Previous: ἄρNext: ἆρα


ἄρᾰ, Ep. ῥά (which is enclitic and used after monosyllables, ἦ, ὅς, γάρ, etc., or words ending in a vowel or diphthong, e.g. ἐπεί), before a consonant ἄρ (perh. cf. Lith. i 'and'): expressing consequence, then, or mere succession, there and then, and in many derived uses.

A. EARLIER USAGE: to denote,

I. immediate transition, there and then, straightway, ὣς φάτο βῆ δ' ἄρ' Ὄνειρος Il.2.16: after a part., ὣς εἰπὼν κατ' ἄρ' ἕζετο 1.68, al.; πυθόμενος ..εἶπε ἄ. Hdt.4.134, cf. 9.9; ἐρωτώσης τῆς μητρὸς ἀπεκρίνατο ἄρα X.Cyr.1.3.2; with other Particles, δέ, ἦ, ὡς, etc., cf. ὁ δὲ Ἀστυάγης ἄ. εἶπεν ib.4.10: also after Advbs. of Time, τότε δή ῥα, τῆμος ἄρα, etc.; οὕτως ἄρα Pl.Phdr.259b; often in apodosi, as αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δὴ θηήσατο ..αὐτίκ' ἄρ' ἤλυθεν Od.5.77; repeated τὼ μὲν ἄρ' ..κεῖντο ἡ δ' ἄρ' ..ἀγόρευε Il.21.426: in enumerations, e. g. in Homer's catalogue, then, next, οἱ δ' ἄρ' Ἀθήνας εἶχον 2.546; so in genealogies, Σίσυφος ..ὁ δ' ἄ. Γλαῦκον τέκεθ' υἱόν 6.154.

2. to draw attention, mark you! τὸν τρεῖς μὲν ἐπιρρήσσεσκον ..τῶν ἄλλων Ἀχιλεὺς δ' ἄρ' ἐπιρρήσσεσκε καὶ οἶος 24.456; with imper., ἀλλ' ἄγε δὴ κατ' ἄρ' ἕζευ 24.522: to point a moral or general statement, φευγόντων δ' οὔτ' ἂρ κλέος ὄρνυται οὔτε τις ἀλκή 5.532.

II. connexion, such as,

1. that of antecedent and consequent, οἰνοχόει ..ἄσβεστος δ' ἄρ' ἐνῶρτο γέλως 1.599, cf. 24.507; τοὔνεκ' ἄρ' ἄλγε' ἔδωκε 1.96; freq. with οὕνεκα in protasi, 7.140, al.: also in questions, τίς τ' ἄρ τῶν ὄχ' ἄριστος ἔην; who then (say you) was ..? 2.761: with demonstr. Pronoun in recapitulation, ἀλλ' υἱὸν Πριάμοιο ..τόν ῥ' Ὀδυσεὺς βάλε he it was, whom .., 4.501: freq. in such phrases as ὣς ἄρα φωνήσας 2.35, al.; ὣς ἄρ' ἔφη 1.584, al.; ἦ ῥα 3.355, al., thus, then he spoke.—
This usage is universal in Greek.

2. explanation of that which precedes, χωόμενον κατὰ θυμὸν ἐϋζώνοιο γυναικὸς τήν ῥα ..ἀπηύρων whom (and for this cause he was angry) they had taken away, 1.429; εἰ μὴ ὑπερφίαλον ἔπος ἔκβαλε ..φῆ ῥ' ἀέκητι θεῶν φυγέειν for he said, Od.4.504: freq. with οὕνεκα; so with relatives, ἐκ δ' ἔθορε κλῆρος ὃν ἄρ' ἤθελον αὐτοί the very one which .., Il.7.182.

