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bellum (ante-class. and poet. duel-lum), i, n. [Sanscr. dva, dvi, dus; cf. Germ. zwei; Engl. two, twice; for the change from initial du- to b-, cf. bis for duis, and v. the letter B, and Varr. L. L. 5, 73 Müll.; 7, 49 ib.], war.

I. Form duellum: duellum, bellum, videlicet quod duabus partibus de victoriā contendentibus dimicatur. Inde est perduellis, qui pertinaciter retinet bellum, Paul. ex Fest. p. 66, 17 Müll.: bellum antea duellum vocatum eo quod duae sunt dimicantium partes ... Postea mutatā litterā dictum bellum, Isid. Orig. 18, 1, 9: hos pestis necuit, pars occidit illa duellis, Enn. ap. Prisc. p. 9, 861 P. (Ann. v. 549 Vahl.): legiones reveniunt domum Exstincto duello maximo atque internecatis hostibus, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 35: quae domi duellique male fecisti, id. As. 3, 2, 13.—So in archaic style, or in citations from ancient documents: quique agent rem duelli, Cic. Leg. 2, 8, 21: aes atque ferrum, duelli instrumenta, id. ib. 2, 18, 45 (translated from the Platonic laws): puro pioque duello quaerendas (res) censeo, Liv. 1, 32, 12 (quoted from ancient transactions); so, quod duellum populo Romano cum Carthaginiensi est, id. 22, 10, 2: victoriaque duelli populi Romani erit, id. 23, 11, 2: si duellum quod cum rege Antiocho sumi populus jussit, id. 36, 2, 2; and from an ancient inscription' duello magno dirimendo, etc., id. 40, 52, 5.—Poet.: hic... Pacem duello miscuit, Hor. C. 3, 5, 38: cadum Marsi memorem duelli, id. ib. 3, 14, 18: vacuum duellis Janum Quirini clausit, id. ib. 4, 15, 8; cf. id. Ep. 1, 2, 7; 2, 1, 254; 2, 2, 98; Ov. F. 6, 201; Juv. 1, 169

II. Form bellum.

A. War, warfare (abstr.), or a war, the war (concr.), i.e. hostilities between two nations (cf. tumultus).

1. Specifying the enemy.

a. By adjj. denoting the nation: omnibus Punicis Siciliensibusque bellis, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 47, 124: aliquot annis ante secundum Punicum bellum, id. Ac. 2, 5, 13: Britannicum bellum, id. Att. 4, 16, 13: Gallicum, id. Prov. Cons. 14, 35: Germanicum, Caes. B. G. 3, 28: Sabinum, Liv. 1, 26, 4: Parthicum, Vell. 2, 46, 2; similarly: bellum piraticum, the war against the pirates, Vell. 2, 33, 1.—Sometimes the adj. refers to the leader or king of the enemy: Sertorianum bellum, Cic. Phil. 11, 8, 18: Mithridaticum, id. Imp. Pomp. 3, 7: Jugurthinum, Hor. Epod. 9, 23; Vell. 2, 11, 1; similarly: bellum regium, the war against kings, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 50. —Or it refers to the theatre of the war: bellum Africanum, Transalpinum, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: Asiaticum, id. ib. 22, 64: Africum, Caes. B. C. 2, 32 fin.: Actiacum, Vell. 2, 86, 3: Hispaniense, id. 2, 55, 2.—

b. With gen. of the name of the nation or its leader: bellum Latinorum, the Latin war, i. e. against the Latins, Cic. N. D. 2, 2, 6: Venetorum, Caes. B. G. 3, 16: Helvetiorum, id. ib. 1, 40 fin.; 1, 30: Ambiorigis, id. ib. 6, 29, 4: Pyrrhi, Philippi, Cic. Phil. 11, 7, 17: Samnitium, Liv. 7, 29, 2.—

c. With cum and abl. of the name.

(a). Attributively: cum Jugurthā, cum Cimbris, cum Teutonis bellum, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 20, 60: belli causā cum Samnitibus, Liv. 7, 29, 3: hunc finem bellum cum Philippo habuit, id. 33, 35, 12: novum cum Antiocho instabat bellum, id. 36, 36, 7; cf. id. 35, 40, 1; 38, 58, 8; 39, 1, 8; 44, 14, 7.—

(b). With cum dependent on the verb: quia bellum Aetolis esse dixi cum Aliis, Plaut. Capt. prol. 59: novi consules... duo bella habuere... alterum cum Tiburtibus, Liv. 7, 17, 2; esp. with gero, v. 2. b. α infra.—

d. With adversus and acc. of the name.

