacuvius qui Syriam usu suam fecit, cum vino ... sibi parentaverat, Sen. Ep. 12, 8; 108, 14.—

b. With pluperf. subj., an imperf. indic. in principal sentence: cum fossam latam cubiculari lecto circumdedisset, ejusque transitum ... conjunxisset, eum ipse detorquebat, Cic. Tusc. 5, 20, 59; id. Verr. 2, 3, 41, 94: cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae ... effugiebant, etc., Caes. B. C. 2, 41: cum in jus duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant, Liv. 2, 27, 8; 25, 3, 11; 5, 48, 2.—

4. In anterior clauses with imperf. subj.

(a). When the principal clause expresses an immediate consequence ( = pluperf. subj.): Demaratus cum audiret dominationem Cypseli confirmari, defugit patriam ( = cum audivisset), Cic. Rep. 2, 19, 34; Caes. B. G. 5, 17 et saep.—

(b). Where both verbs relate to one transaction, especially in remarks and replies: (Epaminondas) cum gravi vulnere exanimari se videret, quaesivit salvusne esset clipeus, etc., Cic. Fin. 2, 30, 97: cum ex eo quaereretur quid esset dolus magnus, respondebat, etc., id. Off. 3. 14, 60; id. Or. 2, 69, 278; id. Rosc. Am. 25, 70; Liv. 3, 71, 4 et saep.—

(g). When the principal action takes place during the action of the dependent clause: qui cum unum jam et alterum diem desideraretur, neque in eis locis inveniretur ... liberti Asuvii in eum invadunt, etc., Cic. Clu. 13, 38.—

5. For the perf. indic. instead of pluperf. subj. v. C. 1. d. infra.

C. In adverbial clauses of coincident time dependent on preterites ( = eo tempore quo), the clause with cum designating the time at which or during which the main action took place, when, as, while.[The theory of the use of tenses and moods in these clauses is not fully settled. The older grammarians require the indicative if cum denotes pure time, but the subjunctive if denoting cause or relations similar to cause. Zumpt and others acknowledge that the rule is frequently not observed, attributing this to the predilection of the Latin language for the subjunctive. Recently Hoffmann (Zeitpartikeln der Lateinischen Sprache, 1st ed. 1860; 2d ed. 1873) and Lübbert (Syntax von Quom, 1870) have advanced the theory that cum requires the indicative if denoting absolute time, but the subjunctive if denoting relative time. They define absolute time as time co-ordinate or parallel with, or logically independent of, the time of the principal action, which performs the function of a chronological date for the principal action, and they consider it as a criterion that the clause might have constituted an independent sentence; while relative time is logically subordinate to the principal action. Hoffmann condenses his theory in the following words: cum with indicative names and describes the time at which the action of the principal sentence took place; cum with the subjunctive, on the contrary, designates the point of time at which, or the space of time during which, the action expressed in the principal sentence commenced or ended. The chief objections to this theory are: (1) Its vagueness.—(2) The facts that in many instances cum with the subjunctive clearly dates the main action (C. 3. a. b, 2, and 4.; C. 3. a. 5.; C. 3. b. b, 3. and 5.; C. 3. b. g infra); that many of the subjunctive clauses with cum may be transformed into independent sentences (C. 3. b. b, 2. and 3. infra); that many indicative clauses with cum are logically subordinate to the main action (C. 3. a. a, 2. infra), and that when both moods are used in two co-ordinated clauses with cum belonging to the same main sentence, Hoffmann must account for the difference of the moods by explanations not drawn from his theory (Cic. Agr. 2, 64, 64; id. Clu. 30, 83; id. Div. 1, 43, 97; id. Fin. 2, 19, 61; id. de Or. 67, 272; Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Liv. 6, 40, 17; 30, 44, 10).—(3) The impossibility of clearly drawing the line between logical co-ordination and subordination; and the fact that, wherever it is drawn, there will be many passages not accounted for (cf. 1. init. and many passages under C. 3. a. a, 3.; C. 3. a. d; C. 3. b. g, etc.).—(4) That the supposed use of cum with the imperfect indicative is inconsistent with the received doctrine that the imperfect always designates a time relative to another time—a difficulty not satisfactorily met by Hoffman's assumption of an aoristic imperfect.]GENERAL RULE.—The predicate after cum is in the perfect indicative (or historical present) if the action is conceived as a point of time coincident with the time of the main action. It is either in the imperfect indicative or in the imperfect subjunctive if the action is conceived as occupying a period of time within which the main action took place (e. g.: quid enim meus frater ab arte adjuvari potuit, cum ... furem se videre respondit? Quid in omni oratione Crassus ... cum pro Cn. Plancio diceret? Cic. de Or. 2, 54, 220; where dicebat might stand for diceret, but not responderet for respondit: cum ad tribum Polliam ventum est, et praeco cunctaretur, etc., Liv. 29, 37, 8; cf.: cum tecum Ephesi collocutus sum, Cic. Fam. 13, 55, 1; and: cum te Puteolis prosequerer, id. ib. 3, 10, 8: cum primum lex coepta ferri est, Liv 3, 14, 4; and: cum ferretur lex, id. 5, 30, 4; also, Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 1, and Liv. 3, 58, 7).

1. Both predicates in the perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), both clauses denoting points of time (the principal predicate may be in any verbal form implying a perfect).

a. The clause expressing a momentary action: posticulum hoc recepit quom aedis vendidit, Flaut. Trin. 1, 2, 157: scilicet qui dudum tecum venit cum pallam mihi Detulisti, id. Men. 2, 3, 46; prol. 62; id. Poen. 4, 2, 82; id. Ep. 2, 2, 33; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 57; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 21 et saep.: non tum cum emisti fundum Tusculanum, in leporario apri fuerunt, Varr. R. R. 3, 3, 8: in judiciis quanta vis esset didicit cum est absolutus, Cic. Tog. Cand. Fragm. 4: per tuas statuas vero cum dixit, vehementer risimus, id. de Or. 2, 59, 242: cum occiditur Sex. Roscius, (servi) ibidem fuerunt, id. Rosc. Am. 41, 120; id. Verr. 2, 2, 29, 70; 1, 4, 11; 2, 2, 66, 160; 2, 3, 47, 112; id. Caecin. 29, 85; id. Sest. 55, 157; id. Phil. 2, 9, 21; id. Rep. 6, 22, 24; id. Fam. 9, 15, 2; id. Att. 2, 1, 5 et saep.: tunc flesse decuit cum adempta sunt nobis arma, Liv. 3, 55, 10; 10, 6, 8; 28, 42, 14; 42, 46, 1; Vitr. 2, 8, 12; 2, 1, 7; 2, 9, 15; 6, 7, 4: semel dumtaxat vultum mutavit, tunc cum ... anulum in profundum dejecit, Val. Max. 6, 9, 6; 8, 8, ext. 1; 9, 1, ext. 1; 9, 8, 1: rerum natura ... cum visum est deinde, (filium tuum) repetiit, Sen. Cons. Polyb. 10, 4; 11, 2; id. Q. N. 1, 11, 3; 6, 25, 4: accepimus et serpentem latrasse cum pulsus est regno Tarquinius, Plin. 8, 41, 63, 153; 2, 24, 22, 90; 2, 52, 53, 139; Suet. Claud. 21; Hor. S. 2, 3, 61; Ov. Tr. 5, 11, 8; Tib. 3, 5, 18; Mart. 5, 49, 9.—So, cum primum, when first, the first time that, as soon as: jube vinum dari: jam dudum factum'st quom primum bibi, Plaut. As. 5, 2, 40; id. Cas. prol. 17; Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 31; id. And. prol. 1; id. Eun. 3, 3, 4: Pompeius cum primum contionem habuit ... ostendit, etc., Cic. Verr. 1, 15, 45; id. Fam. 2, 9, 1; Liv. 3, 55, 10; 25, 6, 2; 25, 29, 4; 31, 3, 1; 40, 8, 1; 42, 34, 3; Curt. 6, 11, 23; but with imperf. subj. when referring to a per. of time: ipse cum primum pabuli copia esse inciperet, ad exercitum venit, Caes. B. G. 2, 2.—In the poets and later writers, the imperf. subj. often occurs where classic prose has the perf. indic.: effice ut idem status sit cum exigis qui fuit cum promitterem, Sen. Ben. 4, 39, 4: tum lacrimare debueras cum equo calcaria subderes, Curt. 7, 2, 6; Suet. Claud. 6; Ov. P. 4, 12, 28.—

b. If the clause denotes a state, condition, or action of longer duration, it takes the perf. indic. if asserted as a complete fact without regard to what happened during its progress (virtual point of time): in quem Juppiter se convertit cum exportavit per mare ... Europen, Varr. R. R. 2, 5, 5: ne cum in Siciliā quidem (bellum) fuit ... pars ejus belli in Italiam ulla pervasit, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 2, 6: nempe eo (lituo) Romulus regiones direxit tum cum urbem condidit, id. Div. 1, 17, 30; id. Verr. 2, 3, 54, 125; id. Lig. 7, 20; id. Rep. 3, 32, 44: non tibi, cum in conspectu Roma fuit, succurrit? etc., Liv. 2, 40, 7; 34, 3, 7; Nep. Iphicr. 2, 4; id. Pelop. 4, 3.—