B. LATER USAGE, always with inferential force: 1. in drawing conclusions (more subjective than οὖν), ἄριστον ἄ. ἡ εὐδαιμονία Arist.EN1099a24; δῆλον ἄ. Id.Pol.1295b33; in pseudo-syllogistic conclusions, Id.SE174b11, Rh.1401a3, al.: esp. by way of informal inference, as it seems, οὐκ ἄ. σοί γε πατὴρ ἦν Πηλεύς Il.16.33; οὐδ' ἄ. πως ἦν ἐν πάντεσσ' ἔργοισι δαήμονα φῶτα γενέσθαι 23.670; μάτην ἄρ', ὡς ἔοικεν, ἥκομεν S.El.772; οὕτω κοινόν τι ἄ. χαρᾷ καὶ λύπῃ δάκρυά ἐστιν so true is it that .., X.HG7.1.32; πολὺ γὰρ ἀμείνων ἄ. ὁ τοῦ ἀδίκου ἢ ὁ τοῦ δικαίου βίος Pl.R.358c; ἦν ἄ. πυρός γ' ἕτερα ..θερμότερα Ar.Eq. 382; ὦ τλῆμον ἀρετή, λόγος ἄρ' ἦσθα Trag.Adesp.374; so in announcing the discovery or correction of an error, as οὐκ ἐννενοήκαμεν ὅτι εἰσὶν ἄ. ..Pl.R.375d; φαίνεται πρὸ ποδῶν ἡμῖν κυλινδεῖσθαι καὶ οὐχ ἑωρῶμεν ἄρ' αὐτό ib.432d; εἰκότως ἄ. οὐκ ἐγίγνετο: ὡς γὰρ ἐγὼ νῦν πυνθάνομαι..X.An.2.2.3.

2. in questions, expressing the anxiety of the questioner, τίς ἄ. ῥύσεται; who is there to save ? A.Th.92; so in exclamations to heighten the expression of emotion, οἵαν ἄρ' ἥβην ..ἀπώλεσεν what a band of youth was that ..! Id.Pers.733; so ὡς ἄρα ib.472, S.Fr.577; τί μ' ἄ. τί μ' ὀλέκεις; Id.Ant.1285; τί οὖν ..ἄ. X.Oec.6.2; πῶς ἄ.; οὕτως ἄ., etc.; ἄ. alone, ἔζης ἄ. S.Fr.686: esp. in ironical comments, Ar.Av.476, 1371, etc.

3. epexegetic, namely, ἐρῶ, ὡς ἄ. ..Pl.Tht.152d, cf. 156e.

4. for τοι ἄρα, τἄρα, v. sub τοι 11.2.

5. εἰ (or ἐάν) μὴ ἄ. unless perhaps, Pl.Ap.38b, D.58.4; separated from εἰ μή, Id.9.20; with irony, εἰ μὴ ἄ. ἡ τῆς ἀρετῆς ἐπιμέλεια διαφθορά ἐστιν X.Mem.1.2.8.

6. in hypothetical clauses, to indicate the improbability of the supposition, ἢν ἄ. ποτὲ κατὰ γῆν βιασθῶσιν Th.1.93, etc.; or simply, perhaps (sts. separated from εἰ), εἴ τις οὖν ὑμῶν ἄ... ὑπελάμβανεν D.21.8; εἴ τις ἰδίᾳ τινὰ δεδιὼς ἄ. ἀπρόθυμός ἐστιν Th.4.86.

C. IN CRASIS, freq. τἄρα, μεντἄρα, οὐτἄρα: also δήξομἄρα for δήξομαι ἄ., Ar.Ach.325; οἰμώξετἄρα, κλαύσἄρα, Id.Th.248, Pax 532: also in Trag., E.Hyps.Fr.34.86.

D. ἄρα never stands first in the sentence in Classical Greek (Arist.Mech.851a22 is corrupt), but is found at the beginning of an apodosis in Ev.Matt.12.28, Ep.Rom.10.17, and first in a sentence, Ev.Luc.11.48, Vett.Val.305.20; in conclusion of syllogism, Herm. ap.Stob.3.11.31.