(a). Attributively: bellum adversus Philippum, Liv. 31, 1, 8: bellum populus adversus Vestinos jussit, id. 8, 29, 6.—

(b). With adversus dependent on the verb: quod homines populi Hermunduli adversus populum Romanum bellum fecere, Cincius ap. Gell. 16, 14, 1: nos pro vobis bellum suscepimus adversus Philippum. Liv. 31, 31, 18: ut multo acrius adversus duos quam adversus unum pararet bellum, id. 45, 11, 8: bellum quod rex adversus Datamem susceperat, Nep. Dat. 8, 5.—

e. With contra and acc.: cum bellum nefarium contra aras et focos, contra vitam fortunasque nostras... non comparari, sed geri jam viderem, Cic. Phil. 3, 1, 1: causam belli contra patriam inferendi, id. ib. 2, 22, 53.—

f. With in and acc. (very rare): Athenienses in Peloponnesios sexto et vicesimo anno bellum gerentes, Nep. Lys. 1, 1.—

g. With inter and acc.: hic finis belli inter Romanos ac Persea fuit, Liv. 45, 9, 2.—

h. With apud and acc.: secutum est bellum gestum apud Mutinam, Nep. Att. 9, 1.—

k. With dat. of the enemy after inferre and facere, v. 2. a. κ infra.—

2. With verbs.

a. Referring to the beginning of the war.

(a). Bellum movere or commovere, to bring about, stir up a war: summa erat observatio in bello movendo, Cic. Off. 1, 11, 37: bellum commotum a Scapulā, id. Fam. 9, 13, 1: nuntiabant alii... in Apuliā servile bellum moveri, Sall. C. 30, 2: is primum Volscis bellum in ducentos amplius... annos movit, Liv. 1, 53, 2: insequenti anno Veiens bellum motum, id. 4, 58, 6: dii pium movere bellum, id. 8, 6, 4; cf. Verg. A. 10, 627; id. G. 1, 509; so, concitare, Liv. 7, 27, 5; and ciere (poet.), Verg. A. 1, 541; 6, 829; 12, 158.—

(b). Bellum parare, comparare, apparare, or se praeparare bello, to prepare a war, or for a war: cum tam pestiferum bellum pararet, Cic. Att. 9, 13, 3: bellum utrimque summopere parabatur, Liv. 1, 23, 1; cf. id. 45, 11, 8 (v. II. A. 1. d. β supra); Nep. Hann. 2, 6; Quint. 12, 3, 5; Ov. M. 7, 456; so, parare alicui, Nep. Alcib. 9, 5: bellum terrā et mari comparat, Cic. Att. 10, 4, 3: tantum bellum ... Cn. Pompeius extremā hieme apparavit, ineunte vere suscepit, mediā aestate confecit, id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 3, 5: bellum omnium consensu apparari coeptum, Liv. 4, 55, 7: numquam imperator ita paci credit, ut non se praeparet bello, Sen. Vit. Beat. 26, 2.—

(g). Bellum differre, to postpone a war: nec jam poterat bellum differri, Liv. 2, 30, 7: mors Hamilcaris et pueritia Hannibalis distulerunt bellum, id. 21, 2, 3; cf. id. 5, 5, 3.—

