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causa (by Cicero, and also a little after him, caussa, Quint. 1, 7, 20; so Fast. Praenest. pp. 321, 322; Inscr. Orell. 3681; 4077; 4698 al.; in Mon. Ancyr. 3, 1 dub.), ae, f. [perh. root cav- of caveo, prop. that which is defended or protected; cf. cura], that by, on account of, or through which any thing takes place or is done; a cause, reason, motive, inducement; also, in gen., an occasion, opportunity (opp. effectis, Quint. 6, 3, 66; 7, 3, 29: factis, id. 4, 2, 52; 12, 1, 36 al.; very freq. in all periods, and in all kinds of discourse. In its different meanings syn. with ratio, principium, fons, origo, caput; excusatio, defensio; judicium, controversia, lis; partes, actio; condicio, negotium, commodum, al.).

I. In gen.: causa ea est, quae id efficit, cujus est causa; ut vulnus mortis; cruditas morbi; ignis ardoris. Itaque non sic causa intellegi debet, ut quod cuique antecedat, id ei causa sit, sed quod cuique efficienter antecedat, Cic. Fat. 15, 34: justa et magna et perspicua, id. Rosc. Am. 14, 40: id. Phil. 2, 22, 53; id. Att. 16, 7, 6: sontica causa, v. sonticus.—Followed by a particle of cause: causa, quamobrem, etc., Ter. And. 5, 1, 18; id. Eun. 1, 2, 65; id. Heaut. 2, 3, 95; id. Hec. 3, 3, 22; 3, 5, 2; 4, 4, 73; Cic. Fin. 4, 16, 44: causa, quare, etc., Cic. Inv. 2, 20, 60: causa, cur, etc., id. Ac. 1, 3, 10; Quint. 11, 3, 16; 2, 3, 11; Hor. C. 1, 16, 19 al.: causa quod, etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 46, 109; id. Phil. 6, 1, 1; Quint. 2, 1, 1; 5, 10, 30 al.: ut, etc., Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 7; Ter. Eun. 3, 3, 6; Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 4 al.: haud causa quin, etc., Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 4: quae causa est quin, id. Capt. 2, 2, 103: quid causae est quin, Ter. And. 3, 4, 21; Cic. Tusc. 5, 11, 32; Hor. S. 1, 1, 20: nulla causa est quin, Cic. Fam. 2, 17, 1: causa quominus, Sall. C. 51, 41; Liv. 34, 56, 9: causa ne, id. 34, 39, 9: nihil causae est cur non, etc., Quint. 11, 3, 59: causae propter quas, etc., id. 4, 2, 12; 5, 7, 24; 8, 6, 23.—With gen. obj.: is, qui causa mortis fuit, Cic. Phil. 9, 3, 7; Liv. 21, 21, 1; Quint. 7, 3, 18; 7, 4, 42: salutis, Lucr. 3, 349: morbi, id. 3, 502; Verg. G. 4, 397; Hor. C. 2, 2, 14: nos causa belli sumus, Liv. 1, 13, 3: causa mortis fuistis, Quint. 7, 3, 32; Sen. Ira, 2, 27, 3: explicandae philosophiae, Cic. Div. 2, 2, 6: nec vero umquam bellorum civilium semen et causa deerit, id. Off. 2, 8, 29; so, belli, Sall. C. 2, 2; Verg. A. 7, 553; Hor. C. 2, 1, 2; id. S. 1, 3, 108; id. Ep. 1, 2, 9: felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas, Verg. G. 2, 490: vera objurgandi causa, Ter. And. 1, 1, 131; cf. with ad: causa ad objurgandum, id. ib. 1, 1, 123; id. Hec. 4, 4, 71; and poet. with inf.: consurgere in arma, Verg. A. 10, 90: perire, Tib. 3, 2, 30: gestare carinas, Luc. 5, 464.— With prepp.: cum causā, with good reason, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 8, 21; id. de Or. 2, 60, 247; Varr. R. R. 1, 17, 4: sine causā, without good reason, Cic. Div. 2, 28, 61; id. Fat. 9, 18; id. de Or. 2, 60, 246; id. Att. 13, 22, 1; Caes. B. G. 1, 14; Nep. Alcib. 6, 2; Quint. 1, 10, 35; 1, 12, 9: his de causis, Cic. Att. 6, 1, 6: id nisi gravi de causā non fecisset, id. ib. 7, 7, 3: justis de causis, id. Fam. 5, 20, 2: quā de causā, id. Off. 1, 41, 147; id. Ac. 1, 12, 43; Caes. B. G. 1, 1: quibus de causis, Quint. 4, 2, 15; less freq. in ante-Aug. prose: quā ex causa, Cic. Rep. 2, 7, 13; id. Mur. 17, 36; but very freq. in Quint., Sen., and the younger Plin.; so, nullā aliā ex causā, Sen. Ep. 29, 1: multis ex causis, Quint. 5, 12, 3: quibus ex causis, id. 4, 2, 15; Plin. Ep. 6, 6, 8: ex plurimis causis, id. ib. 1, 3, 6: ex his (causis), id. ib. 5, 8, 6:—ob eam causam scribo, ut, etc., Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 4: illa festinatio fuit ob illam causam, ne, etc., id. Verr. 2, 2, 40, 99; Nep. Milt. 6, 2: ob eam causam, quia, etc., Cic. N. D. 3, 20, 51: ob eas causas, Caes. B. G. 1, 10: ob eam ipsam causam, Cic. Brut. 7, 29: quam ob causam, Nep. Paus. 2, 6: propter eam quam dixi causam, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 46, 110: causae propter quas, Quint. 4, 2, 12.—In causā esse, to be the cause of, responsible for, etc. (rare): in causā haec sunt, Cic. Fam. 1, 1, 1: vim morbi in causā esse, quo serius perficeretur, Liv. 40, 26, 5: verecundiam multis in causā fuisse, ut, etc., Quint. 12, 5, 2; Plin. Ep. 6, 10, 3; 7, 5, 1; Plin. 9, 30, 49, 94; cf.: tarditatis causa in senatu fuit, Liv. 4, 58, 4.—

