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πῶς, Ion. κῶς, interrog. Adv. of Manner, how? Il.1.123, etc.; sts. to express displeasure, 4.26, S.OT391, Ph.1031, Tr.192; to express astonishment or doubt, π. εἶπας; A.Pers.798, S.El.407, etc.; π. λέγεις; Id.Ph.1407; π. φῄς; A.Ag.268, E.El.575; π. τοῦτ' ἔλεξας; A.Pers.793; π. τοῦτ' εἶπες αὖ; Pl.Plt.309c; also π. μὴ φῶμεν ..; surely we must, Id.Tht.161e.

b. in dialogue, to ask explanation, with a repetition of a word used by the previous speaker, δίκαια—
Answ. π. δίκαια; S.OC832; μὴ δίκαιος ὤν—
Answ. π. μὴ δίκαιος; Id.Tr.412; συμβολάς—
Answ. π. συμβολάς; Alex.143; πῶς alone, how so, π., ὅς γε ..; S.Ph.1386.

2. with a second interrog. in the same clause, π. ἐκ τίνος νεώς ποτε ..ἥκετε; how and by what ship ..? E.Hel.1543; τί τἀμὰ&#χ2014;
π. ἔχει&#χ2014;
θεσπίσματα; ib.873; π. τί τοῦτο λέγεις; how say you and what? Pl.Ti.22b, cf. Tht.146d, 208e, etc.

3. c. gen. modi, π. ἀγῶνος ἥκομεν; how are we come off in it? E.El. 751; π. ἔχει πλήθους ἐπισκοπεῖ Pl.Grg.451c.

4. with Verbs of selling, how? at what price? π. ὁ σῖτος ὤνιος; Ar.Ach.758, cf. Eq. 480; τὰ δ' ἄλφιθ' ὑμῖν π. ἐπώλουν;—
Answ. τεττάρων δραχμῶν ..τὸν κόφινον Stratt.13.

II. with other Particles, π. ἂν ..; π. κεν ..; how possibly ..? π. ἂν ἔπειτ' ἀπὸ σεῖο ..λιποίμην οἶος; Il.9.437, cf. Od. 1.65, etc.; π. ἂν γένοιτ' ἂν ..ποδῶν ἔκμακτρον; E.El.534: so with indic., Il.22.202, E.Alc.96 (lyr.), etc.

b. in Trag., π. ἄν c. opt. is freq. used to express a wish, O how might it be? i.e. would that it might ..! π. ἂν θάνοιμι; π. ἂν ὀλοίμην; etc., S.Aj.388 (lyr.), E.Supp. 796 (lyr.), cf. Hipp.208 (anap.), 345; rare in Com., Ar.Th.22 (a trace of this usage appears in Hom., Od.15.195): in later Prose, π. ἂν γένοιτο ἑσπέρα; LXX De.28.67; also with aor. subj. (without ἄν), π. κοιμηθῶ; M.Ant.9.40; π. μή μοι μέγας λέων ἐπιφανῇ; Arr.Epict.4.10.10; with pres., π. μὴ χρῄζω; M.Ant.l.c.

2. π. ἄρα ..; in reply, how then? π. τ' ἄρ' ἴω ..; Il.18.188, cf. Od.3.22, h.Ap.19,207.

3. π. γὰρ ..; also in reply, as if something had gone before, [that cannot be], for how can ..? Il.1.123, Od.10.337, etc.; π. γὰρ κάτοιδα; S. Ph.250, cf. 1383; v. infr. 111.1.

4. π. δὲ ..; to introduce a strong objection, π. δὲ σὺ νῦν μέμονας, κύον ἀδδεές ..; Il.21.481, cf. Od.18.31; δόξει δὲ π.; A.Pr.261.

5. π. δή; how in the world? π. δὴ φῂς πολέμοιο μεθιέμεν; Il.4.351, cf. 18.364, A.Ag.543, etc.; also π. γὰρ δή ..; Od.16.70; π. δῆτα ..; A.Ag.622,1211, Ar.Nu.79, etc.

6. π. καὶ ..; just how ..? E.Hec.515, Ph.1354, etc.; π. δὲ καὶ ..; A.Pers. 721, v. καί B.6; but καὶ π ... ; to introduce an objection, E.Ph.1348, v. καί A. 11.2: hence καὶ π.; alone, but how? impossible! Pl.Alc.1.134c, Tht.163d, etc.

7. π. οὐ ..; how not so ..? i.e. surely it is so .., π. οὐ δεινὰ εἴργασθε; Th.3.66, cf. Ar.Nu.398, D.18.273.

8. π. οὖν ..; like π. ἄρα ..; A.Supp.297,340, S.OT568, etc.; π. ἂν οὖν .. with opt., A.Pers.243, E.IT98.

9. π. ποτε ..; how ever ..? S.OT 1210 (lyr.), Ph.687 (lyr.).

III. πῶς folld. by several of the abovenamed Particles is freq. used in elliptical sentences, as,

1. π. γάρ; inserted parenthet. in a negative sentence, for how is it possible? how can or could it be? hence in emphatic denial, κἀγὼ μὲν οὐκ ἔδρασα, τοῦτ' ἐπίσταμαι, οὐδ' αὖ σύ: π. γάρ; Id.El.911; οὐκ ἀπορῶν (π. γάρ;), ὅς γε .. D.18.312, cf. 21.217, Pl.Sph.263c, etc.; οὐδ' ἐπὶ τὴν ἑστίαν καταφυγών (π. γὰρ ἄν;), ὅστις .. Lys.1.27; π. γὰρ οὔ; how can it but be? i.e. it must be so, A.Ch.754, S.El.1307, Pl.Tht.160c, al.; π. γάρ; (sc. ἄλλως ἔχει) is so used in S.Aj.279.

2. π. δή; how so? A.Eu. 601, Ar.Nu.664, 673, etc.; π. δῆτα; Pl.Grg.469b; π. δαί; Ar.V. 1212.

3. π. δ' οὔ; like π. γὰρ οὔ; (v. supr. 1), Pl.Tht.153b, R. 457a; π. δ' οὐχί; S.OT1015, Ar.Pax 1027; parenthetically, S.OT 567; π. δ' οὐκ ἄν ..; A.Pr.759.

4. π. οὖν; how then? how next? E.Med.1376, Hipp.598, 1261, D.19.124; π. οὖν ἄν ..; X.Mem.1.2.64.

5. π. δοκεῖς; parenthet., in conversation, how think you? hence (losing all interrog. force),= λίαν, wonderfully, Ar.Pl.742, Nu.881, Ach.24; also π. οἴει σφόδρα Id.Ra.54; cf. δοκέω 1.2.

IV. π. in indirect questions for ὅπως, A.Eu.677, S.Tr.991 (anap.), Ar.Eq. 614, X.Mem.1.2.36, etc.; ἐθαύμαζον ἂν π ... ἔδεισαν IG12(3).174.28 (Cnidus, Epist.Aug.); ζητηθήσεται π. ὅτι καὶ τοῦτο ἀληθές ἐστι S.E. M.8.16.

V. in exclamations, ὦ π. πονηρόν ἐστιν ἀνθρώπου φύσις τὸ σύνολον Philem.2; π. παραχρῆμα ἐξηράνθη ..! Ev.Matt.21.20; π. δυσκόλως ..! Ev.Marc.10.23.