(d). Bellum sumere, to undertake, begin a war (not in Cæsar): omne bellum sumi facile, ceterum aegerrume desinere, Sall. J. 83, 1: prius tamen omnia pati decrevit quam bellum sumere, id. ib. 20, 5: de integro bellum sumit, id. ib. 62, 9: iis haec maxima ratio belli sumendi fuerat, Liv. 38, 19, 3: sumi bellum etiam ab ignavis, strenuissimi cujusque periculo geri, Tac. H. 4, 69; cf. id. A. 2, 45; 13, 34; 15, 5; 15, 7; id. Agr. 16.—(ε) Bellum suscipere (rarely inire), to undertake, commence a war, join in a war: bellum ita suscipiatur ut nihil nisi pax quaesita videatur, Cic. Off. 1, 23, 80: suscipienda quidem bella sunt ob eam causam ut, etc., id. ib. 1, 11, 35: judicavit a plerisque ignoratione... bellum esse susceptum, join, id. Marcell. 5, 13; id. Imp. Pomp. 12, 35 (v. supra): cum avertisset plebem a suscipiendo bello, undertaking, Liv. 4, 58, 14: senatui cum Camillo agi placuit ut bellum Etruscum susciperet, id. 6, 9, 5: bella non causis inita, sed ut eorum merces fuit, Vell. 2, 3, 3.— (ζ) Bellum consentire = bellum consensu decernere, to decree a war by agreement, to ratify a declaration of war (rare): consensit et senatus bellum, Liv. 8, 6, 8: bellum erat consensum, id. 1, 32, 12.—(η) Bellum alicui mandare, committere, decernere, dare, gerendum dare, ad aliquem deferre, or aliquem bello praeficere, praeponere, to assign a war to one as a commander, to give one the chief command in a war: sed ne tum quidem populus Romanus ad privatum detulit bellum, Cic. Phil. 11, 8, 18: populus Romanus consuli... bellum gerendum dedit, id. ib.: cur non... eidem ... hoc quoque bellum regium committamus? id. Imp. Pomp. 17, 50: Camillus cui id bellum mandatum erat, Liv. 5, 26, 3: Volscum bellum M. Furio extra ordinem decretum, id. 6, 22, 6: Gallicum bellum Popilio extra ordinem datum, id. 7, 23, 2: quo die a vobis maritimo bello praepositus est imperator, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 15, 44: cum ei (bello) imperatorem praeficere possitis, in quo sit eximia belli scientia, id. ib. 16, 49: hunc toti bello praefecerunt, Caes. B. G. 5, 11 fin.: alicui bellum suscipiendum dare, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 19, 58: bellum administrandum permittere, id. ib. 21, 61.— (θ) Bellum indicere alicui, to declare war against (the regular expression; coupled with facere in the ancient formula of the pater patratus), also bellum denuntiare: ob eam rem ego... populo Hermundulo... bellum (in)dico facioque, Cincius ap. Gell. 16, 14, 1: ob eam rem ego populusque Romanus populis... Latinis bellum indico facioque, Liv. 1, 32, 13: Corinthiis bellum indicamus an non? Cic. Inv. 1, 12, 17: ex quo intellegi potest, nullum bellum esse justum nisi quod aut rebus repetitis geratur, aut denuntiatum ante sit et indictum, id. Off. 1, 11, 36; id. Rep. 3, 23, 35: bellum indici posse existimabat, Liv. 1, 22, 4: ni reddantur (res) bellum indicere jussos, id. 1, 22, 6: ut... nec gererentur solum sed etiam indicerentur bella aliquo ritu, jus ... descripsit quo res repetuntur, id. 1, 32, 5; cf. id. 1, 32, 9; 2, 18, 11; 2, 38, 5; Verg. A. 7, 616.— (κ) Bellum inferre alicui (cf. contra aliquem, 1. e. supra; also bellum facere; absol., with dat., or with cum and abl.), to begin a war against (with), to make war on: Denseletis nefarium bellum intulisti, Cic. Pis. 34, 84: ei civitati bellum indici atque inferri solere, id. Verr. 2, 1, 31, 79: qui sibi Galliaeque bellum intulissent, Caes. B. G. 4, 16; Nep. Them. 2, 4; Verg. A. 3, 248: bellumne populo Romano Lampsacena civitas facere conabatur? Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 31, 79: bellum patriae faciet, id. Mil. 23, 63; id. Cat. 3, 9, 22: civitatem Eburonum populo Romano bellum facere ausam, Caes. B. G. 5, 28; cf. id. ib. 7, 2; 3, 29: constituit bellum facere, Sall. C. 26, 5; 24, 2: occupant bellum facere, they are the first to begin the war, Liv. 1, 14, 4: ut bellum cum Priscis Latinis fieret, id. 1, 32, 13: populus Palaepolitanis bellum fieri jussit, id. 8, 22, 8; cf. Nep. Dion, 4, 3; id. Ages. 2, 1.— Coupled with instruere, to sustain a war: urbs quae bellum facere atque instruere possit, Cic. Agr. 2, 28, 77.—Bellum facere had become obsolete at Seneca's time, Sen. Ep. 114, 17.—(λ) Bellum oritur or exoritur, a war begins: subito bellum in Galliā ex, ortum est, Caes. B. G. 3, 7: aliud multo propius bellum ortum, Liv. 1, 14, 4: Veiens bellum exortum, id. 2, 53, 1.—

