Previous: antariusNext: antea


antĕ (old form anti, whence antidea, antideo, antidhac; v. antea, anteeo, and antehac) [Gr. ἀντί, over against, facing, ἄντα, ἄντην; Sanscr. anti = over against; Germ. ant- in Ant-wort = Goth. anda-vaurdi, an answer, anda-nahti, the night before], prep. and adv. (acc. to Max. Victor. p. 1953, as prep. with the grave accent; as adv. with the acute on the last syl.).

I. Prep. with acc., before (syn.: prae, pro).

A. In space, or trop. in regard to estimation, judgment, or rank (usu. only of objects at rest. while prae is used of those in motion; cf. Herz. ad Caes. B. G. 1, 21; v. exceptions infra).

1. In space: quem ante aedīs video, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 136: ante ostium Me audivit stare, Ter. And. 3, 1, 16; so Vulg. Lev. 1, 5: Ornatas paulo ante fores, Juv. 6, 227; so Vulg. Num. 3, 26: ante meum limen, Juv. 11, 190: ante suum fundum, Cic. Mil. 10: ut ante suos hortulos postridie piscarentur, id. Off. 3, 14, 58: ante sepulcrales infelix adstitit aras, Ov. M. 8, 480; so Verg. A. 1, 344; 3, 545; Juv. 10, 268: ante altaria, id. 8, 155; so Vulg. Deut. 26, 4; ib. Matt. 5, 24. —Of persons: ante hosce deos erant arulae, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 3: quīs ante ora patrum contigit oppetere, Verg. A. 1, 95; id. G. 4, 477: ipsius unam (navem) ante oculos pontus in puppim ferit, id. A. 1, 114; 2, 531; 2, 773: ante se statuit funditores, Liv. 42, 58: Flos Asiae ante ipsum, Juv. 5, 56; Vulg. Matt. 17, 2: si luditur alea pernox Ante Numantinos, Juv. 8, 11.—Trop.: ante oculos collocata, Cic. de Or. 1, 43, 192: ante oculos errat domus, Ov. Tr. 3, 4, 57: causam ante eum diceret, before him as judge, Cic. Verr. 1, 3, 9: donec stet ante judicium, Vulg. Josh. 20, 6; ib. Marc. 13, 9.—And in eccl. Lat., after the Heb. and Hel. Gr., before, in the sight of, in the judgment of: ante Dominum vilior fiam, Vulg. 2 Reg. 6, 21 sq.: non te justifices ante Deum, ib. Eccli. 7, 5: justi ambo ante Deum, ib. Luc. 1, 6; and fully: fecit Asa rectum ante conspectum Domini, ib. 3 Reg. 15, 11; ib. Apoc. 12, 10.—Hence, homines ante pedes (in later Lat.), servants; cf. the annotators upon Juv. 7, 143.—With verbs of motion: ante me ito, Plaut. As. 3, 3, 70: equitatum omnem ante se mittit, Caes. B. G. 1, 21: ante ceteras cohortes extra aciem procurrere, id. B. C. 1, 55: praecurrit ante omnes, id. ib. 2, 34; so Nep. Dat. 3, 2; Liv. 7, 41; 45, 40 al.; Vulg. Lev. 27, 11; ib. 1 Reg. 12, 2.—

2. Trop. of preference in judgment, or regulations in respect to rank, before (this is properly the signification of prae, q. v.; hence more rare than that, and never used by Cic.): quem ante me diligo, before myself, more than myself, Balbus ap. Cic. Att. 8, 15.—So ante aliquem esse, to surpass, excel any one: facundiā Graecos, gloriā belli Gallos ante Romanos fuisse, Sall. C. 53, 3, ubi v. Corte and Kritz: tum me vero et ante Alexandrum et ante Pyrrhum et ante omnes alios imperatores esse, superior to, Liv. 35, 14: necessitas ante rationem est, necessity knows no law, Curt. 7, 7, 10.—Hence very freq. (but mostly poet. and post-class.),