b. Causā, in abl. with gen. or possess. adj. (usu. put after the noun), as patris causā, meā causā, on account of, for the sake of (in the best prose, almost always referring to the future, and implying a purpose; cf. propter with acc. of the pre-existing cause or motive): honoris tui causā huc ad te venimus, Plaut. Poen. 3, 3, 25; Ter. Phorm. 5, 7, 35; Cic. Fam. 13, 26, 2 al.: animi causa, v. animus, II., etc.: exempli causā, v. exemplum: causā meā, Plaut. Most. 5, 2, 47; id. Poen. 1, 2, 160; id. Am. 1, 3, 42 al.; Ter. Heaut. prol. 41; 5, 5, 23 al.; causā meāpte, id. ib. 4, 3, 8: nostra causa, id. Phorm. 4, 4, 14; Cic. Ac. 2, 38, 120; Quint. 7, 4, 9: vestrā magis hoc causā volebam quam meā, Cic. de Or. 1, 35. 162: aliena potius causa quam sua, Quint. 3, 7, 16.—Put before the noun: rastros capsit causă potiendi agri, Enn. Ann. 324 Vahl.: quidquid hujus feci, causā virginis Feci, Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 122; so Liv. 26, 32, 6; 31, 12, 4; 39, 14, 8; 40, 41 fin.; 40, 44, 10.—Rarely with propter in the same sense: vestrarum sedum templorumque causā, propter salutem meorum civium, Cic. Sest. 20, 45.—With gen. of pers. or reflex. pron. instead of possess. very rare (v. Lahmeyer ad Cic. Lael. 16, 57): quod illi semper sui causā fecerant, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 52, 121.

II. Esp.

A. = justa causa, good reason, just cause, full right: cum causā accedere ad accusandum, with good reason, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 8, 21; so, cum causā, id. de Or. 2, 60, 247; Varr. R. R. 1, 17, 4; 3, 16, 7; and the contrary: sine causā, without good reason, Cic. Div. 2, 28, 61; id. de Or. 2, 60, 246; Caes. B. G. 1, 14; Nep. Alcib. 6, 2 al.

B. An apology, excuse, Cato, R. R. 2, 2; Plaut. Capt. 3, 4, 92; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 42; Cic. Fam. 16, 19 fin.; Verg. A. 9, 219 al.

