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πᾰρά [ρᾰ], Ep. and Lyr. also παραί: shortd. πάρ, in Hom., Lyr. (but rarely in Trag., in lyr. passages, A.Supp.553, S.Tr.636), and in all dial ects exc. Att., GDI5434.8 (Paros), IG5(2).3.14 (Tegea, iv B. C.), Inscr.Magn.26.28 (Thess.), etc.:—
Prep. c. gen., dat., and acc., prop. beside: hence,

A. WITH GEN. prop. denoting motion from the side of, from beside, from:

I. of Place, πὰρ νηῶν ἔλθωμεν Il.13.744; παρὰ ναῦφιν ἐλευσόμεθ' 12.225, etc.; παρ' Ὠκεανοῖο ῥοάων ..ἐπερχομένη Od.22.197; πὰρ νηῶν ἀπώσεται Il.8.533, etc.; δῶρα π. νηὸς ἐνεικέμεν 19.194; φάσγανον ὀξὺ ἐρυσσάμενος π. μηροῦ 1.190, cf. 21.173; σπασσάμενος ..ἄορ παχέος π. μηροῦ 16.473; πλευρὰ παρ' ἀσπίδος ἐξεφαάνθη was exposed beside the shield, 4.468, cf. A.Th.624.

II. commonly of Persons,

1. with Verbs of going or coming, bringing, etc., ἦλθε ..πὰρ Διός Il.2.787; παρ' Αἰήταο πλέουσα Od.12.70, etc.; ἀγγελίη ἥκει π. βασιλέος Hdt.8.140. ά; αὐτομολήσαντες π. βασιλέως X.An.1.7.13; ἐξεληλυθὼς παρ' Ἀριστάρχου D.21.117; ὁ π. τινὸς ἥκων his messenger, X.Cyr.4.5.53; so οἱ π. τινός Th.7.10, Ev.Marc.3.21, etc.; ὅστις ἀφικνεῖτο τῶν π. βασιλέως πρὸς αὐτόν X.An.1.1.5, etc.; τεύχεα καλὰ φέρουσα παρ' Ἡφαίστοιο from his workshop, Il.18.137, cf. 617, etc.; ἀπαγγέλλειν τι π. τινός X.An.2.1.20; σὺ δὲ οἰμώζειν αὐτοῖς παρ' ἐμοῦ λέγε Luc.DMort.1.2.

2. issuing from a person, γίγνεσθαι π. τινός to be born from, Pl.Smp.179b; λόγος (sc. ἐστί) π. Ἀθηναίων c. acc. et inf., Hdt.8.55: freq. following a Noun, δόξα ἡ π. τῶν ἀνθρώπων glory from (given by) men, Pl.Phdr.232a; ἡ π. τινὸς εὔνοια the favour from, i. e. of, any one, X.Mem.2.2.12; τὸ παρ' ἐμοῦ ἀδίκημα done by me, Id.Cyr.5.5.13; τὰ π. τινός all that issues from any one, as commands, commissions, Id.An.2.3.4, etc.; or promises, gifts, presents, Id.Mem.3.11.13; τὰ παρ' ἐμοῦ my opinions, Pl.Smp.219a; παρ' ἑωυτοῦ διδούς giving from oneself, i. e. from one's own means, Hdt. 2.129, 8.5; παρ' ἑαυτοῦ προσετίθει X.HG6.1.3; νόμον θὲς παρ' ἐμοῦ by my advice, Pl.Prt.322d; αὐτοὶ παρ' αὑτῶν of themselves, Id.Tht. 150d, cf. Phdr.235c.

3. with Verbs of receiving, obtaining, and the like , τυχεῖν τινος π. τινός Od.6.290, 15.158; πὰρ δ' ἄρα μιν Ταφίων πρίατο 14.452; ἀρέομαι πὰρ μὲν Σαλαμῖνος Ἀθαναίων χάριν Pi.P.1.76; εὑρέσθαι τι π. τῶν θεῶν Isoc.9.14, cf. IG12.40.10; δέχεσθαι, λαμβάνειν, ἁρπάζειν π. τινός, Th.1.20, X.Oec.9.11, Hes.Th.914; ἀντιάσαι, αἰτήσασθαι π. τινός, S.El.870 (lyr.), X.HG3.1.4; ἀξιοῖ π. τοῦ ἰατροῦ φάρμακον πιὼν ἐξεμέσαι τὸ νόσημα Pl.R.406d; κόσμος τοῖς πράξασι γίγνεται π. τῶν ἀκουσάντων Id.Mx.236e: without Verb, ὁ καρπὸς ὁ π. τῶν δημάρχων IG12.76.27: with Verbs of learning, etc., μεμαθηκέναι π. τινῶν Hdt.2.104, etc.