a. Ante alios, ante omnes, ante ceteros, etc., before others, before all, etc., to designate a comparative relation; also sometimes, for the sake of emphasis, with comparatives and superlatives: tibi, Neptune, ante alios deos gratias ago, Plaut. Trin. 4, 1, 5; so Ov. M. 10, 120: scito illum ante omnīs minumi mortalem preti, Plaut. As. 5, 2, 8: tua ante omnes experientia, Tac. A. 2, 76; 1, 27; Liv. 1, 9: Junoni ante omnīs candentis vaccae media inter cornua (pateram) fundit, Verg. A. 4, 59: Ipse est ante omnes, Vulg. Col. 1, 17: O felix una ante alias Priameïa virgo, Verg. A. 3, 321: ante omnes furor est insignis equarum, id. G. 3, 266: scelere ante alios immanior omnīs, id. A. 1, 347; Liv. 5, 42: ante alios pulcherrimus omnīs Turnus, Verg. A. 7, 55; so Nep. Att. 3, 3; Liv. 1, 15; cf. Rudd. II. p. 82; II. p. 101; II. p. 305.—

b. Ante omnia.

(a). Before all things, first of all: alvus ante omnia ducitur, Cels. 7, 30: oportet autem ante omnia os nudare, id. 8, 2: Ante omnia instituit, ut etc., Suet. Ner. 32; id. Calig. 21: Ante omnia autem, fratres, etc., Vulg. Jac. 5, 12; ib. 1 Petr. 4, 8.—

(b). Comparatively, above all, especially, chiefty: publica maestitia eo ante omnia insignis, quia matronae annum, ut parentem, eum luxerunt, Liv. 2, 7; 7, 4: quae natura multis et ante omnia ursis, Plin. 8, 35, 53, 125: dulces ante omnia Musae, the Muses pleasing above all things, Verg. G. 2, 475; id. E. 2, 72: deformem et taetrum ante omnia vultum, Juv. 10, 191.—

(g). In entering upon the discussion of several particulars, or in adducing arguments, first of all, in the first place (similar to ac primum quidem, καὶ πρῶτον μὲν οὖν; cf. Spald. ad Quint. 4, 2, 4): ante omnia quid sit rhetorice, Quint. 2, 15, 1: ante omnia igitur imitatio per se ipsa non sufficit, id. 10, 2, 4; so id. 1, 2, 9; 4, 2, 40; 4, 2, 52; 5, 13, 6; 9, 1, 23.—

B. Of time.

1. Before: ANTE MERIDIEM CAVSAM CONICITO, Fragm. XII. Tab. ap. Auct. ad Her. 2, 13; cf. Dirks. Transl. 177 sq.: ante lucem a portu me praemisisti domum, Plaut. Am. 2, 1, 55; so Cic. de Or. 2, 64, 259; id. Inv. 2, 4, 15; Suet. Galb. 22; Vulg. Luc. 24, 22: ante diem caupo sciet, Juv. 9, 108: ante brumam, Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 28: ante noctem, Hor. S. 1, 4, 51: pereundum erit ante lucernas, Juv. 10, 339: ante haec omnia, Vulg. Luc. 21, 12.— The designation of time is often expressed paraphrastically.

a. By a person who lived at the time: jam ante Socratem, before the time of, Cic. Ac. 1, 12, 44: qui honos togato habitus ante me est nemini, before me, before my time, id. Cat. 4, 3: ante Jovem nulli subigebant arva coloni, Verg. G. 1, 125: vixere fortes ante Agamemnona Multi, Hor. C. 4, 9, 25: ante Helenam, id. S. 1, 3, 107: ante se, Tac. H. 1, 50: quod ante eum nemo, Suet. Caes. 26 al.