b. Referring to the carrying on of the war: bellum gerere, to carry on a war; absol., with cum and abl., per and acc., or in and abl. (cf.: bellum gerere in aliquem, 1. a. and f. supra): nisi forte ego vobis... cessare nunc videor cum bella non gero, Cic. Sen. 6, 18: cum Celtiberis, cum Cimbris bellum ut cum inimicis gerebatur, id. Off. 1, 12, 38: cum ei bellum ut cum rege Perse gereret obtigisset, id. Div. 1, 46, 103: erant hae difficultates belli gerendi, Caes. B. G. 3, 10: bellum cum Germanis gerere constituit, id. ib. 4, 6: Cn. Pompeius in extremis terris bellum gerebat, Sall. C. 16, 5: bellum quod Hannibale duce Carthaginienses cum populo Romano gessere, Liv. 21, 1, 1: alter consul in Sabinis bellum gessit, id. 2, 62, 3: de exercitibus per quos id bellum gereretur, id. 23, 25, 5: Chabrias bella in Aegypto suā sponte gessit, Nep. Chabr, 2, 1.—Sometimes bellum administrare only of the commander, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 15, 43; Nep. Chabr. 2, 1. —Also (very rare): bellum bellare, Liv. 8, 40, 1 (but belligerantes is absol., Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38; Ann. v. 201 Vahl.); in the same sense: bellum agere, Nep. Hann. 8, 3. —As a synonym: bello persequi aliquem, Nep. Con. 4, 1; cf. Liv. 3, 25, 3.—

(b). Trahere or ducere bellum, to protract a war: necesse est enim aut trahi id bellum, aut, etc., Cic. Att. 10, 8, 2: bellum trahi non posse, Sall. J. 23, 2: belli trahendi causā, Liv. 5, 11, 8: morae quā trahebant bellum paenitebat, id. 9, 27, 5: suadere institui ut bellum duceret, Cic. Fam. 7, 3, 2: bellum enim ducetur, id. ad Brut. 1, 18, 6; Nep. Alcib. 8, 1; id. Dat. 8, 4; similarly: cum his molliter et per dilationes bellum geri oportet? Liv. 5, 5, 1.—

(g). Bellum repellere, defendere, or propulsare, to ward off, defend one's self against a war: bellum Gallicum C. Caesare imperatore gestum est, antea tantummodo repulsum, Cic. Prov. Cons. 13, 32: quod bellum non intulerit sed defenderit, Caes. B. G. 1, 44: Samnitium vix a se ipsis eo tempore propulsantium bellum, Liv. 8, 37, 5.—

c. Referring to the end of a war.

(a). Bellum deponere, ponere, or omittere, to give up, discontinue a war: in quo (i.e. bello) et gerendo et deponendo jus ut plurimum valeret lege sanximus, Cic. Leg. 2, 14, 34: (bellum) cum deponi victores velint, Sall. J. 83, 1: bellum decem ferme annis ante depositum erat, Liv. 31, 1, 8: nos depositum a vobis bellum et ipsi omisimus, id. 31, 31, 19: dicit posse condicionibus bellum poni, Sall. J. 112, 1: bellum grave cum Etruriā positum est, id. H. Fragm. 1, 9 Dietsch: velut posito bello, Liv. 1, 53, 5: manere bellum quod positum simuletur, id. 1, 53, 7: posito ubique bello, Tac. H. 2, 52; cf. Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 93; Verg. A. 1, 291: omisso Romano bello Porsinna filium Arruntem Ariciam... mittit, Liv. 2, 14, 5.—