4. with Pass. Verbs, πὰρ Διὸς ..μῆνις ἐτύχθη Il.15.122; π. θεῶν ἡ τοιαύτη μανία δίδοται Pl.Phdr.245c, etc.; τὰ π. τῶν θεῶν σημαινόμενα, συμβουλευόμενα, X.Cyr.1.6.2; τὰ π. τινὸς λεγόμενα ib.6.1.42; τὰ π. τῆς τύχης δωρηθέντα the presents of .., Isoc.4.26; με π. σοῦ σοφίας πληρωθήσεσθαι Pl.Smp.175e.

III. rarely for παρά c. dat., by, near, πὰρ ποδός Pi.P.10.62, 3.60; παρὰ δὲ κυανέων πελαγέων dub. l. in S.Ant.966 (lyr.); τὸν Ῥειτὸν τὸν παρὰ τοῦ ἄστεως IG12.81.5; πολλοὶ παρ' ἀμφοτέρων ἔπιπτον, = ἀμφοτέρωθεν, D.S.19.42.

IV. π. τῆς συγχωρήσεώς τινος without his consent, BCH46.337 (Teos).

B. WITH DAT. denoting rest by the side of any person or thing, answering the question where?

I. of Places, κατ' ἂρ ἕζετ' ..πὰρ πυρί, ἔκειτο π. σηκῷ, Od.7.154, 9.319; νέμονται π. πέτρῃ 13.408; ἑσταότες παρ ὄχεσφιν Il.8.565; πὰρ ποσὶ μαρναμένων ἐκυλίνδετο at their feet, 14.411, etc.; π. θύρῃσι at the door, 7.346; π. ῥηγμῖνι θαλάσσης 2.773; δεῖπνον ..εἵλοντο παρ' ὄχθῃσιν ποταμοῖο Od.6.97, cf. Il.4.475, 20.53, etc.; κεῖσθαι παρ' Ἅιδῃ S.OT972; παρ' οἴνῳ over wine, ib. 780, etc.

II. of persons, beside, πὰρ δὲ οἷ αὐτῷ εἷσε Θεοκλύμενον Od.15.285; κεῖτο παρὰ μνηστῇ ἀλόχῳ Il.9.556, cf. 6.246, etc.; παρ' ἀνδράσιν εὐνάζεσθαι Od.5.119; δαίνυσθαι π. τινί 8.243; πὰρ δέ οἱ ἑστήκει stood by him, Il.4.367.

2. at one's house or place, with one, μένειν π. τισί 9.427; θητευέμεν ἄλλῳ, ἀνδρὶ παρ' ἀκλήρῳ Od.11.490; φιλέεσθαι π. τινί Il.13.627; παρ' ἑωυτοῖσι at their own house, Hdt.1.105, cf. 86; παιδευθῆναι π. τινί X.Cyr.1.2.15; καταλύειν π. τινί D.18.82 (but παρά τινα καταλῦσαι Th.1.136), etc.: hence οἱ παρ' ἐμοί those of my household, X.Mem.2.7.4, etc.; τὰ παρ' ἐμοί life with me, Id.An. 1.7.4; οἱ παρ' ἡμῖν ἄνθρωποι our people, Pl.Phd.64b; ἡ παρ' ἡμῖν πολιτεία, ὁ παρ' ὑμῖν δῆμος, D.15.19; ὁ παρ' αὑτῷ βίοτος one's own life, S.OT612; τὸ παρ' ἡμῖν πῦρ Pl.Phlb.29f; ὅσος παρ' ὑμῖν ὁ φθόνος φυλάσσεται S.OT382; τὸ παρ' ἡμῖν σῶμα Pl.Phlb.29f; also, in one's hands, τὰ π. τοῖς Ἑλληνοταμίαις ὄντα IG12.91.6; ἔχειν παρ' ἑωυτῷ Hdt. 1.130, etc.; οὔπω παρ' ἐμοὶ τότ' ἦν λέγειν I had no right to speak then, Men.Epit.98.

3. before, in the presence of, ἤειδε π. μνηστῆρσιν Od. 1.154; before a judge, δίκας γίγνεσθαι π. τῷ πολεμάρχῳ IG12.16.9; π. Δαρείῳ κριτῇ Hdt.3.160; π. τῷ βασιλέϊ Id.4.65; παρὰ δικασταῖς Th. 1.73; εἰς κρίσιν καθιστάναι τινὰ π. τισί D.18.13: hence παρ' ἐμοί in my judgement, Hdt.1.32, cf. S.Tr.589, E.Heracl.881, 1 Ep.Cor.3.19; π. τούτῳ μέγα δυνήσεται with him, Pl.Grg.510e.

4. in quoting authors, παρ' Ἐφόρῳ, παρ' Αἰσχίνῃ, π. Θουκυδίδῃ, in Ephorus, etc., Plb. 9.2.4, D.H.Comp.9,18.