C. Causam alicui dare alicujus rei, occasion: qui (Nebatius) mihi dedit causam harum litterarum, Cic. Fam. 11, 27, 8; for which poët.: Bacchus et ad culpam causas dedit, Verg. G. 2, 455 Forbig. ad loc.—

D. A feigned cause, a pretext, pretence, = praetextus, πρόφασις: habere causam, Plaut. As. 4, 1, 44: fingere falsas causas, Ter. Hec. 4, 4, 71; id. And. 1, 3, 8 Ruhnk.; 4, 1, 18; id. Phorm. 2, 1, 4: fingit causas ne det, id. Eun. 1, 2, 58; cf. Tib. 1, 6, 11: morae facere, to pretend reasons for the delay, Sall. J. 36, 2: inferre causam, Caes. B. G. 1, 39, 2: causam interponere, Nep. Them. 7, 1; cf. id. Milt. 4, 1: bellandi, id. Ham. 3, 1: belli, Tac. A. 12, 45: jurgii, Phaedr. 1, 1, 4 al. (On the other hand, causa, a true cause, is opp. to praetextus, a pretext, Suet. Caes. 30.)—So freq. per causam, under the pretext, Caes. B. C. 3, 24; 3, 76; 3, 87; Liv. 2, 32, 1 Drak.; 22, 61, 8; Suet. Caes. 2; id. Oth. 3; id. Vesp. 1; Tib. 1, 6, 26; Ov. H. 20, 140; id. Tr. 2, 452.—

E. In judic. lang. t. t., a cause, judicial process, lawsuit: privatae, Cic. Inv. 1, 3, 4: publicae, id. de Or. 3, 20, 74; id. Rosc. Am. 21, 59: capitis aut famae, id. Fam. 9, 21, 1: causam agere, id. de Or. 2, 48, 199; Quint. 6, 1, 54; 7, 2, 55; 10, 7, 30; 11, 1, 67 et saep.: constituere, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 1, 1: perorare, id. Quint. 24, 77: defendere, Quint. 3, 6, 9; 12, 1, 24; 12, 1, 37; Suet. Caes. 49: exponere, Quint. 2, 5, 7: perdere, Cic. Rosc. Com. 4, 10: obtinere, id. Fam. 1, 4, 1: tenere (= obticere), Ov. M. 13, 190: causā cadere, v. cado, II.: causam dicere, to defend one's self, or to make a defence (as an advocate), Cic. Rosc. Am. 5, 12 and 13; 21, 54; id. Sest. 8, 18; id. Quint. 8, 31; Liv. 29, 19, 5; Quint. 5, 11, 39; 8, 2, 24; Suet. Caes. 30 et saep.—Poet.: causa prior, the first part of the process, i. e. the trial, Ov. M. 15, 37.—Hence,

2. Out of the sphere of judicial proceedings, the party, faction, cause that one defends: ne condemnare causam illam, quam secutus esset, videretur, etc., Cic. Lig. 9, 27 sq.: suarum partium causa, Quint. 3, 8, 57: causa Caesaris melior, id. 5, 11, 42; Tac. A. 1, 36 al. —Hence,

b. Meton.

(a). A relation of friendship, connection: quīcum tibi adfininitas, societas, omnes denique causae et necessitudines veteres intercedebant, Cic. Quint. 15, 48: explicare breviter, quae mihi sit ratio et causa cum Caesare, id. Prov. Cons. 17, 40; id. Fam. 13, 19, 1.—

(b). In gen., = condicio, a condition, state, situation, relation, position: ut nonnumquam mortem sibi ipse consciscere aliquis debeat, alius in eādem causā non debeat: num enim aliā in causā M. Cato fuit, alia ceteri, qui se in Africā Caesari tradiderunt? Cic. Off. 1, 31, 112; so Caes. B. G. 4, 4 Herz.: (Regulus) erat in meliore causā quam, etc., Cic. Off. 3, 27, 100; id. Agr. 3, 2, 9 (where for causa in the foll. clause is condicio): atque in hoc genere mea causa est, ut, etc., id. Fam. 2, 4, 1; cf. id. ib. 9, 13, 1.—

(g). = negotium, a cause, business undertaken for any one, an employment: cui senatus dederat publice causam, ut mihi gratias ageret, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 73, 170: quod nemo eorum rediisset, qui super tali causā eodem missi erant, Nep. Paus. 4, 1.—

F. In medic. lang., a cause for disease: causam metuere, Cels. 3, 3; so Sen. Cons. ad Marc. 11 fin.; Plin. 28, 15, 61, 218.—Hence in late Lat. for disease, Cael. Aur. Tard. 5, 10, 95; id. Acut. 2, 29, 157; Veg. 1, 25, 1; 3, 6, 11; 3, 45, 5; 4, 4, 2 al.—

G. That which lies at the basis of a rhetorical representation, matter, subject, ὑπόθεσις, Cic. Top. 21, 79; id. Inv. 1, 6, 8; Auct. Her. 1, 11, 18; Quint. 3, 5, 7 sq.