Previous: ἀρχέχοροςNext: ἀρχηγενής


ἀρχή, ἡ, (v. ἄρχω) beginning, origin, νείκεος ἀ. Il.22.116; πήματος Od.8.81; φόνου 21.4, etc.; opp. τέλος, Hdt.7.51, etc.; opp. τελευτή, Thgn.607, cf. Pl.Lg.715e, Hp.Morb.1.1; ἀ. γενέσθαι κακῶν Hdt.5.97; ἀ. ποιήσασθαί τινος Th.1.128, And.2.37, Isoc.12.120, etc.; ἀ. λαβεῖν τινός Aeschin.1.11; τὰς ἀρχὰς εἰληφέναι Plb.4.28.3; ἀρχὴν ὑποθέσθαι lay a foundation, D.3.2, etc.; βαλέσθαι Pl.Ep.326e (and Pass., ἀρχαὶ βέβληνται Pi.N.1.8); ἀρχὴν ἄρχεσθαί τινος Pl.Ti.36e; source of action, [ὁ ἄνθρωπος] ἔχει ἀρχὴν ἐλευθέραν Plot.3.3.4.

b. with Preps. in adverbial usages, ἐξ ἀρχῆς from the beginning, from the first, from of old, Od.1.188, Xenoph.10, etc.; οὑξ ἀ. φίλος S.OT385; ἡ ἐξ ἀ. ἔχθρα D.54.3; τὸ ἐξ ἀ. X.Cyn.12.6; but πλουτεῖν ἐξ ἀ. πάλιν anew, afresh, Ar.Pl.221; λόγον πάλιν ὥσπερ ἐξ ἀ. κινεῖν Pl.R.450a; ὁ ἐξ ἀ. λόγος the original argument, Id.Tht.177c, etc.; τὰ ἐξ ἀ. the principal sum, Arist.Pol.1280a30:—
also ἀπ' ἀ. Hes.Th.425, Hdt.2.104, Pi.P.8.25, A.Supp.344, Pl.Tht.206d; κατ' ἀρχάς in the beginning, at first, Hdt.3.153, 7.5; αὐτίκα κατ' ἀ. Id.8.94; τὸ κατ' ἀ. Pl. Lg.798a, al.

c. acc. ἀρχήν, abs., to begin with, at first, Hdt. 1.9, 2.28, 8.132; τὴν ἀρχήν And.3.20: pl., τὰς ἀρχάς Plb.16.22.8: freq. followed by a neg., not at all, ἀρχὴν μηδὲ λαβών Hdt.3.39, cf. 1.193, al.; ἀ. δὲ θηρᾶν οὐ πρέπει τἀμήχανα S.Ant.92; ἀ. κλύειν ἂν οὐκ ..ἐβουλόμην Id.Ph.1239, cf. El.439, Philol.3, Antipho5.73, Pl. Grg.478c; sts. c. Art., τοῦτο οὐκ ἐνδέκομαι τὴν ἀ. Hdt.4.25; τὴν ἀ. γὰρ ἐξῆν αὐτῷ μὴ γράφειν D.23.93.

2. first principle, element, first so used by Anaximander, acc. to Simp. in Ph.150.23, cf. Arist. Metaph.983b11, etc.; Ἡράκλειτος τὴν ἀ. εἶναί φησι ψυχήν Id.de An.405a25; of ὕλη and θεός, opp. στοιχεῖα, Placit.1.3.25; practical principle of conduct, τῶν πράξεων τὰς ἀρχὰς καὶ τὰς ὑποθέσεις D. 2.10; principles of knowledge, Arist.Metaph.995b8, al.

3. end, corner, of a bandage, rope, sheet, etc., Hdt.4.60, Hp.Off.9, E.Hipp. 762, Aen.Tact.18.14, Act.Ap.10.11; of a compound pulley, Hero Bel.84.14.

4. Math., origin of a curve, τῆς ἕλικος Archim.Spir. 11 Def.2, etc.; ξυνὸν ἀ. καὶ πέρας ἐπὶ κύκλου περιφερείας Heraclit. 103.

5. branch of a river, LXX Ge.2.10 (pl.).

6. sum, total, ib.Nu.1.2.

7. vital organs of the body, Gal.1.318, al.

II. first place or power, sovereignty (not in Hom.), Διὸς ἀρχά Pi.O.2.64, cf. Hdt.1.6, etc.; γενέσθαι ἐπ' ἀρχῆς Arist.Pol.1284b2: metaph., μεγάλην μεντἂν ἀ. εἴης εὑρηκώς, of a stroke of fortune, D.21.196: pl., ἀρχαὶ πολισσονόμοι A.Ch.864 (lyr.); τὰς ἐμὰς ἀρχὰς σέβων S.Ant.744, etc.: c. gen. rei, τῆσδ' ἔχων ἀρχὴν χθονός S.OT737; ἀ. τῶν νεῶν, τῆς θαλάσσης, power over them, Th.3.90, X.Ath.2.7, etc.: prov., ἀ. ἄνδρα δείξει Biasap.Arist.EN1130a1, cf. D.Prooem.48; method of government, οὐδὲ τὴν ἄλλην ἀ. ἐπαχθής Th.6.54.

2. empire, realm, Κύρου, Περδίκκου ἀ., Hdt.1.91, Th.4.128, etc.

3. magistracy, office, ἀρχὴν ἄρχειν, παραλαμβάνειν, Hdt.3.80, 4.147; καταστήσας τὰς ἀ. καὶ ἄρχοντας ἐπιστήσας Id.3.89; εἰς ἀ. καθ�;στασθαι Th.8.70; εἰς τὴν α�;. εἰσιέναι D.59.72, etc.; ἀ. λαχεῖν to obtain an office, Id.57.25; Ἑλληνοταμίαι τότε πρῶτον κατέστη ἀ. Th.1.96; ἐνιαύσιος ἀ. Id.6.54; ἀ. χειροτονητή, κληρωτή, Lex ap.Aeschin.1.21; withsg. Noun, Κυθηροδίκης ἀ. ἐκ τῆς Σπάρτης διέβαινεν αὐτόσε Th.4.53; term of office, ἀρχῆς λοιποὶ αὐτῷ δύο μῆνες Antipho6.42; ἀρχαὶ καὶ λειτουργίαι POxy.119.16 (iii A.D.).

4. in pl., αἱ ἀρχαί the authorities, the magistrates, Th.5.47, cf. Decr. ap. And.1.83; ἐν ταῖς ἀ. ε�;ναι Th.6.54; ἡ ἀρχή collectively, 'the board', D.47.22, cf. IG1.229, etc.; παραδιδόναι τινὰ τῇ ἀ. Antipho5.48; but ἡ ἀ., of a single magistrate, PHal.1.226 (iii B.C.); κατ' ἀρχῆς γὰρ φιλαίτιος λεώς against authority, A.Supp.485; πομποὺς ἀρχάς Id.Ag.124 (anap.).

5. command, i.e. body of troops, LXX 1 Ki.13.17, al.

6. pl., heavenly powers, Ep.Rom.8.38, al., cf. Dam. Pr.96; powers of evil, Ep.Eph.6.12, al.

III. = εἶδος μελίσσης ἀκέντρου, Hsch.