III. Arc., = π. c. gen., from, καθὰ εἶχον τὰς ἰντολὰς π. τᾷ ἰδίᾳ πόλι SIG559.9 (Megalop., iii B. C.), cf. 558.10 (Ithaca, iii B. C.).

C. WITH ACCUS. in three main senses,

I. beside, near, by,

II. along,

III. past, beyond.

I. beside, near, by:

1. with Verbs of coming, going, etc., to the side of, to, ἴτην π. νῆας Il.1.347, cf. 8.220, etc.; βῆ ..π. θῖνα 1.34, cf. 327, etc.; τρέψας πὰρ ποταμόν to the side of .., 21.603, cf. 3.187: more freq. of persons, εἶμι παρ' Ἥφαιστον to the chamber of H., 18.143, cf. Od.1.285, etc.; ἐσιόντες π. τοὺς φίλους Th.2.51, etc.; φοιτᾶν π. τὸν Σωκράτη Pl.Phd.59d; πέμπειν ἀγγέλους, πρέσβεις π. τινά, Hdt. 1.141, Th.1.58, etc.; ἄγειν π. τινά Hdt.1.86; καταφυγὴ π. φίλων τινάς Th.2.17.

2. with Verbs of rest, beside, near, by, sts. with ref. to past motion (expressed in such phrases as ἧσο παρ' αὐτὸν ἰοῦσα Il.3.406, cf. 11.577), ἔς ῥα θρόνους ἕζοντο παρ' Ἀτρεί̈δην Μενέλαον Od.4.51, cf. 13.372; κεῖται ποταμοῖο παρ' ὄχθας lies stretched beside .., Il.4.487, cf. 12.381; παρ' ἔμ' ἵστασο come and stand by me, 11.314, cf. 592, 20.49, etc.; π. πυθμέν' ἐλαίης θῆκαν Od.13.122; καταθέτω π. τὰ ἴκρια IG12.94.28; κοιμήσαντο π. πρυμνήσια they lay down by .., Od.12.32, cf. 3.460; ὁ παρ' ἐμὲ καθήμενος Pl.Euthd.271b, cf. Phd.89b; ἐκάθητο π. τὴν πύλην, π. τὴν ὁδόν, LXX Ge.19.1, Ev.Marc. 10.46; παρ' αὐτὸν τὸν καλέσαντα κατακείμενος δειπνῆσαι Thphr.Char. 21.2, cf. Pl.Smp.175c; ἐκαθέζετο π. τὸν Λύσιν Id.Ly.211a, cf. R.328c; στὰς παρ' αὐτόν Id.Phd.116c; τέμενος νεμόμεσθα ..παρ' ὄχθας Il.12.313, cf. 6.34, IG12.943.45; τοῦ Εὐρίπου, παρ' ὃν ᾤκει Aeschin.3.90; κατελείφθη π. τὸν νηόν Hdt.4.87; τὴν παρ' ἐμὲ ἐοῦσαν δύναμιν Id.8.140.ά (v.l. ἐμοί); εἶπεν αὐτῷ μένειν παρ' ἑαυτόν X.Cyr.1.4.18, cf. An.1.9.31, Ar.Fr.451, Is.8.16, Alex.248, Demetr.Com. Nov.1.5, IG22.654.23 (iii B. C.), Plb.3.26.1, 11.14.3, 28.14.3; ἡ π. θάλασσαν Μακεδονία Th.2.99, cf. S.El.184 (lyr.), Tr.636 (lyr.); Καρβασυανδῆς π. Καῦνον IG12.204.52; τὸ κουρεῖον τὸ π. τοὺς Ἑρμᾶς Lys.23.3, cf. And.1.62, Is.6.20, 8.35, Aeschin. 1.182, 3.88, Lycurg.112; τᾶς παστάδος τᾶς παρ' Ἀπόλλωνα IG42 (1).109 iii 146 (Epid.); παρ' ὄμμα before one's eyes, E.Supp.484; π. πόδας on the spot, Phld.Ir.p.78 W., Rh.2.2 S.; immediately thereafter, Plb.1.7.5, 1.8.2, al.

b. Dor., Boeot., and Thess., = supr. B. 11.2, at the house of .., with a person, IG7.3171.7 (Orchom. Boeot.), GDI 1717 (Delph.); παρ' ἁμὲ πολυτίματος [ὁ σῖτος] Ar.Ach.759 (Megar.); τοῖς κατοικέντεσσι πὰρ ἀμμέ IG9(2).517.18 (Larissa, iii B. C.); τοῖ πὰρ ἀμμὲ πολιτεύματος ib.13; πεπολιτευκὼρ πὰρ ἁμέ Schwyzer 425.5 (Elis, iii/ii B. C.): so in Att., θέμενος π. γυναῖκας depositing with .., Pl. R.465c.