b. By other objects pertaining to a particular time: ante hoc factum, Plaut. Mil. 4, 8, 64: ante has meas litteras, i. e. before the receipt of this letter, Cic. Fam. 13, 17: per hunc castissimum ante regiam injuriam sanguinem juro, Liv. 1, 59: ante mare et terras, et quod tegit omnia, caelum, Ov. M. 1, 5: ante sidus fervidum, Hor. Epod. 1, 27: ante cibum, id. S. 1, 10, 61, and Juv. 6, 428: Hoc discunt omnes ante alpha et beta, before their A B C, id. 14, 209: cur ante tubam tremor occupat artus? Verg. A. 11, 424: Tecum prius ergo voluta Haec ante tubas, Juv. 1, 169.—Also by the designation of the office of a person: ante aedilitatem meam, Cic. Att. 12, 17: ante sceptrum Dictaei regis, Verg. G. 2, 536: ante imperium ducis, Flor. 4, 2, 66: relictis multis filiis et in regno et ante regnum susceptis, Just. 2, 10.—And by the designation of office in app. to the person: mortuus est ante istum praetorem, Cic. Verr. 1, 45, 115: docuerant fabulas ante hos consules, id. Brut. 18, 73: cum ante illum imperatorem clipeis uterentur, Nep. Iphicr. 1, 3: quos ante se imperatorem nemo ausus sit aspicere, id. Epam. 8, 3.—A part. perf. or fut. pass. is freq. added to such substantives for the sake of explanation: ante hanc urbem conditam, before the founding of this city, Cic. Tusc. 5, 3, 7 (opp. post urbem conditam): non multo ante urbem captam, id. Div. 1, 45: ante Epaminondam natum, Nep. Epam. 10, 4: ante te cognitum multis orantibus opem tuli, Sall. J. 110, 2: ante decemviros creatos, Liv. 3, 53 al.

2. Hence particular phrases.

a. Ante tempus,

(a). Before the right time: ante tempus excitatis suis, Liv. 31, 36.—

(b). Before the appointed, proper, or lawful time: factus est consul bis, primum ante tempus, Cic. Lael. 3: honores et ante tempus et quosdam novi generis cepit, Suet. Aug. 26: venisti ante tempus torquere nos? Vulg. Matt. 8, 29 (cf. annus, II. D.).—

b. Ante diem, poet.,

(a). Before the time: Caesaribus virtus contigit ante diem, Ov. A. A. 1, 184: ante diem vultu gressuque superbo Vicerat aequales, Stat. S. 2, 1, 108.—

(b). Before the time destined by fate: filius ante diem patrios inquirit in annos, Ov. M. 1, 148: hic dolor ante diem Pandiona misit ad umbras, id. ib. 6, 675; id. A. A. 3, 739: sed misera ante diem subitoque accensa furore, etc., Verg. A. 4, 697 (cf. Soph. Antig. 461: εἰ δὲ τοῦ χρόνου πρόσθεν θανοῦμαι). —

c. Ante hunc diem, with a negative: istunc hominem numquam audivi ante hunc diem, never before this day, never until now, Plaut. Ep. 3, 4, 60; 4, 2, 7: neque umquam ante hunc diem, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 19; 5, 4, 23: Novum crimen et ante hunc diem inauditum ad te Q. Tubero detulit, Cic. Lig. 1, 1 (cf. Plaut. Trin. 5, 2, 17: neque eum ante usquam conspexi prius). —

3. Ante diem (abbrev. a. d.) with an ordinal number gives the date, not of the foregoing, but of the present day; e. g. ante diem quintum (a. d. V.) Kalendas Apriles, the fifth day before the calends of April. Orig. the ante belonged to Kalendas, and they said either, ante die quinto Kalendas (i. e. die quinto ante Kalendas), or ante diem quintum Kalendas; the latter phraseology became the prevailing one, and ante diem, being considered as one word, the prepp. in and ex could be prefixed; cf. Manut. ad Cic. Fam. 3, 12; Duker ad Liv. 27, 23; Rudd. II. p. 291; Madv. Gr. Suppl. I.; Drak. ad Liv. 45, 2, 12: me ante diem XIII. Kalendas Januarias principem revocandae libertatis fuisse, the thirteenth before the calends of January, i. e. the 20th of Dec., Cic. Phil. 14, 7, 20: ante diem XII. Kalendas Novembres, the 21st of Oct.: ante diem VI. Kalendas Novembres, the 27th of Oct., id. Cat. 1, 3: ante diem VIII. Kalendas Decembres, the 24th of Nov., id. Phil. 3, 8: a. d. IV. Id. Mart. (ante diem quartum Idus Martias), i. e. the 12th of March, Liv. 40, 59: ante diem III. Non. Jan. M. Cicero natus est, i. e. on the 3d of Jan., Gell. 15, 28 al.: in ante diem quartum Kal. Dec. distulit, Cic. Phil. 3, 8: caedem te optimatium contulisse in ante diem V. Kal. Nov., to the 28th of Oct., id. Cat. 1, 3: ex ante diem VII. Id. Febr., Varr. R. R. 1, 28, 1: nuntii venerant ex ante diem Non. Jun. usque ad prid. Kal. Sept., from the 3d of June, Cic. Att. 3, 17: supplicatio indicta est ante diem V. Id. Oct. cum eo die in quinque dies, Liv. 45, 2, 12.—

