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căno, cĕcĭni, cantum (ancient imp. cante = canite, Carm. Sal. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 37 Müll.; fut. perf. canerit = cecinerit, Lib. Augur. ap. Fest. s. v. rumentum, p. 270 ib.; perf. canui = cecini, acc. to Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 384, predominant in concino, occino, etc.—Examples of sup. cantum and part. cantus, canturus, a, um, appear not to be in use; the trace of an earlier use is found in Paul. ex Fest. p. 46 Müll.: canta pro cantata ponebant; once canituri, Vulg. Apoc. 8, 13), 3, v. n. and a. [cf. κανάσσω, καναχή, κόναβος; Germ. Hahn; Engl. chanticleer; κύκνος, ciconice; Sanscr. kōkas = duck; Engl. cock], orig. v. n., to produce melodious sounds, whether of men or animals; later, with a designation of the subject-matter of the melody, as v. a., to make something the subject of one's singing or playing, to sing of, to celebrate, or make known in song, etc.

I. Neutr., to utter melodious notes, to sing, sound, play.

A. Of men: si absurde canat, Cic. Tusc. 2, 4, 12; Plin. Ep. 3, 18, 9: celebrare dapes canendo, Ov. M. 5, 113: si velim canere vel voce vel fidibus, Cic. Div. 2, 59, 122; Quint. 5, 11, 124; 1, 8, 2; Gell. 19, 9, 3: quemadmodum tibicen sine tibiis canere non possit, Cic. de Or. 2, 83, 338; cf.: tibia canentum, Lucr. 4, 587; 5, 1384; Cic. Tusc. 1, 2, 4; Quint. 1, 10, 14: curvo calamo, Cat. 63, 22: harundine, Ov. M. 1, 683; Suet. Caes. 32: cithara, Tac. A. 14, 14: lituus quo canitur, Cic. Div. 1, 17, 30; Verg. E. 2, 31: movit Amphion lapides canendo, Hor. C. 3, 11, 2; Serv. ad Verg. G. 2, 417 al.; Cic. Brut. 50, 187.—

2. Of the faulty delivery of an orator, to speak in a sing-song tone: inclinată ululantique voce more Asiatico canere, Cic. Or. 8, 27; cf. canto and canticum.—

B. Of animals (usu. of birds, but also of frogs), Varr. L. L. 5, 76 Müll.: volucres nullă dulcius arte canant, Prop. 1, 2, 14; Cic. Div. 1, 7, 12: merula canit aestate, hieme balbutit, Plin. 10, 29, 42, 80; 10, 32, 47, 89: ranae alio translatae canunt, id. 8, 58, 83, 227.—Of the raven, Cic. Div. 1, 7, 12.—Esp., of the crowing of a cock: galli victi silere solent, canere victores, to crow, Cic. Div. 2, 26, 56; v. the whole section; id. ib. 2, 26, 56, 57; Col. 8, 2, 11; Plin. 10, 21, 24, 49 (cf. also cantus): gallina cecinit, interdixit hariolus (the crowing of a hen being considered as an auspicium malum), Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 27.— In the lang. of the Pythagoreans, of the heavenly bodies (considered as living beings), the music of the spheres, Cic. N. D. 3, 11, 27.—

C. Transf., of the instruments by which, or (poet.) of the places in which, the sounds are produced, to sound, resound: canentes tibiae, Cic. N. D. 2, 8, 22: maestae cecinere tubae, Prop. 4 (5), 11, 9: frondiferasque novis avibus canere undique silvas, and the leafy forest everywhere resounds with young birds, Lucr. 1, 256; Auct. Aetn. 295.

