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ἀρετή [ᾰ], ἡ, goodness, excellence, of any kind, in Hom. esp. of manly qualities, ποδῶν ἀρετὴν ἀναφαίνων Il.20.411; ἀμείνων παντοίας ἀρετὰς ἠμὲν πόδας ἠδὲ μάχεσθαι καὶ νόον 15.642; so of the gods, τῶν περ καὶ μείζων ἀ. τιμή τε βίη τε 9.498; also of women, Od.2.206; ἀ. εἵνεκα for valour, Hdt.8.92: pl., ἀ. ἀπεδείκνυντο displayed brave deeds, Id.1.176, 9.40.

b. later, of the gods, chiefly in pl., glorious deeds, wonders, miracles, SIG1172, Str.17.1.17; ζῶσαι ἀ. IG14.966, cf. 1 Ep.Pet.2.9: also in sg., ὄψιν ἰδοῦσα ἀρετὴν τῆς θεοῦ IG2.1426b, cf. Isyll. 62, BSA21.169,180.

2. generally, excellence, ἡ ἀ. τελείωσίς τις Arist. Metaph.1021b20, cf.EN1106a15, etc.; of persons, ἄνδρα πὺξ ἀρετὰν εὑρόντα Pi.O.7.89, cf. P.4.187, B.9.13, etc.; τὸ φρονεῖν ἀ. μεγίστη Heraclit. 112: in pl., forms of excellence, μυρίαι ἀνδρῶν ἀ. B.13.8, cf. Gorg. Fr.8, etc.; δικαστοῦ αὕτη ἀ. Pl.Ap.18a; esp. moral virtue, Democr. 179, 263, al., Gorg.Fr.6; opp. κακία, X.Mem.2.1.21, cf.Pl.R.500d, Lg. 963a, 963c sq., D.60.17, Arist.EN1102a6, Pol.1295a37, etc.; good nature, kindness, etc., E.Fr.163.

b. of animals, things, as land, Hdt.4.198, 7.5, Th.1.2; ἡ ἐν ἀρετῇ κειμένη γῆ productive land, PTeb.5.165 (ii B. C.); ἵππου Hdt.3.88; κυνῶν, ἵππων, Pl.R.335b; σκεύους ib.601d; [ἀστακοῦ] Archestr.Fr.24; ἀ. βίου Pl.R.618c; πολιτείας Lg.886b, etc.

3. prosperity, Od.13.45.

II. ἀ. εἴς τινα active merit, good service done him, ἐς τοὺς Ἕλληνας Th.3.58, cf. 2.40; ἀ. περί τινα X. An.1.4.8; ἀνταποδοῦναι ἀ. Th.4.19; ἀρετὰς παρασχέσθαι ὑπέρ τινος D.19.312; ἀρετῆς ἕνεκα, freq. in honorary Inscrr., IG22.107.14, etc.

III. reward of excellence, distinction, fame, πλούτῳ δ' ἀρετὴ καὶ κῦδος ὀπηδεῖ Hes.Op.313, cf. Sapph.80, Pi.N.5.53, al.; ἀθάνατος ἀ. S.Ph.1420, Pl.Smp.208d; ἃ ἆθλα τοῦ πολέμου τοῖς ἀνδράσιν ἐστίν, ἐλευθερία καὶ ἀ. Lycurg.49; of God, δόξα καὶ ἀ. 2 Ep.Pet.1.3: in pl., glories, Thgn.30, Pi.N.10.2, al.; πλοῦτος ἀρεταῖς δεδαιδαλμένος Id.O. 2.53; γενναίων ἀ. πόνων E.HF357 (lyr.), cf. Lys.2.26; προγόνων ἀ. Pl.R.618b; in LXX freq. of the praises of God, Is.42.8, al.

IV. Ἀρετή personified, Prodic.1, Arist.Fr.675, Callix.2, CIG2786, SIG 985.10, etc.

V. ἡ ἀ. σου as a title, Your worship, PLips.13 ii 20, etc.

VI. an engine of war, Ath.Mech.38.11.

VII. a plaster, Androm. ap. Gal.13.531.