3. with Verbs of striking, wounding, etc., βάλε στῆθος π. μαζόν Il.4.480, etc.; τὸν δ' ἕτερον ..κληῗδα παρ' ὦμον πλῆξε 5.146; τύψε κατὰ κληῗδα παρ' αὐχένα 21.117, cf. 4.525, 8.325, etc.; αἰχμὴ δ' ἐξελύθη παρὰ νείατον ἀνθερεῶνα 5.293, cf. 17.310; δησάμενος τελαμῶνι π. σφυρόν ib.290.

4. with Verbs of placing, examining, etc., side by side with .., ὁ ἔλεγχος π. τὸν ἔλεγχον παραβαλλόμενος Pl.Grg.475e, cf. Hp.Mi.369c, Smp.214c, R.348a; ἐξέτασον παρ' ἄλληλα τὰ σοὶ κἀμοὶ βεβιωμένα D.18.265; ἄλλα παρ' ἄλλατιθέμενα ..τῶν χρωμάτων Arist.Mete.375a24.

b. Geom., παραβάλλειν π. apply an area to (i. e. along) a finite straight line, Euc.1.44, Archim.Aequil.2.1; π. τὴν δοθεῖσαν αὐτοῦ γραμμὴν παρατείναντα Pl. Men.87a; ἡ [εὐθεῖα] παρ' ἣν δύνανται αἱ καταγόμεναι τεταγμένως the line to which are applied the squares of the or dinates, etc., Apollon. Perg.Con.1.11: hence,

c. Arith., παραβάλλειν τι π. τι divide by ..(v. παραβάλλω A. VII. 2); μερίζω τι π. τι Dioph.4.33; ἐπὶ γ́ π. ί multiply by 3 and divide by 10, PLond.5.1718.2 (vi A. D.).

5. Geom., parallel to .., Democr.155, Arist. Top.158b31, Archim.Sph. Cyl.1.12, al.

6. metaph. in Gramm., like, as a parody of .., π. τὸ Σοφόκλειον, π. τὰ ἐν Τεύκρῳ Σοφοκλέους, Sch.Ar.Av.1240, Nu.584.

b. Gramm., of words which differ as compared with other words, π. τὸ τοῦ ἔρωτος ὄνομα σμικρὸν παρηγμένον ἐστίν ..[τὸ ἥρως] Pl.Cra.398d, cf. 399a, Lg.654a: hence, derived from .., π. τὸ ἔδαφος, δάπεδον, A.D. Pron.31.16; π. τὸ δρῶ δρᾶμα Sch.A.R.2.624; σύγκειται [τὸ αὐθέντης] π. τὸ εἷναι ..καὶ π. τὸ αὐτός Phryn.PSp.24 B.

7. generally, of Comparison, alongside of, compared with, usu. implying superiority, δοκέοντες π. ταῦτα οὐδ' ἂν τοὺς σοφωτάτους ἀνθρώπων Αἰγυπτίους οὐδὲν ἐπεξευρεῖν Hdt.2.160, cf. 7.20, 103; ἡλίου ἐκλείψεις αἳ πυκνότεραι π. τὰ ἐκ τοῦ πρὶν χρόνου μνημονευόμενα ξυνέβησαν Th.1.23, cf. 4.6; τῶν ἁπάντων ἀπερίοπτοί εἰσι π. τὸ νικᾶν Id.1.41; π. τὰ ἄλλα ζῷα ὥσπερ θεοὶ ἄνθρωποι βιοτεύουσι X.Mem.1.4.14; φαίνεται π. τὸ ἀλγεινὸν ἡδὺ καὶ π. τὸ ἡδὺ ἀλγεινὸν ἡ ἡσυχία Pl.R.584a, cf. Phdr.236d, La.183c, al.; εὐδαίμων μᾶλλον π. πάντας BCH26.332 (Halae); προετέρει π. πάντας PSI 4.422.34 (iii B. C.): sts. implying inferiority or defect, ἠλάττωσας αὐτὸν βραχύ τι παρ' ἀγγέλους a little lower than the angels, LXX Ps. 8.6; μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ ὑστεροῦσι π. τὸν ἥλιον lag one day behind the sun, Gem.8.19; so perh. παρ' αὐτόν, ὑπὲρ αὐτόν (has passed the ball?) short of him, beyond him, Antiph.234; μέγα τοι ἡμέρα παρ' ἡμέραν γιγνομένη γνώμην ἐξ ὀργῆς μεταστῆσαι one day compared with another is important .., a day's delay makes a difference, Antipho 5.72; τί γὰρ παρ' ἦμαρ ἡμέρα τέρπειν ἔχει προσθεῖσα κἀναθεῖσα τοῦ γε κατθανεῖν; what joy has one day compared with another to offer, since it only brings us nearer to, or farther from, death (which is neither good nor evil)? S.Aj.475; ὃς μὲν κρίνει (prefers) ἡμέραν παρ' ἡμέραν, ὃς δὲ κρίνει (approves) πᾶσαν ἡμέραν Ep.Rom.14.5.

