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βάρβᾰρος, ον, barbarous, i.e. non-Greek, foreign, not in Hom. (but cf. βαρβαρόφωνος); β. ψυχαί Heraclit.107; esp. as Subst. βάρβαροι, οἱ, originally all non-Greek-speaking peoples, then specially of the Medes and Persians, A.Pers.255, Hdt.1.58, etc.: generally, opp. Ἕλληνες, Pl.Plt.262d, cf. Th.1.3, Arist.Pol.1252b5, Str.14.2.28; βαρβάρων Ἕλληνας ἄρχειν εἰκός E.IA1400; β. καὶ δοῦλον ταὐτὸ φύσει Arist.Pol. 1252b9; οἱ β. δουλικώτεροι τὰ ἤθη φύσει τῶν Ἑλλήνων ib.1285a20; β. πόλεμον war with the barbarians, Th.2.36 codd.; ἡ βάρβαρος (sc. γῆ), opp. αἱ Ἑλληνίδες πόλεις, Th.2.97, cf.A.Pers.187, X.An.5.5.16. Adv. -ρως, opp. Ἑλληνικῶς, Porph.Abst.3.3.

2. esp. of language, φωνὴ β. A.Ag.1051, Pl.Prt.341c; γλῶσσα β. S.Aj.1263, cf. Hdt.2.57, Str. l. c. supr., etc.; συλλραφαί Hippias 6 D.; of birds, Ar.Av.199. Adv., βαρβάρως, ὠνόμασται have foreign names, Str.10.3.17.

3. Gramm., of bad Greek, Gell.5.20.5; τὸ β., of style, opp. Ἑλληνικόν, S.E.M.1.64.

II. after the Persian war, brutal, rude, ἀμαθὴς καὶ β. Ar.Nu. 492; τὸ τῆς φύσεως β. καὶ θεοῖς ἐχθρόν D.21.150; σκαιὸς καὶ β. τὸν τρόπον Id.26.17; β. ἀνηλεής τε Men.Epit.477: Comp. -ώτερος X. Eph.2.4: Sup., πάντων βαρβαρώτατος θεῶν Ar.Av.1573, cf. Th.8.98, X.An.5.4.34.

III. used by Jews of Greeks, LXX2 Ma.2.21.

IV. name for various plasters, Androm. and Herasap.Gal.13.555. (Onomatopoeic acc. to Str.14.2.28.)