c. With perf. indic., by the time when, before, referring to facts which actually occurred before the action of the principal sentence: ab Anaximandro moniti Lacedaemonii sunt ut urbem ... linquerent, quod terrae motus instaret, tum cum ... urbs tota corruit, Cic. Div. 1, 50, 112; Liv. 22, 36, 4; 34, 31, 15; Prop. 2, 32 (3, 30), 53.—

d. With perf. indic. when actions in immediate sequence are represented as coincident: ad quem cum accessimus, Appio, subridens, Recipis nos, inquit, etc., Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 2: me primus dolor percussit, Cotta cum est expulsus, Cic. Brut. 89, 303: itaque ne tum quidem cum classem perdidisti, Mamertinis navem imperare ausus es, id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, 59: haec cum facta sunt in concilio, magna spe et laetitia omnium discessum est, Caes. B. C. 3, 87: cum Thessalos in armis esse nuntiatum est, Ap. Claudium ... senatus misit, Liv. 42, 5, 8: Gracchus cum ex Sardiniā rediit, orationem ad populum habuit, Gell. 15, 12, 1; Cic. Imp. Pomp. 1, 2; id. Deiot. 6, 17; id. Top. 16, 61; id. Div. 1, 43, 98; id. Fam. 5, 21, 2; Liv. 4, 44, 10; 4, 60, 8; 9, 25, 2; 22, 14, 12; Nep. Dat. 11, 1; Suet. Caes. 31; Gell. 1, 23, 5; Prop. 3, 20, 37 (4, 21, 7).—Hence a perf. indic. in co-ordination with pluperf. subj.: cum sol nocte visus esset ... et cum caelum discessisse visum est (decemviri ad libros ire jussi sunt), Cic. Div. 1, 43, 97.—

2. With a perf. indic. (or histor. pres.), the principal predicate in imperf.

a. The action falling within the time of the principal predicate: set Stalagmus quojus erat tunc nationis, quom hinc abit? Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 107; id. Rud. 3, 6, 9; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 51: haec Crassi oratio cum edita est, quattuor et triginta tum habebat annos, etc., Cic. Brut. 43, 161: eo cum venio, praetor quiescebat, id. Verr. 2, 4, 14, 32; 2, 5, 69, 178; id. Fl. 13, 20; id. Pis. 1, 2; id. Lig. 1, 3; id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; 3, 4, 11; id. Fam. 13, 35, 2; id. Att. 6, 1, 13: cum Caesari in Galliam venit, alterius factionis principes erant Aedui, alterius Sequani, Caes. B. G. 6, 12; Sall. J. 71, 1: cum haec accepta clades est, jam C. Horatius et T. Menenius consules erant, Liv. 2, 51, 1; 21, 39, 4; 23, 49, 5; 28, 27, 14; 34, 16, 6; 45, 39, 1: merito me non adgnoscis, nam cum hoc factum est, integer eram, Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 3.—Post-class. writers generally use imperf. subj.: beneficium ei videberis dedisse cui tunc inimicissimus eras cum dares? Sen. Ben. 5, 19, 7: bona quoque, quae tunc habuit cum damnaretur, publicabuntur, Dig. 28, 18, 1: pauper Fabricius (erat) Pyrrhi cum sperneret aurum, Claud. IV. Cons. Hon. 413.—

b. The action strictly anterior to the principal sentence, rare (1. d.): nam quod conabar cum interventum'st dicere, nunc expedibo, Pac. ap. Non. p. 505, 3 (Trag. Rel. v. 65 Rib.): cum est ad nos adlatum de temeritate eorum, etc., cetera mihi facillima videbantur ... multaque mihi veniebant in mentem, etc., Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 1; Sall. C. 51, 32; Verg. A. 6, 515; id. E. 3, 14.—

3. The predicate after cum conceived as a period or space of time (including repeated action) is either in the imperf. indic. or imperf. subj. [In ante-classical writers and Cicero the imperf. indic. very frequent, and largely prevailing over the subj., except that when the principal predicate denotes a point of time (with perf.), Cicero commonly uses the subj.; the imperf. indic. occurs in Cicero 241 times; in Caesar once with the force of a relativeclause (B. G. 1, 40, 5), and 3 times of repeated action; in Nep. once of repeated action (Att. 9, 6); in Sall. twice (J. 31, 20; id. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch); in Liv. 22 times; in Verg. 4 times; in Ovid twice; in Tib. twice; in Prop. 3 times; in Val. Max. twice; then it disappears (except once each in Tac. and Mart.), but reappears in Gaius (3 times), Gellius (twice), and the Gallic panegyrists (several times)].

a. Both predicates denoting spaces of time, the principal predicate always in the imperf. indic. unless the mood is changed by other influences.

(a). Cum with the imperf. indic. (1) In express or implied opposition to other periods of time, esp. with tum or tunc: eademne erat haec disciplina tibi quom tu adulescens eras? Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 17: alium esse censes nunc me atque olim quom dabam? Ter. And. 3, 3, 13; Plaut. Capt. 2, 1, 50; id. Most. 1, 3, 64; id. Mil. 2, 2, 26; Ter. And. 1, 1, 69; Enn. ap. Cic. Brut. 19, 76 (Ann. v. 222 Vahl.): qui cum plures erant, paucis nobis exaequari non poterant, hi postquam pauciores sunt, etc., Auct. Her. 4, 18, 25: qui (Pompeius) cum omnes Caesarem metuebamus ipse eum diligebat, postquam ille metuere coepit, etc., Cic. Att. 8, 1, 4: res per eosdem creditores per quos cum tu aderas agebatur, id. Fam. 1, 1, 1 (cf.: Senatus consultum factum est de ambitu in Afranii sententiam quam ego dixeram cum tu adesses, id. Q. Fr. 2, 9, 3): Trebellium valde jam diligit: oderat tum cum ille tabulis novis adversabatur, id. Phil. 6, 4, 11: non tam id sentiebam cum fruebar, quam tunc cum carebam, id. Red. Quir. 1, 3: etenim tunc esset hoc animadvertendum cum classis Syracusis proficiebatur, id. Verr. 2, 5, 43, 111 (so 111 times in Cicero, including the instances where the principal predicate is in the perf.): cum captivis redemptio negabatur, nos vulgo homines laudabant, nunc deteriore condicione sumus, etc., Liv. 25, 6, 14; 10, 7, 2; 33, 34, 3; 34, 4, 10; 44, 36, 8; 45, 38, 1; Ov. P. 2, 6, 9; id. M. 13, 473; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1; 4, 1, 10; Mart. 12, 70, 10; Gai Inst. 1, 184; Eum. Grat. Act. 6; cf.: cur eum, cum in consilium iretur, Cluentius et Canutius abesse patiebantur? Cur cum in consilium mittebant, Stajenum judicem qui pecuniam dederant, non requirebant? Cic. Clu. 30, 83 (cum iretur, of the time when the judges retired; cum mittebant, of the previous time, when the parties were asked about the closing of the case; opp. cum iretur).—Poets, even in the class. per., sometimes use the subj. in dependence upon the indic.: hic subito quantus cum viveret esse solebat, Exit humo, Ov. M. 13, 441. —(2) The principal predicate denoting a mental act or reflection occasioned by, or accompanying the action of the clause with cum (mostly ante-class. and in Cicero): desipiebam mentis cum illa scripta mittebam tibi, Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 35; id. Aul. 2, 2, 1; id. Ps. 1, 5, 86: sed tu cum et tuos amicos in provinciam quasi in praedam invitabas, et cum eis praedabare, et ... non statuebas tibi rationem esse reddendam? Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 11, 29: illas res tantas cum gerebam, non mihi mors, non exsilium ob oculos versabatur? id. Sest. 21, 47; id. Cat. 3, 1, 3; 3, 7, 16; id. Verr. 2, 2, 10, 26; 2, 2, 13, 33; 2, 2, 35, 86; 2, 3, 86, 198; 2, 5, 21, 54; id. Fl. 1, 1; id. Deiot. 1, 3; 8, 23; id. Pis. 24, 56 and 57; id. Ac. 2, 28, 89; id. Or. 13, 41; id. Tusc. 2, 15, 43; id. Fam. 7, 9, 5 (22 times); Sall. H. 1, 48, 6 Dietsch (cf.: num P. Decius cum se devoveret, et equo admisso in mediam aciem Latinorum inruebat, aliquid ... cogitabat? Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 61; cum se devoveret explains the circumstances of inruebat; hence acc. to 3. a. b, 2. in subj.; cf. Madv. ad loc., who reads devoverat).—(3) If the predicate after cum has a meaning peculiar to the imperf. indic., which by the use of the subj. would be effaced: quod erat os tuum, cum videbas eos homines, quorum ex bonis istum anulus aureus donabas? (descriptive imperf.) Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 80, 187; so, fulgentis gladios hostium videbant Decii, cum in aciem eorum inruebant, id. Tusc. 2, 24, 59: cum de plebe consulem non accipiebat ( = accipere nolebat, conative imperf.), id. Brut. 14, 55: cum vim quae esset in sensibus explicabamus, etc., id. Ac. 2, 12, 37 (the verbum dicendi refers to a certain stage in the discourse, for which Cicero uses the imperf. indic. in independent sentences, e. g. N. D. 3, 29, 71; 3, 6, 15; de Or. 1, 53, 230; 2, 19, 83; 2, 84, 341); so, equidem ... risum vix tenebam, cum Attico Lysiae Catonem nostrum comparabas, id. Brut. 8, 293: cum censebam, id. de Or. 1, 62, 264: cum dicebam, id. Fam. 6, 1, 5: cum ponebas, id. Fin. 2, 19, 63; so esp. in Cicero's letters the phrase cum haec scribebam = while I am writing this, to preserve the meaning of an epistolary tense, referring to a state, condition, or action in progress at the time of writing the letter: res, cum haec scribebam, erat in extremum adducta discrimen, id. Fam. 12, 6, 2; 3, 12, 2; 5, 12, 2; 6, 4, 1; id. Att. 5, 20, 5 et saep.; cum haec scriberem, scripsissem, scripsi, are not epistolary tenses, but refer to events happening after the letter or part of it was finished, = when I wrote, had written, id. ib. 2, 15, 3; 10, 4, 7; 4, 10, 2; id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6, 19; Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 6, 5; 8, 13, 2; sometimes cum dabam = cum scribebam, Cic. Fam. 12, 16, 3 (but cf.: cum scriberem, as epistolary tense, in oblique discourse, id. Att. 15, 13, 7).—(4) The coincidence in time of two actions is made emphatic, = eo ipso tempore quo: tum cum insula Delos ... nihil timebat, non modo provinciis sed etiam Appiā viā jam carebamus, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 18, 55; id. Phil. 1, 15, 36; 13, 8, 17; id. Sull. 10, 31; id. Tusc. 2, 8, 20; id. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Dom. 45, 118.—