4. Sometimes to designate the whole time until the passing moment: ante id tempus et mari et terrā duces erant Lace daemonii, Nep. Arist. 2, 3: qui honos huic uni ante id tempus contigit, id. Timoth. 2, 3: invictus ante eam diem fuerat, Curt. 5, 3, 22.—

5. Ante annos, before the destined time: Ante suos annos occidit, Ov. Am. 2, 2, 46: Ante annos animumque gerens curamque virilem, beyond his years, Verg. A. 9, 311 (cf.: suos annos praeterire, Sil. 4, 428; and: annos transcendere factis, id. 2, 348). —

6. Ante hoc, for antea, antehac, belongs to the later Latin: ante hoc incognita, Luc. 6, 116: ante hoc domūs pars videntur, Tac. G. 13.

II. Adv., of space and time (the latter most freq.).

A. Of space, before, in front, forwards: post me erat Aegina, ante Megara, Sulp. ap. Cic. Fam. 4, 5, 9: fluvius ab tergo, ante circaque velut ripa praeceps oram ejus omnem cingebat, Liv. 27, 18; 22, 5: coronatus stabit et ante calix, Tib. 2, 5, 98: plena oculis et ante et retro, Vulg. Apoc. 4, 6.—Of motion (cf. supra, I. A. 1.): si aut manibus ingrediatur quis aut non ante, sed retro, Cic. Fin. 5, 12, 35: pallida Tisiphone morbos agit ante metumque, Verg. G. 3, 552.—

B. 1.. Of time, before, previously (always in reference to another past time, while ante as prep. is used in reference to the present).

a. With verbs: nonne oportuit Praescīsse me ante, Ter. And. 1, 5, 4: id te oro, ut ante eamus, id. ib. 3, 3, 24; very freq. in Cic.: quod utinam illi ante accidisset, Cic. Phil. 11, 14: quae ante acta sunt, id. Verr. 1, 109: sicut ante fecimus, Vulg. Jos. 8, 5; ib. Jud. 16, 20: fructus omnis ante actae vitae, Cic. Marcell. 3; so Ov. M. 12, 115, and Tac. A. 6, 16: apud vos ante feci mentionem, Cic. Agr. 3, 4: faciam hoc non novum, sed ab eis ante factum, id. Verr. 1, 55; Verg. E. 9, 63; Juv. 3, 243; 15, 320: illud de quo ante dixi, Cic. Sex. Rosc. 116: quos ante dixi, id. Off. 2, 14, 50: ut ante dixi, id. Imp. Pomp. 16; id. Mil. 45: quem ad modum ante dixi, id. Sex. Rosc. 91: additis, quae ante deliquerant, Tac. A. 6, 9: filium ante sublatum brevi amisit, id. Agr. 6; id. G. 10; id. A. 11, 7; id. H. 2, 43.—And often accomp. by jam: acceperam jam ante Caesaris litteras, ut etc., Cic. Phil. 2, 49; id. Marcell. 12; id. Verr. 2, 23.—Rarely accomp. by saepe.: ut saepe ante fecerant, Cic. Balb. 40; id. Rab. Post. 13.—