8. with Verbs of estimating, to set at so and so much, hence π. = equivalent to .., ταρβῶ μὴ ..θῆται παρ' οὐδὲν τὰς ἐμὰς ἐπιστολάς set at nought, E.IT732, cf. A. Ag.229 (lyr.); παρ' οὐδὲν ἄγειν S.Ant.35; π. μικρὸν ἡγεῖσθαι or ποιεῖσθαί τι hold of small account, Isoc.5.79, D.61.51; παρ' ὀλίγον ποιεῖσθαί τινα X.An.6.6.11; so with εἶναι, etc., παρ' οὐδέν ἐστι are as nothing, S.OT983, cf. Ant.466; παρ' οὐδὲν αὐταῖς ἦν ἂν ὀλλύναι πόσεις E.Or.569; οὐ π. μέγα ἔσεσθαι τὸ πταῖσμα Arr.An.1.18.6; so perh. π. σμικρὰ κεχώρηκε have turned out of little account, have amounted to little, Hdt.1.120.

b. in Accountancy, without a verb, π. τὴν καταλλαγήν on account of κ., PHib.1.100.4 (iii B. C.).

9. of correspondence, ὀφείλειν στατῆρα π. στατῆρα stater for stater (one to each of two creditors), BCH50.214 (Thasos, v B. C.); πληγὴν π. πληγὴν ἑκάτερον Ar.Ra.643; συνεῖναι ἑκατέρῳ ἡμέραν παρ' ἡμέραν stayed day for day with each, D.59.46; hence of alternation, ποιεῖσθαι ἁγνείας καὶ θυσίας δύο π. δύο, of four priests acting two and two alternately, BGU1198.12 (i B. C.); τοῦ καθημερινοῦ ἢ μίαν π. μίαν (sc. ἡμέραν) [πυρετοῦ] quotidian or tertian fever, ib.956.3 (iii A. D.): sts. without doubling of the Noun, παρ' ἡμέρην, opp. καθ' ἡμέρην, tertian, opp. quotidian, Hp.Aph.1.12; καθ' ἡμέραν, παρ' ἡμέραν, π. δύο, π. τρεῖς every day, every second day, every third (fourth) day, Arr.Epict.2.18.13; π. μίαν every second day, Plb.3.110.4; παρ' ἐνιαυτόν every second year, Plu.Cleom.15; παρ' ἔτος year and year about, Arist.GA757a7; every second year, Paus.8.15.2; π. μέρος by turns (v. μέρος II. 2); ὁ ἀνὰ μέρος παρ' ἓξ μῆνας ὑπὲρ γῆν τε καὶ ὑπὸ γῆν γινόμενος Ἄδωνις Corn. ND28; π. μῆνα τρίτον every third month, Arist.HA582b4, cf. Plu.2.942e; but π. τρία [ἔτεα] prob. every fourth year, IG5(2).422 (Phigalea), cf. Arr.Epict. l.c.; ἕνα παρ' ἕνα παραλειπτέον every second one, Nicom.Ar.1.18; ἕνα π. δύο (τρεῖς) every third (fourth) one, ibid.; παρὰ δ' ἄλλαν ἄλλα μοῖρα διώκει now one now another, E.Heracl. 611.

10. precisely at the moment of, παρ' αὐτὰ τἀδικήματα flagrante delicto, D.18.13, 21.26; ἀποδώσω π. τὸν εὔθυνον τὸ καθῆκον IG12.188.31; π. τοιοῦτον καιρόν, π. τὰς χρείας, D.20.41,46; π. τὰ δεινά in the midst of danger, Plu.Ant.63; π. τὴν πρώτην γένεσιν Jul.Or.1.10b; π. τὴν πρώτην (sc. ἐπίθεσιν) at the first attack, Hld.9.2; π. γε τὴν πρώτην ὁρμήν Ael.NA14.10.

b. distributively, whether of Time, π. τὰ ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτεα in each complete period of seventy years, Hdt.1.32; ἐν ταῖς ὁδοιπορίαις π. στάδια διακόσια ..τοῖς ἑκατὸν σταδίοις διήνεγκαν ἀλλήλων X.Oec.20.18; πὰρ Fέτος each year, every year, Tab.Heracl. 1.101; π. τὸν ἐνιαυτὸν ἕκαστον IG12(7).5.14 (Amorgos); παρ' ἆμάρ τε καὶ νύκτα day and night, B.Fr.7; or more generally, πὰρ τὰν ἐλαίαν in respect of each olive plant, Tab.Heracl.1.122; παρ' ἡμέραν αἱ ἀμίαι πολὺ ἐπιδήλως αὐξάνονται from day to day, per day, Arist.HA571a21; τὸ παρ' ἑκάστην βάσιν γινόμενον μικρὸν πολὺ γίνεται π. πολλάς Id.Pr. 881b26; ἡ παρ' ἡμέραν χάρις D.8.70; τὸ παρ' ἑκάστην ἡμέραν ἡδύ Pl. Lg.705a.