(b). The predicate after cum is in the imperf. subj. (1) To impart to the clause a causal, adversative or concessive meaning besides the temporal relation: antea cum equester ordo judicaret, improbi magistratus in provinciis inserviebant publicanis (a logical consequence), Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 41, 94: sed cum jam honores (Hortensii) et illa senior auctoritas gravius quiddam requireret, remanebat idem (dicendi genus) nec decebat idem, id. Brut. 95, 327; id. Phil. 1, 1, 1; id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42; 16, 45; id. Pis. 10, 2; Liv. 25, 13, 1; 26, 5, 1.—(2) To indicate circumstances under which the main action took place, and by which it is explained: Flaminius, cum tripudio auspicaretur, pullarius diem differebat, etc., Cic. Div. 1, 35, 77: equidem cum peterem magistratum, solebam in prensando dimittere a me Scaevolam, id. de Or. 1, 24, 112; id. Inv. 2, 17, 52; Liv. 41, 1, 2 (cf. 3. b. b, 3.).—(3) To describe the locality of the main action: quom essem in provinciā legatus, quam plures ad praetores et consules vinum honorarium dabant, Cato ap. Isid. Orig. 20, 3, 8: Zenonem cum Athenis essem audiebam frequenter, Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 59; 1, 28, 79; id. Tusc. 2, 14, 34; id. Fam. 3, 8, 5; id. Att. 2, 11, 1; 12, 5, 4; 16, 14, 1; id. Verr. 2, 4, 12, 29; Liv. 5, 54, 3 (cf. 3. b. b, 4.).—(4) To designate the time of the main action as a condition: cum ageremus vitae supremum diem, scribebamus hoc, Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 54: cum jam in exitu annus esset, Q. Marcius ... magistratu abiturus erat, Liv. 39, 23, 1 (cf. 3. b. b, 5.).—

(g). If both the clause with cum and the principal predicate denote repeated action, the predicate with cum in class. prose is in the imperf. indic. or subj. according to the rules under a and b; the principal predicate being always in the imperf. indic.; but in ante-class. writers cum has always the imperf. indic. (1) Imperf. indic.: tum mi aedes quoque arridebant, quom ad te veniebam, tuae, Plaut. As. 1, 3, 55; id. Am. 1, 1, 45; id. Rud. 4, 7, 25 sqq.; Ter. Eun. 2, 3, 19; Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 5; Asell. ap. Gell. 2, 13, 4; Cic. Att. 2, 7, 4; id. Verr. 2, 2, 13, 34; Caes. B. C. 1, 79, 2; Gai Inst. 2, 101; Pacat. Pan. 9 fin.: cum a nostro Catone laudabar vel reprehendi me a ceteris facile patiebar, Cic. Or. 13, 41; so Nep. Att. 9, 6.—To distinguish from adversative relations, as Cic. Rosc. Com. 3, 9; id. Att. 12, 39, 2; id. de Or. 1, 14, 62; Caes. B. C. 3, 44, 6; Gai Inst. 2, 254.—If only the clause with cum, but not the principal predicate, denotes repeated action, the latter is in the perf., the former in imperf. indic., Caes. B. C. 2, 17; Cic. Arch. 5, 10.—(2) Imperf. subj., mostly denoting circumstances to explain the main action: cum dilectus antiquitus fieret ... tribunus militaris adigebat, etc., Cinc. de Re Mil. ap. Gell. 16, 4, 2: Hortensius cum partiretur tecum causas, prorogandi locum semper tibi relinquebat, Cic. Brut. 51, 190; id. Div. 1, 45, 102; id. de Or. 1, 54, 232; id. Brut. 62, 222; Liv. 3, 66, 2; 5, 25, 12: ex hoc effectos panes, cum in colloquiis Pompeiani famem nostris objectarent, vulgo in eos jaciebant (causal), Caes. B. C. 3, 48; Cic. Fin. 2, 19, 62; so, according to class. usage, Sen. Ep. 86, 11; Curt. 5, 2, 7; 6, 5, 18; 7, 3, 13; Suet. Caes. 65; contrary to class. usage, Val. Max. 3, 6, 6; Sen. Ep. 30, 7; 77, 8; Tac. H. 2, 91; Spart. Had. 18. —

(d). In other instances (which are rare), both moods occur, either without any discrimination, or for special reasons. (1) Ante-class.: nam quom modo exibat foras, ad portum se aibat ire, Plaut. Rud. 2, 2, 2. —(2) Class.: ut, cum L. Opimii causam defendebat, C. Carbo nihil de Gracchi nece negabat, sed id jure factum esse dicebat, Cic. de Or. 2, 25, 106 (cf.: nuper cum ego C. Sergii Oratae ... causam defenderem, nonne omnis nostra in jure versata defensio est? id. ib. 1, 39, 178; in each of these sentences the clause with cum sustains exactly the same relation to the principal predicate; but the former has the imperf. in the principal sentence, and in this connection Cic. prefers the indic. after cum): similiter arbitror ... illum (oratorem) de toto illo genere non plus quaesiturum esse, quid dicat, quam Polycletum illum, cum Herculem fingebat, quem ad modum pellem aut hydram fingeret (fingebat, for euphony, in view of the foll. fingeret), id. de Or. 2, 16, 70; cf.: nec vero ille artifex cum faceret Jovis formam ... contemplabatur aliquem, e quo similitudinem duceret, id. Or. 2, 9.—Without assignable reason: casu, cum legerem tuas litteras, Hirtius erat apud me, Cic. Att. 15, 1, 2; cf.: Hasdrubal tum forte cum haec gerebantur, apud Syphacem erat, Liv. 29, 31, 1: cum haec Romae agebantur, Chalcide Antiochus ipse sollicitabat civitatium animos, etc., id. 36, 5, 1; cf.: cum haec in Hispaniā gererentur, comitiorum jam appetebat dies, id. 35, 8, 1 (Weissenb. gerebantur): cum haec agebantur, Chalcide erat Antiochus, id. 36, 15, 1; cf.: cum haec agerentur jam consul viā Labicanā ad fanum Quietis erat, id. 4, 41, 8; 35, 2, 1.—(3) PostAug. writers almost always use imperf. subj., disregarding the class. usage: ipsa fruebatur arte cum pingeret (cf. a, 2.), Sen. Ep. 9, 7; id. Cons. Marc. 23, 3; Plin. Pan. 34: tunc erat mendacio locus cum ignota essent externa ... nunc vero, etc. (opposition of times), Sen. Q. N. 4, 2, 24; so id. Ep. 97, 9; Mart. 2, 61, 1; cf. Don. ad Ter. And. 3, 3, 13 (3. a. a, 1. supra): cum haec proderem habebant et Caesares juvenes sturnum, etc., Plin. 10, 41, 59, 120.—

b. If the principal predicate denotes a point of time, and the predicate with cum a period of time, the former is in the perf. indic. unless changed by construction; the latter