b. Rarely with adjj.: non filius ante pudicus, Juv. 3, 111: quos acciverat, incertum, experiens an et ante gnavos, Tac. A. 14, 7.—

c. Often with substt. in the abl. or acc. for a more accurate designation of time (cf. also abhinc with the abl. and acc.; in these cases ante was considered by the ancient critics as a prep., which could also govern the abl.; cf. Charis. p. 209 P.; Serv. ad Verg. E. 1, 30. The position of ante is sometimes before and sometimes after the subst., and sometimes between the numeral and the subst.): illos septem et multis ante saeculis Lycurgum accepimus fuisse sapientes, Cic. Tusc. 5, 3, 7: etsi perpaucis ante diebus (i. e. before the departure of Theophilus, of whom mention is afterwards made) dederam Q. Mucio litteras ad te, id. Fam. 4, 9: paucis diebus ante, id. Phil. 2, 40: viginti annis ante, id. Lael. 12, 42: voverat eam annis undecim ante, Liv. 40, 52, 4 (cf. id. 40, 51: quae bello Ligustico ante annis octo vovisset): optimum erit ante annum scrobes facere, a year before, Col. 4, 2; Plin. Ep. 8, 23, 7: Tyron urbem ante annum Trojanae cladis condiderunt, a year before the fall of Troy, Just. 18, 3, 5: ante quadriennium amissus es, four years previously, Tac. Agr. 45: aliquot ante annos, Suet. Caes. 12; v. id. ib. 81 al.—

d. With the advv. multo, paulo, aliquanto, tanto, quanto, and rarely permultum: multo ante prospexi tempestatem futuram, Cic. Fam. 4, 3, 3: haud multo ante adventum, Tac. Agr. 18.—And in the order ante multo: ante multo a te didicerimus, Cic. Sen. 2, 6: Venisti paulo ante in senatum, id. Cat. 1, 7, 16; id. Marcell. 7; id. Mil. 7; Tac. G. 41; id. H. 3, 68; Suet. Caes. 21; Vulg. Sap. 15, 8; ib. 2 Macc. 3, 30; 6, 29 et saep.—And in the order ante paulo: quae ante paulo perbreviter attigi, Cic. Rep. 2, 4: profectus est aliquanto ante furorem Catilinae, id. Sull. 20, 56 bis; id. Verr. 1, 149.—And in the order ante aliquanto: ante aliquanto quam tu natus es, Cic. Fam. 10, 4; id. Vatin. 25; id. Verr. 2, 46: tanto ante praedixeras, id. Phil. 2, 33: quod si Cleomenes non tanto ante fugisset, id. Verr. 2, 5, 34; 5, 78, 89; id. Cat. 3, 17; id. de Or. 1, 7, 26; so Quint. 2, 4, 28: quanto ante providerit, Cic. Sest. 8: permultum ante certior factus eram litteris, id. Fam. 3, 11; cf. Prisc. p. 1191 P.—

2. Followed by quam (written also as one word, antequam; the form prius quam was more freq. in archaic Latin), sooner than; before.

a. With ind. pres.: ante quam doceo id factum non esse, libet mihi, Cic. Quinct. 48: ante quam ad sententiam redeo, de me pauca dicam, id. Cat. 4, 20; id. Mil. 7; id. Deiot. 7; id. Clu. 6.—

b. With ind. perf.: memini Catonem anno ante quam est mortuus mecum disserere, Cic. Lael. 3, 11: anno ipso ante quam natus est Ennius, id. Brut. 18, 72: ante aliquanto quam tu natus es, id. Fam. 10, 3: neque ante dimisit eum quam fidem dedit, Liv. 39, 10: ante quam ille est factus inimicus, Cic. Phil. 12, 9.—

c. Rarely with fut. perf.: ante provinciam sibi decretam audiet quam potuerit tempus ei rei datum suspicari, Cic. Phil. 11, 24: neque defatigabor ante quam ... percepero, id. de Or. 3, 36, 145.—