c. παρ' ἆμαρ on (this) day, to-day, τὸ μὲν πὰρ ἆμαρ, τὸ δέ ..to-day and to-morrow, Pi.P.11.63; but παρ' ἦμαρ to-morrow, S. OC1455 (lyr.).

d. throughout a period of time, π. τὴν ζόην Hdt. 7.46; π. τὸν βίον ἅπαντα Pl.Lg.733a; π. πάντα τὸν χρόνον D.18.10; also more loosely, during, π. τὴν πόσιν while they were drinking, Hdt.2.121.δ́; π. τὸν πότον Aeschin.2.156; π. τὴν κύλικα Plu.Ant.24; π. δεῖπνον or π. τὸ δεῖπνον, Id.2.737a,674f.

II. along, ὄνος παρ' ἄρουραν ἰών Il.11.558; βῆ δὲ θέειν π. τεῖχος 12.352; π. ῥόον Ὠκεανοῖο ᾔομεν Od. 11.21; ἔπλεον π. τὴν ἤπειρον Hdt.7.193; π. πᾶσαν τὴν ὁδόν Isoc.4.148; ὀρθὴν παρ' οἶμον ..τύμβον κατόψει straight along the road, E.Alc.835; παρ' ὅλην τὴν φάραγγα Plb.10.30.3; παρ' αὐτὴν τὴν χαράδραν παραπορευομένων ib.9; for παραβάλλειν π., v. supr. c. 1.4b.

2. strictly according to, without deviating from, εἶμι π. στάθμην ὀρθὴν ὁδόν Thgn. 945, cf. S.Fr.474.5; ὠμοί τε δούλοις πάντα καὶ π. στάθμην, i.e. too strict, A.Ag.1045; π. τὸν λόγον ὃν ἀποφέρουσιν ..ἐπιδείξω I will prove to you strictly according to the accounts which they themselves submit, D.27.34.

III. past, beyond, παρὰ σκοπιὴν καὶ ἐρινεὸν ἠνεμόεντα ..ἐσσεύοντο Il.22.145, cf. Od.3.172, 24.12; βῆ δὲ π. Κρουνούς h.Ap.425; π. τὴν Βαβυλῶνα παριέναι pass by Babylon, X.Cyr.5.2.29; παρ' αὐτὴν τὴν χύτραν ἄκραν ὁρῶντες looking over the edge of .., Ar.Av.390.

2. metaph., over and above, in addition to, οὐκ ἔστι π. ταῦτ' ἄλλα Id.Nu. 698; π. ταῦτα πάντα ἕτερόν τι Pl.Phd.74a, cf.R.337d, D.18.139, X.HG 1.5.5; ἑκὼν ἐπόνει π. τοὺς ἄλλους more than the others, Id.Ages.5.3, cf. Mem.4.4.1, Oec.20.16; ἃ τῷ ῥαψῳδῷ προσήκει καὶ σκοπεῖσθαι καὶ διακρίνειν π. τοὺς ἄλλους ἀνθρώπους Pl.Ion539e.

3. metaph., in excess over, πὰρ δύναμιν beyond one's strength, Il.13.787, cf. Th.1.70, Hyp.Lyc.16, Arist.Rh.Al.1423b29; π. τὴν δ. Id.Po.1451b38.

4. metaph., in transgression or violation of, π. μοῖραν Od.14.509; π. μοῖραν Δίος Alc.Supp. 14.10; παρ' αἶσαν, παρὰ δίκαν, Pi.P.8.13, O.2.16, etc.; π. τὸ δίκαιον Th.5.90, etc.; π. τὰς σπονδάς, τὸν νόμον, Id.1.67, X.HG1.7.14; π. φύσιν Th.6.17, cf. Pl.Lg.747b; π. τὴν στήλην prob. in IG12.45.20; π. καιρόν out of season, Pi.O.8.24, etc.; π. γνώμαν ib.12.10, cf. A.Supp.454; π. δόξαν, π. τὸ δοκοῦν ἡμῖν, π. λόγον, Th.3.93, 1.84, Plb.2.38.5; παρ' ἐλπίδα or ἐλπίδας, A.Ag.899, S.Ant.392, etc.; πὰρ μέλος out of tune, Pi.N.7.69; π. τὴν ἀξίαν Th.7.77, etc.; π. τὸ εἰωθός, τὸ καθεστηκός, Id.4.17, 1.98.