(a). In the imperf. indic., according to the rules a. a, except 2. (1) When the time of the cum clause is opposed to other periods of time: res quom animam agebat tum esse offusam oportuit, Plaut. Trin. 4, 3, 85; id. Truc. 4, 2, 20; id. Ep. 3, 3, 50 (3, 4, 21); id. Most. 5, 1, 68: quod cum res agebatur nemo in me dixit, id tot annis post tu es inventus qui diceres? Cic. Phil. 2, 9, 22; id. Rep. 2, 23, 43; id. Div. 1, 41, 92; 1, 45, 101; id. Ac. 2, 28, 90; id. Quint. 19, 60; 17, 54; 19, 61; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90, 210 et saep.; Liv. 22, 60, 25; Verg. A. 4, 597; Tib. 1, 10, 8; 1, 10, 19; Prop. 2, 1, 31; 5 (4), 10, 24.—The subj. may be used if the principal action is represented as a consequence or result: o, Astaphium, haut isto modo solita's me ante appellare, Sed blande, quom illuc quod aput vos nunc est, aput me haberem, Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 60 (Lübbert conjectures habebam); Cic. Off. 2, 1, 2 and 3; id. Fin. 4, 27, 54; id. Rosc. Am. 4, 11; id. Verr. 2, 3, 57, 130; id. Mur. 3, 8; Liv. 5, 53, 9; 10, 6, 9; 43, 21, 1; 44, 39, 7.— Hence the mood may change in co-ordinate clauses: tum, cum haberet haec res publica Luscinos, Calatinos, etc., homines ... patientiā paupertatis ornatos, et tum, cum erant Catones, Phili, etc., tamen hujusce modi res commissa nemini est (haberet, concessive), Cic. Agr. 2, 24, 64.—(2) To make emphatic the coincidence of time, = eo ipso tempore (a. a, 4.): cum is triumphus de Liguribus agebatur, Ligures ... coloniam ipsam ceperunt, Liv. 41, 14, 1; Cic. Sest. 26, 56; id. Phil. 2, 36, 90; id. Div. 2, 1, 3; id. Verr. 2, 5, 37, 97; id. Att. 1, 4, 1.—(3) To preserve the peculiar force of the imperf. indic. (a. a, 3.): cum iste jam decedebat, ejus modi litteras ad eos misit, etc. (conative imperf.), Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 70, 172: cum Africanus censor tribu movebat centurionem ... inquit, id. de Or. 2, 67, 272 (cf.: cum (censor) M. Antistio equum ademisset, id. ib. 2, 71, 287).—

(b). With the imperf. subj. (1) Always when cum means while (time during which): quomque caput caderet, carmen tuba sola peregit et, etc., Enn. ap. Lact. ad Stat. Th. 11, 56 (Ann. v. 508 Vahl.): magistratus quom ibi adesset, occepta'st agi, Ter. Eun. prol. 22 (Lübbert conjectures adsedit); Enn. ap. Macr. S. 6, 1 (Ann. v. 106 Vahl.): Alexandrum uxor sua, cum simul cubaret, occidit, Cic. Inv. 2, 49, 144: armati, cum sui utrosque adhortarentur ... in medium inter duas acies procedunt, Liv. 1, 25, 1; Varr. R. R. 2, 81; Auct. Her. 4, 52, 65; Cic. Brut. 3, 10; id. Clu. 62, 175; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 3, 57; Liv. 1, 30, 8; 10, 30, 3 et saep.—(2) To connect a logical (causal, etc.) relation with the temporal meaning (a. b, 1.): cum ille Romuli senatus ... temptaret ut ipse gereret sine rege rem publicam, populus id non tulit, Cic. Rep. 2, 12, 23: an pater familiarissimis suis succensuit cum Sullam et defenderent et laudarent? (causal), id. Sull. 17, 49: tum cum bello sociorum tota Italia arderet, homo non acerrimus ... C. Norbanus in summo otio fuit (concessive), id. Verr. 2, 5, 4, 8: quibus rebus cum unus in civitate maxime floreret, incidit in eandem invidiam, etc. (adversative), Nep. Cim. 3, 1: sed cum jam appropinquantium forma lemborum haud dubia esset ... tunc injecta trepidatio est, Liv. 44, 28, 10; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 90, 211; id. Clu. 31, 84; id. Mur. 3, 8; id. Phil. 3, 2, 3; id. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; Auct. Her. 4, 24, 33; Caes. B. C. 2, 7; Liv. 25, 9, 10; 21, 41, 12.—(3) To explain the main fact by circumstances: quem quidem hercle ego, in exilium quom iret, redduxi domum, Plaut. Merc. 5, 4, 19: consule me, cum esset designatus tribunus, obtulit in discrimen vitam suam, Cic. Sest. 28, 61: haec epistula est, quam nos, in aedibus Apronii cum litteras conquireremus, invenimus, id. Verr. 2, 3, 66, 154: Socrates, cum XXX. tyranni essent, pedem portā non extulit, id. Att. 8, 2, 4: Brundusii cum loquerer cum Phaniā, veni in eum sermonem ut dicerem, etc., id. Fam. 3, 5, 3: itaque, cum populum in curias triginta divideret, nomina earum (Sabinarum) curiis imposuit, Liv. 1, 13, 6: Ap. Claudius, ovans cum in urbem iniret, decem milia pondo argenti, etc., in aerarium tulit, id. 41, 28, 6; Cic. Clu. 20, 55; id. Phil. 12, 8, 20; id. Scaur. 47; id. Inv. 2, 31, 96; id. Tusc. 2, 22, 53; id. Div. 1, 52, 119; id. Off. 2, 8, 27; id. Or. 2, 55, 225 sq.; id. Fam. 1, 9, 13; 6, 6, 5; Liv. 1, 39, 4; 3, 63, 6; 4, 53, 11 et saep.—(4) To describe the place of the main action (a. a, 3.): cum essem in castris ad fluvium Pyramum, redditae mihi sunt uno tempore a te epistulae duae, Cic. Fam. 3, 11, 1; so with cum essem (essemus, etc.), id. ib. 2, 19, 1; 3, 4, 1; 13, 56, 1; id. Att. 1, 10, 1; 14, 19, 1; id. Ac. 1, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Varr. R. R. 3, 13; Caes. B. G. 4, 11 et saep.: Eumenes rex ab Romā cum in regnum rediret ... mactatus est ( = on the journey), Liv. 42, 40, 8: Agesilaus cum ex Aegypto reverteretur ... in morbum implicitus decessit, Nep. Ages. 8, 6.—The perf. indic. (cum fui, etc.) refers to temporary visits to a place: Gallo narravi, cum proxime Romae fui, quid audissem, Cic. Att. 13, 49, 2: proxime cum in patriā meā fui, venit ad me, etc., Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 3.—(5) To designate the time by natural occurrences (a. a, 4.): ipsi comprehensi a me, cum jam dilucesceret, deducuntur, Cic. Cat. 3, 3, 6: cum advesperasceret, cum lucesceret, id. Fam. 15, 4, 8: cum lux appropinquaret, id. Tull. 9, 21: cum dies instaret, id. Inv. 2, 31, 96: cum comitiorum tempus adpeteret, Liv. 28, 10, 1: cum dies comitiorum adpropinquaret, id. 3, 34, 7; 10, 13, 2.—But when a date is given as a point of time, the perf. indic. is used: cum ea dies venit, Liv. 4, 44, 10; 6, 20, 4.—(6) When the action of the cum clause is interrupted or ended by the main action: cum hanc jam epistulam complicarem, tabellarii a vobis venerunt, etc., Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, 17: L. Octavius, cum multas jam causas diceret, adulescens est mortuus, id. Brut. 68, 241: cum plures jam tribus dicto esse audientem pontifici duumvirum juberent ... ultimum de caelo quod comitia turbaret intervenit, Liv. 40, 42, 10: cum maxime conquereretur apud patres ... repente strepitus ante curiam ... auditur, id. 8, 33, 4: haec cum maxime dissereret, intervenit Tarquinius, id. 1, 50, 7; so with cum maxime, Cic. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 23, 24, 6; 30, 33, 12.—(7) If the clause with cum has the force of a participial adjunct of the principal predicate (cum diceret = dicens, or dicendo): Caesarem saepe accusavit, cum adfirmaret illum numquam, dum haec natio viveret, sine curā futurum ( = adfirmans, or adfirmando), Cic. Sest. 63, 132: Antigonus in proelio, cum adversus Seleucum dimicaret, occisus est ( = dimicans), Nep. Reg. 3, 2: impulit ut cuperem habere, cum diceret, Varr. R. R. 3, 2, 8; Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 9 (11), 3; id. Clu. 42, 119; 56, 153; id. pro Corn. Maj. Fragm. 16; id. Mil. 5, 12; id. de Or. 1, 57, 243; id. Or. 37, 129; id. Fin. 1, 5, 16; id. Inv. 2, 34, 105; Val. Max. 1, 2, ext. 1; Ov. P. 1, 9, 42.—(8) In the historians, in a summary reference to events already related: cum haec in Achaiā atque apud Dyrrhachium gererentur ... Caesar mittit, etc., Caes. B. C. 3, 57: cum civitas in opere ac labore adsiduo reficiendae urbis teneretur, interim Q. Fabio ... dicta dies est, Liv. 6, 1, 6: cum hic status in Boeotiā esset, Perseus ... misit, id. 42, 56, 10; 33, 36, 1; 34, 22, 3; 38, 8, 1; 42, 64, 1; 45, 11, 1.—

(g). In all other cases the imperf. subj. is regularly used in class. prose, even if the action of the clause with cum is logically independent of the principal sentence: illum saepe audivi, hic, cum ego judicare jam aliquid possem, abfuit, Cic. Brut. 71, 248: senatus consultum est factum de ambitu in Afranii sententiam, in quam ego dixeram, cum tu adesses. id. Q. Fr. 2, 7 (9), 3; so always (class.) with cum maxime, precisely when, just when: cum maxime haec in senatu agerentur, Canuleius ... (ad populum) ita disseruit, Liv. 4, 3, 1: cum maxime Capua circumvallaretur, Syracusarum oppugnatio ad finem venit, id. 25, 23, 1.—In a very few instances the imperf. indic. occurs without apparent reason: an vero cum honos agebatur familiae vestrae ... succensuit pater tuus cum Sullam defenderent (probably to distinguish the two cum clauses), Cic. Sull. 17, 49 (cf.: cum jus amicitiae, societatis, adfinitatis ageretur, cum, etc., eo tempore tu non modo non ... retulisti, sed ne ipse quidem, etc., id. Quint. 16, 53): ille versus, qui in te erat collatus cum aedilitatem petebas, id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 8: cum ex oppido exportabatur (Dianae statua) quem conventum mulierum factum esse arbitramini? ... Quid hoc totā Siciliā est clarius quam omnes convenisse cum Diana exportaretur ex oppido? etc., id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, 77.—Poets and post-class. writers frequently disregard the class. usage, the former by using either mood instead of the other, the latter by the un-Ciceronian use of the subj.; v. Prop. 2, 9, 15; 5 (4), 4, 10; Tib. 1, 10, 16; Verg. A. 7, 148; 12, 735; Mart. 13, 122; Curt. 8, 12, 16; 9, 2, 24; Quint. 11, 1, 89; Plin. 36, 6, 5, 46; Dig. 28, 1, 22, 1; Gell. strangely uses an imperf. indic. where class. writers would use a subj.: sed ego, homines cum considerabam, alterum fidei, alterum probri plenum, nequaquam adduci potui ad absolvendum, Gell. 14, 2, 10; cf.: cum secum reputavit, Tac. A. 15, 54.