II. Act., to make something or some person the subject of one's singing or playing.

A. With carmen, cantilenam, versus, verba, etc., to sing, play, rehearse, recite: cum Simonides cecinisset, id carmen, quod in Scopam scripsisset, Cic. de Or. 2, 86, 352: carmina quae in epulis canuntur, id. Brut. 18, 71: in eum (Cossum) milites carmina incondita aequantes eum Romulo canere, Liv. 4, 20, 2: Ascraeum cano carmen, Verg. G. 2, 176; Suet. Caes. 49; Curt. 5, 1, 22: canere versus, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 36 Müll. (Ann. v. 222 Vahl.); Cic. Or. 51, 171; id. Brut. 18, 71: neniam, Suet. Aug. 100: idyllia ἐρωτικά, Gell. 19, 9, 4, 10: verba ad certos modos, Ov. F. 3, 388: Phrygium, Quint. 1, 10, 33 Spald.—The homog. noun is rarely made the subject of the act. voice: cum in ejus conviviis symphonia caneret, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 44, 105.—

2. Prov.

a. Carmen intus canere, to sing for one's self, i. e. to consult only one's own advantage, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 20, 53; id. Agr. 2, 26, 68; v. Aspendius.—

b. Cantilenam eandem canis, like the Gr. τὸ αὐτὸ ἄ̔δεις ἆσμα, ever the old tune, Ter. Phorm. 3, 2, 10; v. cantilena.—

B. With definite objects.

a. In gen., to sing, to cause to resound, to celebrate in song, to sing of, Lucr. 5, 328: laudes mortui, Varr. L. L. 7, 70 Müll.: canere ad tibiam clarorum virorum laudes atque virtutes, Cic. Tusc. 4, 2, 3; Quint. 1, 10, 10; 1, 10, 31; Liv. 45, 38, 12: puellis carmine modulato laudes virtutum ejus canentibus, Suet. Calig. 16 fin.: dei laudes, Lact. 6, 21, 9: deorum laudes, Val. Max. 1, 8, ext. 8.—So with de: canere ad tibicinem de clarorum hominum virtutibus, Cic. Tusc. 1, 2, 3 (cf. cantito): praecepta, Hor. S. 2, 4, 11: jam canit effectos extremus vinitor antes, Verg. G. 2, 417 Wagn. N. cr.: nil dignum sermone, Hor. S. 2, 3, 4: quin etiam canet indoctum, id. Ep. 2, 2, 9: grandia elate, jucunda dulciter, moderata leniter canit, Quint. 1, 10, 24; Cat. 63, 11: Io! magna voce, Triumphe, canet, Tib. 2, 5, 118; Ov. Tr. 4, 2, 52; cf. Hor. C. 4, 2, 47: haec super arvorum cultu pecorumque canebam, Verg. G. 4, 559 Wagn.: et veterem in limo ranae cecinere querelam, croaked (according to the ancient pronunciation, kekinere kuerelam, an imitation of the Aristophanic Βρεκεκεκέξ; v. the letter C), id. ib. 1, 378; Lucr. 2, 601: anser Gallos adesse canebat, Verg. A. 8, 656: motibus astrorum nunc quae sit causa, canamus, Lucr. 5, 510: sunt tempestates et fulmina clara canenda, id. 6, 84.—

b. With pers. objects (poet. and in post-Aug. prose): canitur adhuc barbaras apud gentes (Arminius), Tac. A. 2, 88: Herculem... ituri in proelia canunt, id. G. 2: Dianam, Cat. 34, 3: deos regesve, Hor. C. 4, 2, 13: Liberum et Musas Veneremque, id. ib. 1, 32, 10: rite Latonae puerum, id. ib. 4, 6, 37; 1, 10, 5: plectro graviore Gigantas, Ov M. 10, 150: reges et proelia, Verg. E. 6, 3; Hor. C. 4, 15, 32: arma virumque, Verg. A. 1, 1: pugnasque virosque, Stat. Th. 8, 553: maxima bella et clarissimos duces, Quint. 10, 1, 62.—Very rarely, to celebrate, without reference to song or poetry: Epicurus in quădam epistulă amicitiam tuam et Metrodori grata commemoratione cecinerat, Sen. Ep. 79, 13.—Esp. of fame, to trumpet abroad: fama facta atque infecta canit, Verg. A. 4, 190: fama digna atque indigna canit, Val. Fl. 217 al.—And prov., to sing or preach to the deaf: non canimus surdis, Verg. E. 10, 8: praeceptorum, quae vereor ne vana surdis auribus cecinerim. Liv. 40, 8, 10.—