(b). Bellum componere, to end a war by agreement, make peace: timerent ne bellum componeretur, Cic. Fam. 10, 33, 3: si bellum compositum foret, Sall. J. 97, 2: belli componendi licentiam, id. ib. 103, 3; cf. Nep. Ham. 1, 5; id. Hann. 6, 2; id. Alcib. 8, 3; Verg. A. 12, 109; similarly: bellum sedare, Nep. Dat. 8, 5.—

(g). Bellum conficere, perficere, finire, to finish, end a war; conficere (the most usual term) and perficere, = to finish a war by conquering; finire (rare), without implying success: is bellum confecerit qui Antonium oppresserit, Cic. Fam. 11, 12, 2: bellumque maximum conficies, id. Rep. 6, 11, 11: confecto Mithridatico bello, id. Prov. Cons. 11, 27; cf. id. Fam. 5, 10, 3; id. Imp. Pomp. 14, 42: quo proelio ... bellum Venetorum confectum est, Caes. B. G. 3, 16; cf. id. ib. 1, 30; 1, 44; 1, 54; 3, 28; 4, 16: bello confecto de Rhodiis consultum est, Sall. C. 51, 5; cf. id. J. 36, 1; 114, 3: neminem nisi bello confecto pecuniam petiturum esse, Liv. 24, 18, 11; cf. id. 21, 40, 11; 23, 6, 2; 31, 47, 4; 32, 32, 6; 36, 2, 3: bello perfecto, Caes. B. C. 3, 18, 5; Liv. 1, 38, 3: se quo die hostem vidisset perfecturum (i. e. bellum), id. 22, 38, 7; 31, 4, 2; cf. id. 3, 24, 1; 34, 6, 12; Just. 5, 2, 11: neque desiturum ante... quam finitum aliquā tolerabili condicione bellum videro, Liv. 23, 12, 10: finito ex maximā parte.. italico bello, Vell. 2, 17, 1; Curt. 3, 1, 9; Tac. A. 15, 17; Just. 16, 2, 6; 24, 1, 8; Verg. A. 11, 116.—

d. Less usual connections: bellum delere: non modo praesentia sed etiam futura bella delevit, Cic. Lael. 3, 11; cf. Nep. Alcib. 8, 4: alere ac fovere bellum, Liv. 42, 11, 5: bellum navare alicui, Tac. H. 5, 25: spargere, id. A. 3, 21; id. Agr. 38; Luc. 2, 682: serere, Liv. 21, 10, 4: circumferre, Tac. A. 13, 37: exercere, id. ib. 6, 31: quam celeriter belli impetus navigavit ( = quam celeriter navale bellum gestum est), Cic. Imp. Pomp. 12, 34; so Flor. 2, 2, 17: bellum ascendit in rupes, id. 4, 12, 4: bellum serpit in proximos, id. 2, 9, 4; cf. id. 2, 2, 15: bella narrare, Cic. Or. 9, 30: canere bella, Quint. 10, 1, 91: bella legere, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 10, 28.—

3. As object denoting place or time.

a. Proficisci ad bellum, to depart for the war.

(a). Of the commander: consul sortitu ad bellum profectus, Cic. Phil. 14, 2, 4; cf. id. Cat. 1, 13, 33: ipse ad bellum Ambiorigis profectus, Caes. B. G. 6, 29, 4: ut duo ex tribunis ad bellum proficiscerentur, Liv. 4, 45, 7; cf. id. 6, 2, 9: Nep. Alcib. 4, 1; Sall. H. 2, 96 Dietsch. —Post-class.: in bellum, Just. 2, 11, 9; Gell. 17, 9, 8.—

(b). Of persons partaking in a war: si proficiscerer ad bellum, Cic. Fam. 7, 3, 1. —

b. Ad bellum mittere, of the commander, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 17, 50; 21, 62.—

c. In bella ruere, Verg. A. 7, 782; 9, 182: in bella sequi, id. ib. 8, 547.—

d. Of time.