D. In adverbial clauses denoting identity of action (if the principal sentence and the clause with cum denote not different actions, but one action, which, expressed by the latter clause, is by the principal sentence defined in its meaning and import, the clause with cum always takes the indic., except once or twice post-class., and almost always the same tense as the principal sentence), when, by, in, etc.

1. The predicate in present: amice facis Quom me laudas, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 31; id. Poen. 3, 2, 12; 3, 5, 15; Ter. And. prol. 18; id. Ad. 1, 2, 16 et saep.: bene facitis cum venitis, Auct. Her. 4, 50, 63: quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis, Cic. Rosc. Am. 19, 54; 21, 58; id. Clu. 47, 132; Liv. 25, 6, 5 et saep.—

2. With fut. (rare): cum igitur proferent aliquid hujusmodi ... inventum proferent, Cic. Inv. 1, 40, 75; id. Fl. 39, 99; Plin. Ep. 7, 24, 9.—

3. With fut. perf. (rare): quod cum dederis, illud dederis ut is absolvatur, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 7, 23; id. Lig. 12, 36; id. Part. Or. 39; Auct. Her. 4, 30, 41.—

4. With perf.: fecisti furtum quom istaec flagitia me celavisti et patrem, Plaut. Bacch. 1, 2, 60; 1, 2, 52; id. Cas. 4, 4, 18 (22); id. Capt. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Phorm. prol. 32 et saep.: loco ille motus est cum ex urbe est depulsus, Cic. Cat. 2, 1, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 23, 59; id. Fam. 11, 29, 2; id. Rosc. Am. 14, 39; Liv. 5, 49, 8; 9, 8, 4; Val. Max. 3, 7, ext. 1; Curt. 6, 10, 9; Quint. 1, 10, 47 et saep.—

5. With histor. pres.: Orestes cum se defendit, in matrem confert crimen, Auct. Her. 1, 15, 25.—

6. With imperf.: cum grandiorem aetatem ad consulatum constituebant, adulescentiae temeritatem verebantur, Cic. Phil. 5, 17, 47; 14, 10, 28; id. Fl. 33, 83; id. Lig. 6, 18; id. Fam. 6, 1, 3; id. Off. 3, 10, 40; id. Sen. 6, 15 et saep.—

7. Imperf. with perf. (poet. and post-class.; very rare): quid quod et ominibus certis prohibebar amori Indulgere meo, tum cum mihi ferre jubenti Excidit et fecit spes nostras cera caducas, Ov. M. 9, 595 sq.; Val. Max. 9, 1, 5.—

8. With pluperf. (very rare): exspectationem nobis non parvam attuleras cum scripseras, etc., Cic. Att. 3, 18, 1; id. Sest. 16, 37.—

9. Pluperf. and imperf.: quod quidem tibi ostenderam cum a me Capuam reiciebam, Cic. Att. 8, 11, D, 5.—

10. Imperf. subj. (post-class.): tunc venena edebat bibebatque, cum immensis epulis non delectaretur tantum, sed gloriaretur, Sen. Cons. Helv. 10, 10.—

11. Often relatively added to nouns when a relative clause must be supplied: illa scelera ... cum ejus domum evertisti, cujus, etc., which you committed when (by), Cic. Pis. 34, 83; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 33; id. Verr. 2, 5, 13, 33; Liv. 5, 3, 4; 23, 9, 11; 29, 17, 9.

E. In relative clauses, = quo tempore, quo, etc.

1. Dependent on nouns designating time, the mood follows the general rules of relative clauses.

a. The principal sentence is a formal statement of indefinite time, with the copula (tempus fuit cum, or fuit cum, analogous to sunt qui, etc.); generally with subj., but sometimes indic., when sunt qui would take this mood.

(a). With pres. or fut. indic.: nunc est profecto (i. e. tempus), interfici quom perpeti me possum (the ante-class. writers construe sunt qui with indic.), Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 3; id. And. 1, 1, 125: jam aderit tempus quom sese etiam ipse oderit, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 12; Ter. Hec. 4, 1, 28.—

(b). With pres. subj.: nunc est ille dies quom gloria maxima sese nobis ostendat, si vivimus, sive morimur, Enn. ap. Prisc. 10, p. 880 P. (Ann. v. 383 Vahl.); so Plaut. Capt. 3, 3, 1: erit illud profecto tempus et illucescet aliquando dies cum ... amicissimi benevolentiam desideres, Cic. Mil. 25, 69; Val. Max. 6, 2, 9.—

(g). With preterites, indic., Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 29: fuit quoddam tempus cum in agris homines bestiarum more vagabantur, Cic. Inv. 1, 2, 2 (cf.: fuerunt alia genera qui ... dicebant, id. de Or. 3, 17, 62): fuit cum hoc dici poterat (potuisset would be hypothetical), Liv. 7, 32, 13.—

(d). With preterites, subj., Ter. Heaut. 5, 4, 1: quod fuit tempus cum rura colerent homines, Varr. R. R. 3, 1: ac fuit cum mihi quoque initium requiescendi concessum arbitrarer, Cic. Or. 1, 1, 1; so id. Brut. 2, 7; Caes. B. G. 6, 24.—

b. Attributively with nouns denoting time (tempus, dies, etc.), in ordinary sentences.

(a). With pres. or fut. indic.: incidunt saepe tempora cum ea commutantur, Cic. Off. 1, 10, 31: longum illud tempus cum non ero, etc., id. Att. 12, 8, 1; id. Verr. 2, 5, 69, 177; id. Quint. 2, 8; id. Sen. 23, 84.—With potential subj., Cic. Att. 3, 3.—

(b). With past tenses, indic., Plaut. Am. prol. 91; id. rud. 2, 6, 12; Ter. And. 5, 3, 12: atque ille eo tempore paruit cum parere senatui necesse erat, Cic. Lig. 7, 20: memini noctis illius cum ... pollicebar, id. Planc. 42, 101; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45; 2, 35, 88; id. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44; id. Sest. 7, 15; 29, 62; id. Sull. 18, 52; id. Fam. 11, 8, 1; 11, 27, 3; id. de Or. 1, 11, 45; Sall. J. 31, 20; Ov. Tr. 4, 10, 6; Prop. 1, 10, 5; 1, 22, 5; Gell. 1, 23, 2 et saep.—So with nouns implying time: illa pugna quom, etc. ( = in quā), Plaut. Poen. 2, 26; Marcellino Consule, cum ego ... putabam ( = anno Marcellini, quo, etc.), Cic. Att. 9, 9, 4: patrum nostrorum memoriā cum exercitus videbatur ( = tempore quo), Caes. B. G. 1, 40; Cic. Fam. 13, 1, 2; Liv. 6, 40, 17.—

(g). With preterites in subj., Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 30: accepit enim agrum iis temporibus cum jacerent pretia praediorum, Cic. Rosc. Com. 12, 33; so id. Off. 2, 19, 65: numerandus est ille annus cum obmutuisset senatus? id. Pis. 12, 26; so id. Verr. 2, 4, 35, 77; id. Rep. 2, 37, 62; id. Font. 3, 6; Liv. 3, 65, 8: haec scripsi postridie ejus diei cum castra haberem Mopsuhestiae (cf. habebam, as epistolary tense), Cic. Fam. 3, 8, 10.—If the clause does not define the noun, but is a co-ordinate designation of time, it follows the rule of adverbial clauses: eodem anno, cum omnia infida Romanis essent, Capuae quoque conjurationes factae, while, Liv. 9, 26, 5; Cic. Rep. 2, 36, 61; id. de Or. 2, 3, 12; Liv. 8, 15, 1; 1, 41, 6.—

c. Appositively added to temporal adverbs and to dates (heri, hodie, medius, tertius, olim, antea, quondam, nuper, olim, postea) following the rules of adverbial clauses: Crassus hodie, cum vos non adessetis, posuit idem, etc., Cic. de Or. 2, 10, 41: omnia quae a te nudius tertius dicta sunt, cum docere velles, etc., id. N. D. 3, 7, 18; id. Sest. 48, 103; id. Att. 4, 3, 2; id. Inv. 2, 1, 1; id. Rep. 1, 39, 61; Caes. B. C. 2, 17 et saep.—So with dates (always subj.. except with cum haec scribebam, or dabam): posteaquam Pompeius apud populum ad VIII. Id. Febr., cum pro Milone diceret, clamore convicioque jactatus est, Cic. Fam. 1, 5, b, 1; 3, 3, 1; 3, 4, 1; 4, 2, 1; id. Att. 14, 19, 1.—

2. The principal sentence defines a period of time during which the action of the clause has or had lasted, always with indic., and after the words defining the period, = per quod tempus, when, that, during which, while, etc.

a. With pres., = Engl. pres. perf.