5. π. τοσοῦτον ἦλθε κινδύνου, = παρῆλθε τοσοῦτον κινδύνου, passed over so much ground within the sphere of danger, i.e. incurred such imminent peril, Id.3.49, cf. 7.2; in such phrases the tmesis was forgotten, and the acc. came to be governed by παρά, which thus came to mean 'by such and such a margin', 'with so much to spare', ἐνίκησαν π. πολύ, ἡσσηθέντες π. πολύ, Id.1.29, 2.89, cf. Pl. Ap.36a; παρὰ δ' ὀλίγον ἀπέφυγες only just, E.IT870 (lyr.); παρ' ὀλίγον ἢ διέφευγον ἢ ἀπώλλυντο Th.7.71; δεινότατον π. πολύ by far, Ar.Pl. 445; παρ' ὅσον quatenus, Luc.Nec.17, etc.; π. δύο ψήφους ἀπέφυγε by two votes, Hyp.Eux.28, cf. D.23.205; π. τέτταρας ψήφους μετέσχε τῆς πόλεως Is.3.37; π. τοσοῦτον ἐγένετο αὐτῷ μὴ περιπεσεῖν by so much (= little) he missed falling in with .., Th.8.33; π. πέντε ναῦς πλέον ἀνδρὶ ἑκάστῳ ἢ τρεῖς ὀβολοὶ ὡμολογήθησαν ib.29; οὐ π. μικρὸν ἐποίησαν they made no little difference, Isoc.4.59.

b. in phrases like π. τοσοῦτον ἦλθε κινδύνου, τοσοῦτον was sts. understood of the interval from danger, etc., and παρά came to mean 'by so much short of' (τὸ π. μικρὸν ὥσπερ οὐδὲν ἀπέχειν δοκεῖ Arist.Ph.197a29), within such and such a distance of, so near to, τὴν Ἠϊόνα π. νύκτα ἐγένετο (sc. αὐτῷ) λαβεῖν he was within one night of taking E., Th.4.106; π. μικρὸν ἦλθον ἀποθανεῖν I came within a little of .., Isoc. 19.22, cf. Plb.1.43.7, Plu. Caes. 39; παρ' ἐλάχιστον ἦλθε ..ἀφελέσθαι was within an ace of taking away, Th.8.76; παρ' οὐδὲν μὲν ἦλθον ἀποκτεῖναι (were within a mere nothing, within an ace of killing him), ἐξεκήρυξαν δ' ἐκ πόλεως Aeschin. 3.258, cf. Plu.Pyrrh. 14, Alex.62; π. τοσοῦτον ἦλθε διαφυγεῖν so near he came to escaping, Luc.Cat.4; παρὰ ἓν πάλαισμα ἔδραμε νικᾶν Ὀλυμπιάδα Hdt.9.33; παρ' οὐδὲν ἐλθόντες τοῦ ἀποβαλεῖν Plb.1.45.14, cf. 2.55.4, D.S.17.42: hence without ἐγένετο or ἐλθεῖν, π. μίαν μονάδα (less) by one, i.e. less one, Nicom.Ar.1.8; τεσσαράκοντα π. μίαν, = 39, 2 Ep.Cor.11.24; παρ' ἕνα τοσοῦτοι the same number less one, Plu. Publ.9; σύ μοι παρ' ἕνα ἥκεις ἄγων you have brought me one too few, Luc.Cat.4; δύναται π. δύο συλλαβὰς εἶναι τὸ καταληκτόν Heph.4.2; τὰ ὁλοκόττινα ηὑρέθησαν π. ἑπτὰ κεράτια seven carats short, PMasp.70.2 (vi A. D.); πάντες παρ' ἕνα, πάντες παρ' ὀλίγους, all save one (a few), Plu.Cat.Mi.20, Ant.5; ἔτη δύο π. ἡμέρας δύο IG5(1).801 (Laconia); of one Μάρκος, θηρίον εἶ π. γράμμα you are a bear (ἄρκος) all but a letter, AP11.231 (Ammian.); ὡς π. τι καὶ τὰς ὄψεις ἀφανίσαι so that he all but (lit. less something) lost his sight, Vett.Val.228.6; π. τι βυθίζεσθαι v.l. in Ev.Luc.5.7; τὸ π. τοῦτο the figure less that, i.e. the remainder or difference, PTeb.99.10 (ii B. C.), cf. POxy.264.4 (i A. D.), PAmh.2.148.5 (v A. D.); hence of any difference whether of excess or defect, οὐδὲν π. τοῦτο ποιούμενοι τοὺς ..Λευκανούς τε καὶ τοὺς ..Σαυνίτας making no difference between .., Str.6.1.3, cf. 14.5.11, Plu.2.24c.

6. hence of the margin by which anything increases or decreases, and so of the cause according to which anything comes into existence or varies, τὸ εὖ π. μικρὸν διὰ πολλῶν ἀριθμῶν γίνεται Polyclit.2 (cf. μικρός III. 5 c); διαφέρει π. τὰς τῶν παθημάτων ἐναντιώσεις according to .., Arist.HA486b5; μεταπίπτει π. τὰ κλίματα Gem. 5.29, cf. 11.5, al.; π. τὰ πράγματα cj. in Apollod.Car.11.