(a). In the locative case belli, in war, during war; generally with domi ( = domi militiaeque): valete, judices justissimi, domi bellique duellatores, Plaut. Capt. prol. 68; so, domi duellique, id. As. 3, 2, 13 (v. I. supra): quibuscunque rebus vel belli vel domi poterunt rem publicam augeant, Cic. Off. 2, 24, 85: paucorum arbitrio belli domique agitabatur, Sall. J. 41, 7: animus belli ingens, domi modicus, id. ib. 63, 2; Liv. 2, 50, 11; 1, 36, 6; so id. 3, 43, 1; cf.: bello domique, id. 1, 34, 12: domi belloque, id. 9, 26, 21; and: neque bello, neque domi, id. 4, 35, 3.—Without domi: simul rem et gloriam armis belli repperi, Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 60 (where belli may be taken with gloriam; cf. Wagn. ad loc.): magnae res temporibus illis a fortissimis viris... belli gerebantur, Cic. Rep. 2, 32, 86.—

(b). In bello or in bellis, during war or wars, in the war, in the wars; with adj.: ad haec quae in civili bello fecerit, Cic. Phil. 2, 19, 47; cf. id. ib. 14, 8, 22: in ipso bello eadem sensi, id. Marcell. 5, 14: in Volsco bello virtus enituit, Liv. 2, 24, 8: in eo bello, id. 23, 46, 6: in Punicis bellis, Plin.8, 14, 14, 37: in bello Trojano, id. 30, 1, 2, 5.—Without adj.: ut fit in bello, capitur alter filius, Plaut. Capt. prol. 25: qui in bello occiderunt, Cic. Fam. 9, 5, 2: quod in bello saepius vindicatum est in eos, etc., Sall. C. 9, 4: non in bello solum, sed etiam in pace, Liv. 1, 15, 8; 2, 23, 2: in bello parta, Quint. 5, 10, 42; 12, 1, 28.—

(g). Abl. bello or bellis = in bello or in bellis (freq.); with adjj.: nos semper omnibus Punicis Siciliensibusque bellis amicitiam fidemque populi Romani secuti sumus. Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 47, 124: bello Italico, id. Pis. 36, 87: Veienti bello, id. Div. 1, 44, 100: domestico bello, id. Planc. 29, 70: qui Volsco, Aurunco Sabinoque militassent bello, Liv. 23, 12, 11: victor tot intra paucos dies bellis, id. 2, 27, 1: nullo bello, multis tamen proeliis victus, id. 9, 18, 9: bello civili, Quint. 11, 1, 36.—With gen.: praesentiam saepe divi suam declarant, ut et apud Regillum bello Latinorum, Cic. N. D. 2, 2, 6: suam felicitatem Helvetiorum bello esse perspectam, Caes. B. G. 1, 40.—Without attrib.: qui etiam bello victis regibus regna reddere consuevit, Cic. Sest. 26, 57: res pace belloque gestas, Liv. 2, 1, 1: egregieque rebus bello gestis, id. 1, 33, 9; so id. 23, 12, 11: ludi bello voti, id. 4, 35. 3: princeps pace belloque, id. 7, 1, 9: Cotyn bello juvisse Persea, id. 45, 42, 7: bello parta, Quint. 5, 10, 15; cf. id. 7, 4, 22; Ov. M. 8, 19.—

(d). Inter bellum (rare): cujus originis morem necesse est... inter bellum natum esse, Liv. 2, 14, 2: inter haec bella consules... facti, id. 2, 63, 1.—

4. Bellum in attributive connection.

a. Justum bellum.

(a). A righteous war, Cic. Off. 1, 11, 36 (v. II. A. 2. a. θ supra): justum piumque bellum, Liv. 1, 23, 4: non loquor apud recusantem justa bella populum, id. 7, 30, 17; so Ov. M. 8, 58; cf.: illa injusta sunt bella quae sine causā suscepta sunt, Cic. Rep. 3, 23, 35.—

(b). A regular war (opp. a raid, etc.): in fines Romanos excucurrerunt, populabundi magis quam justi more belli, Liv. 1, 15, 1.—

b. For the different kinds of war: domesticum, civile, intestinum, externum, navale, maritimum, terrā marique gestum, servile, sociale; v. hh. vv.—

c. Belli eventus or exitus, the result of a war: quicunque belli eventus fuisset, Cic. Marcell. 8, 24: haud sane alio animo belli eventum exspectabant, Sall. C. 37, 9: eventus tamen belli minus miserabilem dimicationem fecit, Liv. 1, 23, 2; cf. id. 7, 11, 1: exitus hujus calamitosissimi belli, Cic. Fam. 6, 21, 1: cum esset incertus exitus et anceps fortuna belli, id. Marcell. 5, 15; so id. Off. 2, 8, : Britannici belli exitus exspectatur, id. Att. 4, 16, 13: cetera bella maximeque Veiens incerti exitus erant, Liv. 5, 16, 8.—

