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ἀριθμός [ᾰ], (ἁρ- IG1.164), ὁ, number, first in Od., λέκτο δ' ἀριθμόν 4.451; ἀριθμῷ παῦρα Semon.3; ἓν ἀριθμῷ Hdt.3.6; ἀριθμὸν ἕξ Id.1.14, cf. 50; ἐς τὸν ἀ. τρισχίλια Id.7.97; πλῆθος ἐς ἀ. the amount in point of number, ib.60; τὸν ἀ. δώδεκα Euphro11.11; δύο τινὲς ἢ τρεῖς ..εἰς τὸν ἀ. Men.165; ἔλαττον μήτε ὄγκῳ μήτε ἀριθμῷ Pl.Tht.155a; οὔτ' ἀριθμοῖς οὔτε μεγέθεσιν ἐλάττους Id.Lg.861e; σταθμῷ καὶ ἀ. X. Smp.4.45; δι' ἀ. καὶ μέτρου Plu.Per.16, cf. E.Tr.620: prov., λέγειν ποντιᾶν ψάφων ἀριθμόν 'count the pebbles on the shore', Pi.O.13.46, cf. 2.98; οὐ γιγνώσκων ψήφων ἀριθμούς, of a blockhead, Ephipp. 19; οὔτ' ἀριθμὸν οὔτ' ἔλεγχον ..ἔχων Dionys.Com.3.13.

2. amount, sum, πολὺς ἀ. χρόνου Aeschin.1.78; ἀ. τῆς ὁδοῦ X.An.2.2.6; ἀ. [χρυσίου] a sum of money, Id.Cyr.8.2.16.

3. ἀριθμῷ, abs., in certain numbers, Hdt.6.58; but δένδρα ἀριθμῷ ὑμέτερα by tale, Th.2.72; ἀ. διδόναι Dionys.Com.3.6.

4. item or term in a series, ὁ δεύτερος ἀ. E.Ion1014; τρίτον ὠδίνων ἀ. Epigr.Gr.574; ναῦς πολλοὺς ἀ. ἄγνυται ναυαγίων E.Hel.410, cf. Arist.Po.1461b24; τοὺς ἀ. τοῦ σώματος points of the body, Pl.Lg.668d; τοὺς ἀ. ἑκάστου τῶν νοσημάτων Hp.Acut. 3; τὸ καλὸν ἐκ πολλῶν ἀ. ἐπιτελεῖσθαι Plu.2.45c: hence as a mark of completeness, πάντας τοὺς ἀ. περιλαβών Isoc.11.16; τοῦ καθήκοντος τοὺς ἀριθμούς the sum total of duty, M.Ant.3.1.

5. number, account, as a mark of station, worth, rank, μετ' ἀνδρῶν ἵζει ἀριθμῷ takes his place among men, Od.11.449; εἰς ἀνδρῶν μὲν οὐ τελοῦσιν ἀ. E.Fr.492; εἰς ἀ. τῶν κακῶν πεφύκαμεν Id.Hec.1186; ξενίας ἀριθμῷ πρῶτ' ἔχειν ἐμῶν φίλων in regard of friendship, ib.794; δειλοὶ γὰρ ἄνδρες οὐκ ἔχουσιν ἐν μάχῃ ἀριθμόν have no account made of them, Id.Fr.519; οὐδ' εἰς ἀ. ἥκει λόγων she comes not into my account, Id.El.1054; ἀ. οὐδεὶς οὐδὲ λόγος ἐστί τινος Plu.2.682f, cf. Call.Epigr.27.6, Orac. ap. Sch.Theoc.14.48.

6. mere number, quantity, opp. quality, ταῦτ' οὐκ ἀ. ἐστιν, ὦ πάτερ, λόγων a mere set of words, S.OC382; of men, οὐκ ἀ. ἄλλως not a mere lot, E.Tr.476; ἀριθμός, πρόβατ' ἄλλως Ar. Nu.1203; sometimes even of a single man, οὐκ ἀριθμὸν ἀλλ' ἐτητύμως ἄνδρ' ὄντα not a mere unit, E.Heracl.997; also ἀριθμὸν πληροῦν to be a mere cipher, Chor.Milt.66.

II. numbering, counting, μάσσων ἀριθμοῦ past counting, Pi.N.2.23; esp. in phrases, ἀ. ποιεῖσθαι τῶν νεῶν to hold a muster of .., Hdt.8.7; ποιεῖν X.An.7.1.7, etc.; παρεῖναι εἰς τὸν ἀ. ib.II; εἴ τι δυνατὸν ἐς ἀ. ἐλθεῖν can be stated in numbers, Th.2.72.

III. the science of numbers, arithmetic, ἀριθμόν, ἔξοχον σοφισμάτων A.Pr.459; ἀριθμῶν καὶ μέτρων εὑρήματα S.Fr. 432; ἀ. καὶ λογισμὸν εὑρεῖν Pl.Phdr.274c, cf. R.522c: prov., εἴπερ γὰρ ἀριθμὸν οἶδα E.Fr.360.19.

IV. in Philos., abstract number, Arist.Cat.4b23, Metaph.990a19, al.; ἀ. μαθηματικός ib.1090b35; ἀ. οὐσιώδης, opp. τοῦ ποσοῦ, Plot.5.5.4; ἀ. ἑνιαῖος, οὐσιώδης, ἑτεροῖος, Dam.Pr.228.

V. Gramm., number, Stoic.3.214, D.T.634.16, A.D.Synt.32.2,al.; cf. ἑνικός, δυικός, πληθυντικός.

VI. numeral, ib.36.6, etc.; ὁ τέσσαρα ἀ. S.E.M.7.96; παιδὸς ἀ., = δεκάτη, E.El. 1132.

VII. unknown quantity (x), defined as πλῆθος μονάδων ἀορίστων, Dioph.Def.2.

VIII. Rhet., rhythm in Prose, in pl., D.H.Comp.23, Dem.52, cf. Arist.Rh.1408b29; but also ἀριθμοὶ τῶν ἀρχαίων ποιητᾶν SIG703.7 (Delph.).

IX. line of a book, Apollon. Cit.2.

X. sum of numerical values of letters in a name, Apoc.13.17,al.; φιλῶ ἧς ἀριθμὸς φμέ Pompeian Inscr. in Rend.Linc.10(1901).257.

XI. unit of troops, = Lat. numerus, CIG5187 (vi A. D.), BGU673 (vi A. D.), etc.; = legio, Jul.ad Ath.280d, Zos.5.26, PLond. 5.1711.69 (vi A. D.).

XII. Astrol., mostly in pl., degrees traversed in a given time, Ptol.Tetr.112, Doroth. in Cat.Cod.Astr.6.107.30; τοῖς ἰδίοις ἀ. at her normal speed, of the moon, Gal.19.531; also of degrees of latitude, Heph.Astr.2.8,3.1.

XIII. Medic., in pl., precise conditions, παρόντων τῶν πρὸς τὴν φλεβοτομίαν ἀριθμῶν Herod.Med.in Rh.Mus.58.71, cf. Aret.CA2.3, prob. in Herod.Med. ap. Aët.9.2; cf. supr.1.4. [ῐ E.El.1132, Ar.Nu.1203.] (ἀρῐ-θμός from root ἀρι-, cf. ἐπάριτος (q. v.), νήριτος.)