C. Since the responses of oracles were given in verse, to prophesy, foretell, predict.

a. In poetry: Sibylla, Abdita quae senis fata canit pedibus, Tib. 2, 5, 16; cf.: horrendas ambages, Verg. A. 6. 99; 3, 444: fera fata, Hor. C. 1, 15, 4; cf. id. Epod. 13, 11; id. S. 2, 5, 58; Tib. 1, 7, 1; cf. id. 3, 3, 36; 1, 6, 50; Hor. C. S. 25: et mihi jam multi crudele canebant Artificis scelus, Verg. A. 2, 124; Hor. S. 1, 9, 30.—

b. In prose: ut haec quae nunc fiunt, canere di inmortales viderentur, Cic. Cat. 3, 8, 18: non haec a me tum tamquam fata... canebantur? id. Sest. 21, 47: eum, qui ex Thetide natus esset, majorem patre suo futurum cecinisse dicuntur oracula, Quint. 3, 7, 11; Just. 11, 7, 4; 7, 6, 1; Tac. A. 2, 54; id. H. 4, 54: cecinere vates, idque carmen pervenerat ad antistitem fani Dianae, Liv. 1, 45, 5; 5, 15, 4 sq.; 1, 7, 10; Tac. A. 14, 32; Liv. 30, 28, 2; cf. Nep. Att. 16, 4; cf. of philosophers, etc.: ipsa memor praecepta Canam, Hor. S. 2, 4, 11 Orell. ad loc.; cf.: quaeque diu latuere, canam, Ov. M. 15, 147.

III. In milit. lang., t. t., both act. and neutr., of signals, to blow, to sound, to give; or to be sounded, resound.

A. Act.: bellicum (lit. and trop.) canere, v. bellicus: classicum, v. classicus: signa canere jubet, to give the signal for battle, Sall. C. 59, 1; id. J. 99, 1: Pompeius classicum apud eum (sc. Scipionem) cani jubet, Caes. B. C. 3, 82.—Absol. without signum, etc.: tubicen canere coepit, Auct. B. Afr. 82; cf. Flor. 4, 2, 66.—

B. Neutr.: priusquam signa canerent, Liv. 1, 1, 7: ut attendant, semel bisne signum canat in castris, id. 27, 47, 3 and 5; 23, 16, 12; 24, 46 (twice): repente a tergo signa canere, Sall. J. 94, 5; Liv. 7, 40, 10; Verg. A. 10, 310; Flor. 3, 18, 10: classicum apud eos cecinit, Liv. 28, 27, 15.—

2. Receptui canere, to sound a retreat: Hasdrubal receptui propere cecinit (i. e. cani jussit), Liv. 27, 47, 2; Tac. H. 2, 26.—Poet.: cecinit jussos receptus, Ov. M. 1, 340.—And in Livy impers.: nisi receptui cecinisset, if it had not sounded a counter-march, Liv. 26, 44, 4: ut referrent pedem, si receptui cecinisset, id. 3, 22, 6.—

b. Trop.: revocante et receptui canente senatu, Cic. Phil. 12, 3, 8: ratio abstrahit ab acerbis cogitationibus a quibus cum cecinit receptui, id. Tusc. 3, 15, 33: antequam (orator) in has aetatis (sc. senectutis) veniat insidias, receptui canet, Quint. 12, 11, 4.!*? Examples for the signif. to practice magic, to charm, etc., found in the derivv. cantus, canto, etc., are entirely wanting in this verb.