d. Fortuna belli, the chances of war: adeo varia fortuna belli ancepsque Mars fuit ut, Liv. 21, 1, 2; cf. Cic. Marcell. 5, 15 (v. c. supra).—

e. Belli artes, military skill: cuilibet superiorum regum belli pacisque et artibus et gloriā par, Liv. 1, 35, 1: haud ignotas belli artes, id. 21, 1, 2: temperata et belli et pacis artibus erat civitas, id. 1, 21, 6.—

f. Jus belli, the law of war: jura belli, the rights (law) of war: in re publicā maxime servanda sunt jura belli, Cic. Off. 1, 11, 34: sunt et belli sicut pacis jura, Liv. 5, 27, 6: jure belli res vindicatur, Gai. Inst. 3, 94.—

g. Belli duces praestantissimos, the most excellent captains, generals, Cic. Or. 1, 2, 7: trium simul bellorum victor, a victor in three wars, Liv. 6, 4, 1 (cf.: victor tot bellis, id. 2, 27, 1). —

h. Belli vulnera, Cic. Marcell. 8, 24.—

B. Transf.

1. Of things concr. and abstr.: qui parietibus, qui tectis, qui columnis ac postibus meis... bellum intulistis, Cic. Dom. 23, 60: bellum contra aras et focos, id. Phil. 3, 1, 1: miror cur philosophiae... bellum indixeris, id. Or. 2, 37, 155: ventri Indico bellum, Hor. S. 1, 5, 8.—

2. Of animals: milvo est quoddam bellum quasi naturale cum corvo, Cic. N. D. 2, 49, 125: hanc Juno Esse jussit gruem, populisque suis indicere bellum, Ov. M. 6, 92.—

3. With individuals: quid mihi opu'st... cum eis gerere bellum, etc., Plaut. Stich. 1, 2, 14: nihil turpius quam cum eo bellum gerere quīcum familiariter vixeris, Cic. Lael. 21, 77: cum mihi uni cum improbis aeternum videam bellum susceptum, id. Sull. 9, 28: hoc tibi juventus Romana indicimus bellum, Liv. 2, 12, 11: falsum testem justo ac pio bello persequebatur, id. 3, 25, 3: tribunicium domi bellum patres territat, id. 3, 24, 1; cf. Plin. Ep. 1, 2, 57.—Ironically: equus Trojanus qui tot invictos viros muliebre bellum gerentes tulerit ac texerit, Cic. Cael. 28, 67.—

4. In mal. part., Hor. C. 3, 26, 3; 4, 1, 2.—

5. Personified as god of war ( = Janus): tabulas duas quae Belli faciem pictam habent, Plin. 35, 4, 10, 27: sunt geminae Belli portae, etc., Verg. A. 7, 607: mortiferumque averso in limine Bellum, id. ib. 6, 279.—

6. Plur.: bella, army (poet.): permanet Aonius Nereus violentus in undis, Bellaque non transfert (i.e. Graecorum exercitum), Ov. M. 12, 24: sed victae fera bella deae vexere per aequora, Sil. 7, 472: quid faciat bellis obsessus et undis? Stat. Th. 9, 490.—

7. Battle, = proelium: rorarii dicti a rore: qui bellum committebant ante, Varr. L. L. 7, 3, 92: quod in bello saepius vindicatum in eos qui... tardius, revocati, bello excesserant, Sall. C. 9, 4: praecipua laus ejus belli penes consules fuit, Liv. 8, 10, 7: commisso statim bello, Front. Strat. 1, 11, 2: Actia bella, Verg. A. 8, 675: ingentem pugnam, ceu cetera nusquam Bella forent, id. ib. 2, 439; cf. Flor. 3, 5, 11; Just. 2, 12; 18, 1 fin.; 24, 8; Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 98 (form duellum); Ov. H. 1, 1, 69; Verg. A. 8, 547; 12, 390; 12, 633; Stat. Th. 3, 666. —

8. Bellum = liber de bello: quam gaudebat Bello suo Punico Naevius! Cic. Sen. 14, 50.