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barbărĭa, ae (poet., or in post-Aug. prose barbărĭes, acc. -em; so once in Cic. Brut. 74, 258), f. [barbarus].

I. Lit., a foreign country, in opposition to Greece or Rome.

A. In gen.: a quo (philosopho) non solum Graecia et Italia, sed etiam omnis barbaria commota est, Cic. Fin. 2, 15, 49; 5, 4, 11; id. N. D. 1, 29, 81; cf.: non solum cum exercitu suo, sed etiam cum omni inmanitate barbariae bellum inferre nobis. id. Phil. 5, 13, 37; 13, 8, 18: quid tibi barbariem. gentes ab utroque jacentes Oceano numerem? Ov. M. 15, 829: in mediā vivere barbarie, id. Tr. 3, 10, 4; Luc. 8, 812; Just. 9, 5, 7 al.

B. Esp., of a particular country, aside from Greece or Rome. Thus (in the mouth of a Greek), of Italy, as opp. to Greece (only in Plaut.), Plaut. Poen. 3, 2, 21; id. Fragm. ap. Fest. s. v. vapula, p. 278. —Of Persia: Themistoclem non in Graeciae portus, sed in barbariae sinus confugisse, Cic. Rep. 1, 3, 5.—Of Phrygia: Graecia barbariae lento collisa duello, Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 7.—Of Gaul, in opp. to Rome, Cic. Font. 20, 44 (16, 34).—Of Scythia and Britain, Cic. N. D. 2, 34, 88; in gen.: quae barbaria Indiā vastior aut agrestior? id. Tusc. 5, 27, 77 al.

II. Meton., mental or moral barbarism, according to the notion of the ancients.

A. Rudeness, rusticity, stupidity: barbaria forensis, Cic. de Or. 1, 26, 118: grandis, Ov. Am. 3, 8, 4.—Hence of barbarism in language: omnes tum fere, qui nec extra urbem hanc vixerant, nec eos aliqua barbaries domestica infuscaverat, recte loquebantur, Cic. Brut. 74, 258.—And of faulty reading, Petr. 68, 5.—

B. Savageness, barbarousness, rudeness, uncivilized manners: inveterata barbaria, Cic. Balb. 19, 43: ferum et immane facinus, quod nulla barbaria posset agnoscere, id. Phil. 14, 3, 8: ista vero quae et quanta barbaria est, id. ib. 2, 42, 108; 11, 2, 6: tanta barbaries (Sarmatorum) est, ut pacem non intellegant, Flor. 4, 12, 20; Just. 43, 4, 1; Quint. 11, 3, 69; Petr. 68.—

C. = barbari: quale bellum nulla umquam barbaria cum suā gente gessit, Cic. Cat. 3, 10, 25; cf.: hoc poëtae nomen, quod nulla umquam barbaria violavit, id. Arch. 8, 19.