d. With subj. pres.: ante quam veniat in Pontum, litteras ad Cn. Pompeium mittet, Cic. Agr. 2, 53: hac lege ante omnia veniunt, quam gleba una ematur, id. ib. 2, 71; id. Sest. 15; id. Phil. 1, 1; Verg. E. 1, 60 sqq.; Vulg. Gen. 11, 4; ib. 4 Reg. 2, 9; ib. Matt. 6, 8.—

e. With subj. imperf.: Romae et ad urbem, ante quam proficisceretur, quaerere coepit, Cic. Verr. 2, 167: qui (sol) ante quam se abderet, fugientem vidit Antonium, id. Phil. 14, 27; 8, 1; id. Verr. 4, 147; Vulg. Gen. 2, 5; 13, 10; ib. Matt. 1, 18; ib. Joan. 8, 58.—

f. With subj. perf.: ante vero quam sit ea res adlata, laetitiā frui satis est, Cic. Phil. 14, 1: domesticum malum opprimit ante quam prospicere potueris, id. Verr. 1, 39; id. Sull. 44; id. Planc. 40: nec ante vincere desierint quam Rubro mari inclusis quod vincerent defuerit, Liv. 42, 52: nec ante (barbam capillumque) dempserit quam vindicāsset, Suet. Caes. 67.—

g. With subj. pluperf.: se ante quam eam uxorem duxisset domum, sperāsse etc., Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 71: qui ante quam de meo adventu audire potuissent, in Macedoniam perrexi, Cic. Planc. 98: ut consul ante fieret, quam ullum alium magistratum capere licuisset, id. Imp. Pomp. 62; id. Quinct. 9; id. Verr. 2, 55; 2, 171.—

h. With inf.: dici vix potest quam multa sint quae respondeatis ante fieri oportere, quam ad hanc rationem devenire, Cic. Quinct. 54.—

i. With part.: armati nullum ante finem pugnae quam morientes fecerunt, Liv. 21, 15, 4 (on the use of these different constructions, v. Roby, 1671, 1462, 1672 etc.; Draeger, Hist. Synt. II. pp. 589 sqq.; and esp. Fischer, Gr. 621). —In the poets sometimes with quam before ante: Respice item quam nil ad nos anteacta vetustas Temporis aeterni fuerit, quam nascimur ante, Lucr. 3, 972: Non ego signatis quicquam mandare tabellis, Ne legat id nemo quam meus ante, velim, Tib. 4, 7, 8; Mart. 9, 36, 6.—Also in the poets sometimes pleon. ante—prius—quam: sed mihi vel tellus optem prius ima dehiscat Ante, pudor, quam te violo aut tua jura resolvo, Verg. A. 4, 24; so, prius—quam— ante: Aut prius infecto deposcit praemia cursu, Septima quam metam triverit ante rota? Prop. 3, 20, 25.—

3. For the designation of order, foll. by tum, deinde, etc., first, in the first place (only in later Lat. for the class. primum): ut ante caput, deinde reliqua pars auferatur, Cels. 7, 29: et ante dicam de his, quae, etc.: tum, etc., id. 5, 26: ante tonderi ... deinde ... tum, etc., id. 6, 6, 8; so Plin. 34, 13, 34, 131 dub.—

4. Very rarely used as adj. (in imitation of the Greek): neque enim ignari sumus ante malorum, earlier, previous ills, Verg. A. 1, 198 (cf. τῶν πάρος κακῶν, Soph. O. T. 1423): ille elegit, qui recipit ante meliorem, Quint. Decl. 1, 14; cf. Liv. 24, 82, 5 (on this use of the adv., v. Kritz ad Sall. J. 76, 5).

III. In composition.

A. Of space, before, in front of, forwards: antepono, antefigo, antefero, antemitto.—

B. Fig. of preference, before, above: antepono.—

C. Of degree, before, above, more: antepotens, antepollens—

D. In designations of time only with adjj. and advv.: antelucanus, antemeridianus, antehac, antelucio.With verbs, ante is more correctly written separately: ante actus, ante factus, ante gestus, ante paro, etc., although editions differ in this respect. V. more upon this word in Hand, Turs. I. pp. 361-390, and pp. 394-402.