(a). With cardinal, definite or indefinite. (1) Time in acc. (ante-class.): hanc domum Jam multos annos est quom possideo, that I have been the owner, Plaut. Aul. prol. 4; cf. id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—(2) Time in nom.: anni sunt octo cum ista causa in istā meditatione versatur, Cic. Clu. 30, 82; id. Or. 51, 171; id. Fam. 15, 14, 1; id. Div. 2, 36, 76.—

(b). With ordinals: vigesimus annus est, cum omnes scelerati me unum petunt, Cic. Phil. 12, 10, 24; Verg. A. 5, 627; 3, 646.—

(g). With diu: jam diu'st quom ventri victum non datis, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 146; Gell. 1, 25, 12.—

b. Perf. with negation, the principal predicate in pres. or logical perf., = Engl. pres. perf.: quia septem menses sunt quom in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit, Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 39; id. Men. 3, 1, 3; Prop. 3, 8, 33 (2, 16, 33. —

c. With pluperf., the principal predicate in imperf.: permulti jam anni erant cum inter patricios magistratus tribunosque nulla certamina fuerant, Liv. 9, 33, 3.—

d. With imperf., the principal predicate in perf. or pluperf.: dies triginta aut plus in ea navi fui, Quom interea semper mortem exspectabam miser, Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 7: unus et alter dies intercesserat, cum res parum certa videbatur, Cic. Clu. 26, 72.—

3. The principal sentence specifying a period of time which has or had elapsed since the action took place, = ex ejus tempore, since or after, always with indic.; the principal predicate pres. or logical perf., cum with perf. indic.

a. With cardinals.

(a). Time in acc. (ante-class.): annos factum'st sedecim Quom conspicatus est primo crepusculo Puellam exponi, Plaut. Cas. prol. 39; so probably id. Pers. 1, 3, 57; id. Trin. 2, 4, 1; id. Merc. 3, 1, 37.—

(b). With nom.: nondum centum et decem anni sunt cum de pecuniis repetundis lata lex est, Cic. Off. 2, 21, 75; id. Fam. 15, 16, 3; id. Att. 9, 11, A, 2.—

b. With diu or dudum: nam illi quidem haut sane diu'st quom dentes exciderunt, Plaut. Merc. 3, 1, 42; id. As. 2, 1, 3; id. Trin. 4, 3, 3.—

c. Peculiarly, cum referring to an action which was to be done after a period of time, before, at the end of which: omnino biduum supererat cum exercitui frumentum metiri oporteret, Caes. B. G. 1, 23. —

4. In inverted clauses, the principal sentence determining the time of the clause, cum ( = quo tempore) having the force of a relative; cum with the indic. always following the principal sentence; never in oblique discourse; very freq. in class. and post-class. writings (ante-class. only Plaut. Men. 5, 8, 3; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40; id. Eun. 4, 2, 5); principal sentence often with jam, vix, vixdum, nondum, tantum quod, and commodum; cum often with subito, repente, sometimes interim, tamen, etiamtum.

a. Principal sentence defining time by temporal expressions.

(a). Principal sentence with pluperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.: dies nondum decem intercesserant cum ille alter filius necatur, Cic. Clu. 9, 28; id. Verr. 1, 2, 36; id. Or. 2, 21, 89; Ov. M. 9, 715; Plin. Pan. 91, 1.—(2) Cum with histor. inf., Sall. J. 98, 2.—

(b). Principal sentence with imperf. (1) Cum with perf. or histor. pres.: nondum lucebat cum Ameriae scitum est, Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97; Liv. 21, 59, 5; 41, 26, 2; 22, 1, 1; 9, 33, 3; 9, 37, 5; Verg. G. 2, 340; Curt. 4, 3, 16; 5, 12, 6 al.—(2) Cum with imperf., Curt. 6, 7, 1.—

(g). Principal sentence with perf., cum with perf.: dies haud multi intercesserunt cum ex Leontinis praesidium ... venerunt, Liv. 24, 29, 1; 40, 48, 4.—

b. Principal sentence not containing expressions of time; most freq. with pluperf. or imperf. in principal sentence, and perf. or histor. pres. in clause with cum, but (far more rarely) many other combinations occur.

(a). Principal sentence with imperf., cum with perf.: non dubitabat Minucius quin, etc., cum repente jubetur dicere, Cic. Verr. 1, 2, 29, 72: jamque hoc facere noctu adparabant cum matres familiae repente ... procucurrerunt, Caes. B. G. 7, 26, 3; Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 14, 36; Liv. 1, 36, 1 (57 times); Verg. A. 1, 36 (26 times); Vell. 2, 28, 2; Sen. Ira, 1, 18, 3; Tac. A. 3, 1 (31 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (19 times); Plin. Ep. 6, 24, 2.—

(b). Principal sentence with pluperf., cum with perf. or histor. pres.: jam Sora capta erat cum consules primā luce advenere, Liv. 9, 24, 13 (32 times); Cic. Clu. 9, 28 (14 times); Sall. J. 60, 6; Verg. A. 1, 586 (13 times); Tac. A. 1, 19 (13 times); Curt. 3, 10, 1 (18 times). —And cum with potential subj.: vix erat hoc plane imperatum cum illum spoliatum ... videres, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 40, 86.—

(g). Principal sentence with perf., Cic. Sest. 37, 39 (5 times); Liv. 2, 46, 3 (8 times).—

(d). Principal sentence with histor. inf., Liv. 5, 46, 1; Tac. A. 1, 11; 11, 16; Curt. 5, 9, 1; 9, 5, 1.—(e) Principal sentence with histor. pres., Liv. 4, 32, 1 (3 times); Ov. M. 4, 695 (5 times).—(z) Cum with imperf., Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 17 (3 times); Sall. J. 51, 2; Liv. 44, 10, 6; Tac. A. 1, 51; 11, 26.—(h) Cum with histor. inf., Liv. 2, 27, 1; Tac. A. 2, 31 (6 times); Curt. 4, 4, 9.—(q) Cum with pluperf., Liv. 2, 46, 3 (3 times); Ov. M. 14, 581; Verg. A. 2, 256 sq.—(k) With logical perf., or logical perf. and pres. (rare): quam multi enim jam oratores commemorati sunt ... cum tamen spisse ad Antonium Crassumque pervenimus, Cic. Brut. 36, 138: jamque fuga timidum caput abdidit alte (coluber), Cum medii nexus extremaeque agmina caudae Solvuntur, Verg. G. 3, 422.—

5. In clauses added loosely or parenthetically to a preceding clause or to a substantive in it (the mood governed by the rules for relative clauses).

a. When, on an occasion, on which, etc.

(a). With perf. indic.: Hortensium maxime probavi pro Messalā dicentem, cum tu abfuisti, Cic. Brut. 96, 328; id. Phil. 11, 8, 18; id. Dom. 9, 22; 53, 136; id. Fam. 13, 75, 1; Spart. Had. 3; Flor. 1, 18, 9 (1, 13, 19).—

(b). With imperf. indic.: num infitiari potes te illo ipso die meis praesidiis circumclusum commovere te non potuisse, cum tu nostrā ... caede contentum esse dicebas? Cic. Cat. 1, 3, 7; id. Sest. 63, 131; id. Cael. 24, 59.—

(g). Cum with pres. indic., a past tense in principal sentence (mostly poet.): nox erat et placidum carpebant fessa soporem Corpora ... cum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu, Cum tacet omnis ager, etc., Verg. A. 4, 522; 8, 407; 12, 114; id. E. 8, 15; Hor. S. 1, 10, 31; Plin. Ep. 6, 16, 22.—

(d). Imperf. subj.: qui ... accensi nullā deinde vi sustineri potuere, cum compulsi in castra Romani rursus obsiderentur, in consequence of which ( = ita ut), Liv. 3, 5, 8.—(e) So freq. cum quidem, always with indic.: sed uterque noster cedere cogebatur, cum quidem ille pollicitus est, se quod velletis esse facturum, Cic. Phil. 9, 4, 9; id. Fl. 22, 53; id. Pis. 9, 21; 34, 83 and 84; id. Leg. 2, 6, 14; id. Sen. 4, 11; Suet. Caes. 50; Spart. Had. 9; id. Ael. Ver. 4.—

b. Cum tamen, at which time however, and yet, while nevertheless, representing the principal sentence as concessive, analogous to qui tamen (v. tamen).

