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ἀντί, Prep. governing gen.:—
orig. sense, over against. (Cf. Skt. a/nti 'opposite', 'facing', Lat. ante, etc.)

A. USAGE:

I. of Place, opposite, over against, formerly quoted from several places of Hom., as Il.21.481 ἀντὶ ἐμεῖο (where now ἀντί' ἐμεῖο, i.e. ἀντία) Τρώων ἄνθ' ἑκατόν (i.e. ἄντα) 8.233; so ἄντ' Αἴαντος (i.e. ἄντα) 15.415, cf. Od.4.115, Hes.Op.727; but ἀντί is so used in X.An.4.7.6, IG2.835c-l68; αἱ ὀπαὶ αἱ γιγνόμεναι ἀ. τόρμων mortises facing tenons, Hero Bel.97.5; ἀντὶ μαιτύρων in the presence of witnesses, Leg.Gort.1.40; ἀντὶ τῆς ὄψεως ἡμῶν Eudox.Ars18.

II. of Time, ἀντὶ νυκτός the same night, SIG1025.43 (Cos); ἀντὶ fέτεος GDI2561 A45 (Delph.); ἀντ' ἐνιαυτοῦ IG5(2).266.8 (Mantinea, i B.C.); ἀνθ' ἡμέρας: δι' ὅλης τῆς ἡμέρας, Hsch.; cf. ἀντετοῦς.

III. instead, in the place of, Ἕκτορος ἀντὶ πεφάσθαι Il.24.254; ἀντὶ γάμοιο τάφον Od.20.307; so later πολέμιος ἀντὶ φίλου καταστῆναι Hdt.1.87; ἀντὶ ἡμέρης νὺξ ἐγένετο Id.7.37; ἀντὶ φωτῶν σποδός A.Ag.434; τὸν πόλεμον ἀντ' εἰρήνης μεταλαμβάνειν Th.1.120, cf. 4.20, 7.75; βασιλεύειν ἀντί τινος X.An.1.1.4; also ἀντὶ ἄρχεσθαι ὑπ' ἄλλων ἄρχειν ἁπάντων Hdt.1.210, cf.6.32, 7.170 (where the usual constr. would be ἀντὶ τοῦ ἄρχεσθαι, cf. Th.7.28, X.Cyr.6.2.19, etc.); ὀργίλοι ἀντὶ θυμοειδοῦς γεγένηνται Pl.R.411c: sts. used elliptically, ἦ 'τολμήσατ' ἀντ' ἐμοῦ δοῦναί τινι; i.e. ἀντὶ τοῦ ἐμοὶ δοῦναι, S.Ph.369, cf. OC448, Ar.Av.58.

2. in Hom. often to denote equivalence, ἀντί νυ πολλῶν λαῶν ἐστιν ἀνήρ he is as good as many men, Il.9.116; ἀντὶ κασιγνήτου ξεῖνος ..τέτυκται a guest is as much as a brother, Od.8.546; ἀντί τοί εἰμ' ἱκέταο I am as a suppliant, Il.21.75, cf. 8.163; so later τοῦτό σφι ἀντὶ λουτροῦ ἐστί serves as a bath, Hdt.4.75; ὑπάρχειν ἀντὶ τῶν ἔνδον to be as hostages for .., Th.2.5; δουλεύειν ἀντὶ ἀργυρωνήτων just like bought slaves, D.17.3; ἀντὶ [πλεύμονος] βράγχια Arist. PA669a4.

3. to denote exchange, at the price of, in return for, σοὶ δὲ θεοὶ τῶνδ' ἀντὶ χάριν ..δοῖεν Il.23.650; νῆσον ἀντὶ χρημάτων παρέλαβον for money paid, Hdt.3.59; ἀντ' ἀργυρίου ἀλλάξασθαι Pl.R. 371d; ἀμείβειν τι ἀντί τινος Pi.P.4.17, cf. E.Or.646,651; ἀντὶ ποίας εὐεργεσίας; Lys.6.40, etc.; τί δ' ἐστὶν ἀνθ' οὗ ..; S.Ant.237; ὄνειδος ἀνθ' ὅτου Id.OC967; δοίην ἀντ' ἀνιῶν ἀνίας grief for grief, Thgn.344; ἀντ' ἀγαθῶν ἀγαθοῖσι βρύοις A.Supp.966:—
hence ἀνθ' ὧν wherefore, A.Pr.31, S.OT264, Th.6.83, Ev.Luc.12.3; ἀντὶ τούτου therefore, Ep.Eph.5.31; but ἀνθ' ὧν also for ἀντὶ τούτων ὄτι .., because, S.Ant. 1068, Ar.Pl.434; ἀντὶ τοῦ; wherefore? why? S.OT1021; also ἀνθ' ὧν ὅτι ἦτε .. instead of being as you were .., LXX De.28.62.

4. for the sake of, Pl.Mx.237a, Arist.EN1110a21; with Verbs of entreaty, like πρός c. gen., ἀντὶ παίδων ἱκετεύομέν σε S.OC1326.

5. to mark comparison, ἓν ἀνθ' ἑνός one set against the other, compared with it, Pl.R.331b, Lg.705b; χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος, i.e. ever-increasing grace, Ev.Jo.1.16; in preference to, ἀφνεὸν βούλεται ἀντ' ἀγαθοῦ Thgn.188; ἀντὶ αὐλοῦ καὶ ἀντὶ κιθάρας ὁ ἦχος ἀκούεται Demetr.Eloc. 71; αἱρεῖσθαί τι ἀντί τινος Isoc.9.3, D.1.1, cf. X.Lac.9.1: even after Comparatives, πλέον ἀντὶ σοῦ S.Tr.577; μείζον' ὅστις ἀντὶ τῆς αὑτοῦ πάτρας φίλον νομίζει Id.Ant.182; so (esp. after a neg.) ἄλλος ἀντ' ἐμοῦ A.Pr.467, S.Aj.444, Ar.Nu.653; δόξαν ἀντὶ τοῦ ζῆν ἠγαπηκώς Plu.Alex.42.

B. POSITION: ἀντί rarely follows its case, as in Il.23.650, A. Ag.1277, Ig5(1).1119 (Geronthrae, iv B.C.), AP7.715 (Leon.); but the Gramm. hold that it never suffers anastrophe.

C. IN COMPOS. it signifies,

1. over against, opposite, as ἀντιβαίνω, ἀντίπορος.

2. against, in opposition to, as ἀντιλέγω, ἀντίβιος.

3. one against another, mutually, as ἀντιδεξιόομαι.

4. in return, as ἀντιβοηθέω.

5. instead of, as ἀντιβασιλεύς, ἀνθύπατος.

6. equal to, like, as ἀντίθεος, ἀντίπαις, ἀντίδουλος.

7. corresponding, counter, as ἀντίφορτος, ἀντίτυπος.