7. more generally of the margin by which an event occurs, i.e. of the necessary and sufficient cause or motive (τὸ μὴ π. τοῦτο γίνεσθαι τότε λέγομεν, ὅταν ἀναιρεθέντος τούτου μηδὲν ἧττον περαίνηται ὁ συλλογισμός Arist.APr.65b6, cf. 48a24, al.), κεινὰν π. δίαιταν just for the sake of unsatisfying food, Pi.O.2.65; ἕκαστος οὐ π. τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἀμέλειαν οἴεται βλάψειν each thinks that his own negligence will not suffice to cause injury, Th.1.141, cf. Isoc.3.48; π. τὴν αὑτοῦ ἁμαρτίαν all through his own fault, Antipho 3.4.5, cf. Isoc.6.52, D.4.11, 18.232; πολλὰ ..ἐστιν αἴτια τούτων, καὶ οὐ παρ' ἓν οὐδὲ δύ' εἰς τοῦτο τὰ πράγματ' ἀφῖκται not from one or two causes only, Id.9.2; οὐ π. τοῦτο οὐκ ἔστι it does not follow that it is not .., 1 Ep.Cor.12.15; π. τὸ τὴν ἀρίθμησιν ποιήσασθαι ἐξ ἑτοίμου τοὺς ἐργώνας οὐκ ὀλίγα χρήματα περιεποίησε τῇ πόλει by the simple fact of prompt payment, IPE12.32B35 (Olbia, iii B. C.); οὐδὲν ἂν παρ' ἕνα ἄνθρωπον ἐγένετο τούτων Lycurg.63, cf. Plb.3.103.2, 18.28.6, al.; οὐδεὶς παρ' ἑαυτόν ἐστι βασιλεύς thanks to himself alone, Aristeas 224; παρ' αὑτὸν ἀτυχεῖ Arr.Epict.3.24.2, cf. Phld.Rh.2.16 S.; παρ' ἡμᾶς ἡ τῶν ἀγαθῶν ἀπόστασις Hierocl. in CA25p.477M.; εἶναι π. τοῦτο σωτηρίαν τε πόλει καὶ τοὐναντίον, i.e. on this depends .., Pl.Lg.715d, cf. X.Eq.Mag.1.5, D.C.Fr.36.5; π. μίαν ἡμέραν καὶ ἓν πρᾶγμα καὶ ἀπόλλυται προκοπὴ καὶ σῴζεται Epict.Ench.51.2; π. τὸ Ἕλληνά με εἶναι just because I am a Greek, UPZ7.13 (ii B. C.); π. τὸ ἀγαπᾶν αὐτὸν αὐτήν LXX Ge.29.20, cf. Ex.14.11; later more loosely, because of .., Phld.Rh.1.158 S., Gem.6.24, etc.; οὐδὲν π. σὲ γέγονε it is no fault of yours, PRyl.243.6 (ii A. D.), cf. POxy.1420.7 (ii A. D.).

8. of a limit of possibility, εἴπερ ἐνεδέχετο π. τοὺς παρόντας καιρούς D.18.239; πεῖσαι τό γε παρ' αὑτόν to persuade (the judges) so far as in you lies, Arr.Epict.2.2.20; οἴμωζε παρ' ἐμέ as far as I am concerned, for all I care, Ar.Av.846.

D. POSITION: παρά may follow its Subst. in all three cases, but then becomes by anastrophe πάρα: when the ult. is elided, the practice varies, τῇσι παρ' Il.18.400; but Ἡφαίστοιο πάρ' ib.191.

E. παρά abs., as ADV., near, together, Il.1.611, al., E.IA201 (lyr.).

F. πάρα (with anastrophe) stands for πάρεστι and πάρεισι, Il.1.174, Hes.Op.454, A.Pers.167, Hdt.1.42, al., S.El.285, Ar.Ach.862, etc.

G. IN COMPOS.,

I. alongside of, beside, of rest, παράκειμαι, παράλληλοι, παρέζομαι, πάρειμι εἰμί, παρίστημι; of motion, παραπλέω, πάρειμι (εἶμι).

II. to the side of, to, παραδίδωμι, παρέχω.

III. to one side of, by, past, παρέρχομαι, παροίχομαι, παραπέμπω, παρακμάζω, παρατρέχω.

IV. metaph.,

1. aside or beyond, i.e. amiss, wrong, παραβαίνω, παράγω, παροράω, παρορκέω, παρακούω, παραγιγνώσκω.

2. of comparison, as in παραβάλλω, παρατίθημι.

3. of alteration or change, as in παραλλάσσω, παραπείθω, παραπλάσσω, παρατεκταίνω, παραυδάω, παράφημι.

4. of a side-issue, παραπόλλυμι. (Cogn. with Goth. faúr 'along', Lat. por-.)