(a). With indic., like qui tamen, always, except for particular reasons: fit gemitus omnium et clamor, cum tamen a praesenti supplicio tuo continuit populus Romanus se, etc., Cic. Verr. 1, 5, 29, 74; id. Pis. 12, 27; Liv. 6, 42, 11; Verg. A. 9, 513; Tac. H. 1, 62; so, cum nihilo magis, Nep. Dat. 10, 3; passing over into inverted cum clauses (4. b.), as Sall. J. 98, 2; Liv. 27, 20, 11.—

(b). With subj., Cic. Phil. 2, 18, 45; id. Fam. 1, 9, 10; Liv. 4, 31, 6 (where the clause with cum is adverbial).—

6. Cum interea (interim).

a. Adverbial (rare).

(a). Temporal with subj.; with subj. imperf., while, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, 62; with pluperf. subj., after, id. ib. 1, 2, 9, 25; id. Fam. 15, 43.—

(b). Adversative, with subj., whereas during this time. (1) Pres.: simulat se eorum praesidio conflteri, cum interea aliud quiddam jam diu machinetur, Cic. Verr. 1, 6, 15; Val. Max. 2, 9, 1; Sen. Q. N. 1, prol. 14.—(2) With perf. subj.: cum tu interim vero numquam significaris sententiam tuam, Cic. Pis. 4, 9; id. Rosc. Am. 5, 11 dub.; Val. Max. 7, 8, 6.—(3) With imperf. subj., Cic. Sull. 5, 6; Plin. Pan. 76, 1.—

b. Relative, always with indic., in class. writings always referring to a period during which, belonging,

(a). To the attributive clauses (v. 2. supra). (1) In pres.: anni sunt octo ... cum interea Cluentianae pecuniae vestigium nullum invenitis, Cic. Clu. 30, 82; Liv. 5, 54, 5; Plaut. Stich. 1, 1, 33.— (2) In imperf., Ter. Hec. 3, 4, 8 (2. c.).—

(b). To the inverted clauses (4.): tanta erat in his locis multitudo cum interim Rufio noster ... hominem percussit, Cic. Att. 5, 2, 2.—So probably: cum interim Gallus quidam processit, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 13, 7; Cic. Fam. 3, 6, 5; id. Pis. 38, 92 sq.; id. Tusc. 4, 3, 6; Sall. J. 12, 5; 49, 4; Liv. 3, 37, 5; Val. Max. 8, 1, 3; 9, 7, 2; Sen. Ira, 2, 33, 4; Tac. H. 1, 60; with indefinite pres. indic. in both terms, Sen. Cons. Marc. 11, 5.—

(g). To the additional clauses (5.). (1) With perf. indic., Plaut. Men. 3, 1, 3; Flor. 4, 2, 69; 4, 12, 33; with inf. in oblique discourse, Liv. 4, 51, 4; 6, 27, 6.—(2) Post-Aug., and in Nep., = cum tamen (5. b.), while nevertheless, whereas, with pres. or perf. indic.: post Leuctricam pugnam Lacedaemonii se numquam refecerunt ... cum interim Agesilaus non destitit patriam juvare, Nep. Ages. 7, 1: cum interim Oedipodis ossa ... colis, Val. Max. 5, 3, ext. 3; 3, 4, 5; 4, 4, 1; Quint. 10, 1, 18; 10, 1, 11; 12, 10, 67; Tac. H. 4, 42; Suet. Claud. 6; Flor. 4, 12, 33.

F. In clauses completing the idea of the governing verb.

1. After verbs of perception (videre, perspicere, audire, etc.; audivi cum diceres, etc. = audivi te dicentem).

a. Dependent on verbs of seeing and feeling.

(a). With indic.: nam ipsi vident eorum quom auferimus bona ( = nos auferre or auferentes), Plaut. Truc. 1, 2, 16; id. Poen. 3, 4, 13; id. Am. 5, 1, 19; id. Bacch. 3, 3, 65; id. Mil. 2, 6, 26: conspectum est cum obiit, Liv. 5, 25, 3.—

(b). With subj.: is ... numquam est conspectus cum veniret, Cic. Sest. 59, 126: vidi ... Cum tu terga dares, Ov. M. 13, 224.—

b. After verbs of hearing, always with subj.: L. Flaccum ego audivi cum diceret Caeciliam exisse, etc., Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104; id. Par. 6, 1, 45; id. de Or. 2, 6, 22; 2, 28, 129; 2, 33, 144; 2, 37, 155; 2, 90, 365; id. Brut. 27, 85; id. Fin. 5, 19, 54; id. Fam. 3, 7, 4; Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—

c. After memini, with indic. (sc. tempus): memini quom ... haud audebat, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 53: memini cum mihi desipere videbare, Cic. Fam. 7, 28, 1.—With subj.: memini cum velles residere ferventissimo sole, Sen. Ben. 5, 24, 1.—

2. After verba adfectuum, with the force of quod, always with indic. (mostly ante-class.).

a. Verbs of thanking: habeo gratiam tibi Quom copiam istam mi et potestatem facis, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 14; id. Curc. 5, 3, 21; id. As. 3, 2, 2; id. Most. 2, 2, 2; id. Poen. 1, 2, 46; 5, 4, 84 (99); Ter. And. 4, 4, 32; id. Ad. 1, 2, 59: tibi maximas gratias ago, cum tantum litterae meae potuerunt, ut eis lectis, etc., Cic. Fam. 13, 24, 2.—

b. Of congratulation: quom tu's aucta liberis ... gratulor, Plaut. Truc. 2, 4, 33; 2, 6, 35: L. Caesar, O mi Cicero, inquit, gratulor tibi cum tantum vales apud Dolabellam, etc., L. Caesar ap. Cic. Fam. 9, 14, 3; and ib. Att. 14, 17, A, 3.—

c. Of rejoicing and grieving: quom istaec res tibi ex sententiā Pulcre evenit, gaudeo, Plaut. Rud. 5, 3, 10; id. Poen. 5, 5, 48: cum vero in C. Matii familiaritatem venisti, non dici potest quam valde gaudeam, Cic. Fam. 7, 15, 2; Sall. J. 102, 5.—

d. Dependent on optative sentences: di tibi bene faciant semper quom advocatus bene mi ades, Plaut. Mil. 5, 26; id. Poen. 3, 3, 54; 3, 3, 74; Ter. Ad. 5, 7, 19.

G. Elliptical usages (without predicate).

1. Cum maxime.

a. With ut: hanc Bacchidem Amabat, ut quom maxime, tum Pamphilus ( = ut amabat tum quom maxume amabat, as much as he ever did), Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 40: etiamne ea neglegamus, quae fiunt cum maxime, quae videmus? Cic. Har. Resp. 15, 32.—Hence,

b. By abbreviation: nunc cum maxime or cum maxime alone, now especially, just now: tum cum maxime, just then: nunc cum maxume operis aliquid facere credo, Ter. Ad. 4, 1, 2; id. Phorm. 1, 4, 26; id. Heaut. 4, 5, 40: quae multos jam annos et nunc cum maxime filium interfectum cupit, Cic. Clu. 5, 12: castra amissa, et tum cum maxime ardere, Liv. 40, 32, 1; Curt. 3, 2, 17; Sen. Ira, 1, 16, 3; id. Ben. 3, 3, 3; id. Ep. 55, 1; 55, 11; 81, 7; Tac. Or. 16; 37; Eum. pro Schol. 4; Mamert. 2.—With maxime in adverbial clauses, just while, especially when, Cic. Att. 2, 15, 3; id. Off. 1, 13, 41; id. Fam. 1, 5, a, 2; Liv. 1, 50, 7; 2, 59, 7; 3, 25, 4; 3, 31, 3; 4, 3, 1; 8, 33, 4 et saep.—

2. Similarly with other superlatives (post-class.): foliis ternis, aut, cum plurimum, quaternis, at the utmost, Plin. 25, 10, 74, 121; 18, 7, 10, 60: cum tardissime, id. 18, 7, 10, 51: cum longissime, Suet. Tib. 38.

H. For co-ordinate clauses with cum ... tum, v. tum, I. A. 3.

II. Causal, since, because, as.

A. Anteclass., chiefly with indic.

1. With pres. indic.: hoc hic quidem homines tam brevem vitam colunt, Quom hasce herbas hujus modi in suom alvom congerunt, because, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2, 34; id. Truc. 1, 2, 50; 2, 4, 8: edepol, merito esse iratum arbitror, Quom apud te tam parva'st ei fides, since, id. Ps. 1, 5, 62; id. Most. 1, 1, 28; id. Truc. 2, 1, 32; Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 30; id. Hec. 4, 1, 53.—

2. With perf. indic.: praesertim quom is me dignum quoi concrederet Habuit, me habere honorem ejus ingenio decet, Plaut. As. 1, 1, 66; Ter. And. 3, 2, 8.—

3. With subj.

a. By construction of principal sentence: adeon, me fuisse fungum ut qui illi crederem, Quom mi ipsum nomen ejus Clamaret, etc., Plaut. Bacch. 2, 3, 51; id. Capt. 1, 2, 37; Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 6; id. Eun. 3, 5, 18; 5, 2, 24.—

b. Independent of such construction: jam istoc probior es meo quidem animo quom in amore temperes, Plaut. Ep. 1, 2, 8 (bracketed by Goetz; Brix conjectures temperas): nil miror si lubenter tu hic eras, Quom ego servos quando aspicio hunc lacrumem quia dijungimur, id. Mil. 4, 8, 18 Lorenz (Brix: quin ego ... lacrumo; cf. Lübbert, Grammat. Stud. II. pp. 133, 137): Nam puerum injussu eredo non tollent meo, Praesertim in eā re quom sit mi adjutrix socrus, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 82; so id. Ad. 2, 1, 12.

B. Class. and post-class., always with subj.

1. With pres. subj.: cum istā sis auctoritate, non debes arripere maledictum ex trivio, Cic. Mur. 6, 13: cum vita sine amicis insidiarum et metus plena sit, ratio ipsa monet amicitias comparare, id. Fin. 1, 20, 66: quae cum ita sint, videamus, etc., id. Clu. 44, 123: quod cum ita sit, etc., id. Fam. 3, 1, 1; id. Mur. 1, 2; id. Arch. 5, 10; id. Off. 3, 3, 13; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; Liv. 7, 9, 5; 21, 21, 5 et saep.—

2. With perf. subj.: cum inimicitiae fuerint numquam, opinio injuriae beneficiis sit exstincta ... rei publicae providebo, Cic. Prov. Cons. 20, 47; id. de Or. 1, 49, 214; the perf. subj. is often retained after a principal predicate in a past tense, id. Clu. 60, 167; id. Fam. 3, 8, 4.—

3. With imperf. subj.

a. Denoting both cause and coincidence of time: vacuum fundum, cum ego adessem, possidere non potuisti, Auct. Her. 4, 29, 40; Cic. Or. 8, 25: cum tanta multitudo lapides et tela conicerent, in muro consistendi potestas erat nulli, Caes. B. G. 2, 6; id. B. C. 3, 1; Liv. 39, 31, 3; 4, 8, 3; 25, 11, 1.—

b. Denoting cause without time: cum esset egens, sumptuosus, audax ... ad omnem fraudem versare suam mentem coepit, Cic. Clu. 26, 70: quod oppidum cum esset altissimo et munitissimo loco, ad existimationem imperii arbitratus sum, comprimere eorum audaciam, id. Fam. 15, 4, 10; Caes. B. C. 3, 37.—

4. With pluperf. subj.: Caesar cum constituisset hiemare in continenti, neque multum aestatis superesset, obsides imperat, etc., Caes. B. G. 5, 22.

C. With adverbs of emphasis.

1. Praesertim cum, or cum praesertim, = especially since, the more so because: quae cum ita sint, quid est quod de ejus civitate dubitetis, praesertim cum aliis quoque civitatibus fuerit adscriptus? Cic. Arch. 5, 10: cur enim tibi hoc non gratificor nescio, praesertim cum his temporibus audacia pro sapientiā liceat uti, id. Fam. 1, 10, 1: cum praesertim vos alium miseritis, id. Imp. Pomp. 5, 12; id. Rosc. Am. 8, 22; id. Prov. Cons. 7, 16 (cum praesertim rarely refers to time, with indic., Sen. Ep. 85, 6).—

2. Quippe cum represents the conclusion as selfevident, since of course, since obviously: nihil est virtute amabilius, quippe cum propter virtutem etiam eos, quos numquam videmus, quodammodo diligamus, Cic. Lael. 8, 28: numquam ego pecunias istorum, etc., in bonis rebus duxi, quippe cum viderem, etc., id. Par. 1, 1, 6; id. Leg. 1, 1, 5; 1, 20, 54; id. Fin. 3, 12, 41; 5, 28, 84; Liv. 4, 27, 8; 4, 57, 10.—Sometimes with indic. if cum refers to time, when of course, if, of course: tu vero etiam si reprehenderes ... laetarer: quippe cum in reprehensione est prudentia cum eu)menei/a|, Cic. Att. 16, 11, 2.—In later writers with indic., because when: omnia experiri necessitas cogebat: quippe cum primas spes fortuna destituit, futura praesentibus videntur esse potiora, Curt. 4, 1, 29.—

3. Utpote cum, seeing that, explanatory, with subj.: me incommoda valetudo quā jam emerseram, utpote cum sine febri laborassem, tenebat Brundusii, Cic. Att. 5, 8, 1; Cels. 1 prooem.; Sen. Cons. Marc. 21, 2.

III. Adversative, while, whereas, denoting a logical contrast with the principal sentence.

A. Ante-class., chiefly,

1. With indic.: hei mihi, insanire me aiunt, ultro quom ipsi insaniunt, Plaut. Men. 5, 2, 80; id. Stich. 1, 37; id. Bacch. 5, 2, 5; Ter. Phorm. prol. 23; 2, 2, 26.—

2. Subj.

a. By construction of principal predicate: tibi obtemperem quom tu mihi nequeas? Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 16 (4, 1, 50).—

b. Independent of construction: edepol, Cupido, quom tam pausillus sis, nimis multum vales, Naev. ap. Non. p. 421, 25 (Lübbert conjectures quom tu's tam pausillus): eo vos madefacitis, quom ego sim hic siccus? Plaut. Ps. 1, 2, 52.

B. Class. and post-class., always with subj.

1. With pres. subj.: cum de bonis et de caede agatur, testimonium dicturus est is qui et sector est et sicarius, Cic. Rosc. Am. 36, 103; id. Clu. 24, 65; id. Leg. 1, 7, 22: et cum tibi, viro, liceat purpurā in veste stragulā uti, matrem familias tuam purpureum amiculum habere non sines? Liv. 34, 7, 3; Sen. Prov. 4, 10; id. Clem. 1, 18, 2; id. Ben. 2, 16, 1.—

2. With perf. subj.: an tu, cum omnem auctoritatem universi ordinis pro pignore putaris, eamque ... concideris, me his existimas pignoribus terreri? Crass. ap. Cic. de Or. 3, 1, 4: indignatur exul aliquid sibi deesse, cum defuerit Scipioni dos? Sen. Cons. Helv. 12, 7; id. Ira, 3, 12, 7; freq. pres. and perf. subj. retained, if dependent on preterites, Cic. Brut. 71, 250; id. Agr. 3, 2, 5.—

3. With imperf. subj.: ita, cum maximis eum rebus liberares, perparvam amicitiae culpam relinquebas, Cic. Deiot. 3, 10: hunc Egnatium censores, cum patrem eicerent, retinuerunt, id. Clu. 48, 135: eorum erat V. milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius octingentos equites haberent, Caes. B. G. 4, 11; Liv. 1, 55, 3; Cic. de Or. 1, 1, 1; 1, 53, 227; 2, 50, 203; id. Clu. 5, 12; id. Ac. 1, 10, 38 sq.; Liv. 39, 49, 1; Val. Max. 1, 6, 11; 3, 2, 10 fin.

4. With pluperf. subj.: Socratis ingenium immortalitati scriptis suis Plato tradidit, cum ipse litteram Socrates nullam reliquisset, Cic. de Or. 3, 16, 60; id. Ac. 2, 1, 2; id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; Val. Max. 1, 8, 11.

IV. Concessive, although, denoting a reason for the contrary of the principal sentence.

A. Ante-class., mostly with indic.

1. Indic.: qui it lavatum In balineas, quom ibi sedulo sua vestimenta servat, Tam subripiuntur, Plaut. Rud. 2, 3, 52; Ter. Eun. 2, 2, 12; Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 26; id. Truc. 1, 2, 89 (95); id. Stich. 1, 2, 67.—

2. With subj.: nihilominus ipsi lucet, quom illi accenderit, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 16, 51 (Trag. Rel. v. 389 Rib.).

B. Class. and post-class., always with subj.

1. Pres. subj.: testis est Graecia, quae cum eloquentiae studio sit incensa, jamdiuque excellat in eā ... tamen omnis artis vetustiores habet, Cic. Brut. 7, 26: nam (Druentia) cum aquae vim vehat ingentem, non tamen navium patiens est, Liv. 21, 31, 11.—

2. Imperf. subj.: ego autem, cum consilium tuum probarem, et idem ipse sentirem, nihil proficiebam, Cic. Fam. 4, 1, 1: non poterant tamen, cum cuperent, Apronium imitari, id. Verr. 2, 3, 34, 78; id. de Or. 1, 28, 126; id. Brut. 7, 28; 91, 314; id. Inv. 2, 31, 97; id. Clu. 40, 110; Caes. B. G. 5, 40; Liv. 5, 38, 5; Nep. Att. 13, 1; so, quae cum ita essent ... tamen, although this was so, Cic. Clu. 34, 94; id. Fam. 2, 16, 2.—

3. With pluperf. subj.: cui cum Cato et Caninius intercessissent, tamen est perscripta, Cic. Fam. 1, 2, 4: patrem meum, cum proscriptus non esset, jugulastis, id. Rosc. Am. 11, 32.

V. In hypothetical clauses, always with imperf. or pluperf. subj., = si, but defining an assumed or fictitious time.

1. With imperf. subj.: quis ex populo, cum Scaevolam dicentem audiret in eā causā, quicquam politius aut elegantius exspectaret? Cic. Brut. 55, 194: etiam tum quiesceretis cum rem publicam a facinorosissimis sicariis esse oppressam videretis? id. Sest. 38, 81; id. Rosc. Am. 31, 86; id. Verr. 2, 1, 10, 28 and 29.—

2. With pluperf. subj.: quod esset judicium cum de Verris turpissimo comitatu tres recuperatorum nomine adsedissent? Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 12, 30: mors cum exstinxisset invidiam, res ejus gestae sempiterni nominis gloriāniterentur, id. Balb. 6, 16.