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clārus, a, um, adj. [kindr. with Germ. klar; Engl. clear; cf. clamo], clear, bright (opp. obscurus, caecus; very freq. in all periods, and in all kinds of composition).

I. Lit.

A. Relating to the sight, clear, bright, shining, brilliant, etc.

(a). Absol.: luce clarā et candidā, Plaut. Am. 1, 3, 49: ut mulierum famam multorum oculis lux clara custodiat, open day, Cic. Leg. 2, 15, 37; cf.: frequentissimā celebritate et clarissimā luce laetari, id. Cael. 20, 47: lumen, Lucr. 3, 1: oculorum lumina, id. 4, 825; cf.: mundi lumina (i.e. sol et luna), Verg. G. 1, 5: oculi, Cato, R. R. 157, 10: incendia, Verg. A. 2, 569: lucerna, Hor. S. 2, 7, 48: scintillae ignis, Lucr. 6, 163: fulmina, id. 6, 84: vestis splendor, id. 2, 52: color, id. 5, 1258; cf.: color clarissimus, id. 2, 830: candor, id. 4, 232: loca, id. 5, 779 al.: caelum, Tac. A. 1, 28: nox, id. Agr. 12: pater omnipotens clarus intonat, in the clear sky, Verg. A. 7, 141 Serv.; cf. Cic. Arat. 4: sidus, Hor. C. 4, 8, 31: clarissimae gemmae, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 27, 62; cf. lapides, Hor. C. 4, 13, 14: vitrum, Ov. M. 4, 355: purpurarum sidere clarior usus, Hor. C. 3, 1, 42.—

(b). With abl.: speculo, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 112 dub.: argento clari delphines, Verg. A. 8, 673: rutilis squamis, id. G. 4, 93: ferrugine, id. A. 9, 582; cf. id. ib. 11, 772 Wagn.: auro gemmisque corona, Ov. M. 13, 704; 2, 2; 11, 359: albo Lucifer exit Clarus equo, id. ib. 15, 190: claraeque coruscis Fulguribus taedae, Lucr. 5, 295 al.

2. Poet., of the wind (cf.: albus, candidus, and in Gr. λαμπρὸς ἄνεμος; v. Lidd. and Scott under λαμπρός), making clear, i. e. bringing fair weather: aquilo, Verg. G. 1, 460 Forbig. ad loc.—

B. Relating to the hearing, clear, loud, distinct: clarā voce vocare, Lucr. 4, 711; Cic. Clu. 48, 134; id. Caecin. 8, 22; Liv. 7, 31, 12; 42, 25, 12; Ov. M. 3, 703: lectio, Cels. 1, 2: clariore voce, Caes. B. G. 5, 30; cf. Cic. Tusc. 5, 7, 19: sonor, Lucr. 4, 567: clamor, Plaut. Poen. 5, 3, 27: plausus, id. As. Grex. 6: plangor, Ov. M. 4, 138: latratus, id. ib. 13, 806: ictus, id. ib. 2, 625: strepitus, Suet. Vit. Luc.: vox (opp. obtusa), Quint. 11, 3, 15; 9, 4, 136 Spald.: spiritus, id. 11, 3, 55; cf. id. 11, 3, 41 and 82: syllabae clariores, id. 8, 3, 16.—

II. Trop.

A. Clear, manifest, plain, evident, intelligible (syn.: planus, apertus, perspicuus, dilucidus, etc.): vide ut mi haec certa et clara attuleris, Ter. Hec. 5, 4, 1 Ruhnk.; cf.: omnia non properanti clara certaque erunt, Liv. 22, 39, 22: clara res est, quam dicturus sum, totā Siciliā celeberrima atque notissima, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 25, 61; 2, 5, 38, 101; id. Tusc. 1, 32, 78: luce sunt clariora nobis tua consilia, id. Cat. 1, 3, 6: id quod est luce clarius, id. Tusc. 1, 37, 90: si ea, quae dixi, sole ipso inlustriora et clariora sunt, id. Fin. 1, 21, 71; id. Div. 1, 3, 6: caecis hoc satis clarum est, Quint. 12, 7, 9: lumen eloquentiae, id. 3, 8, 65; cf. id. 12, 10, 15; 11, 1, 75: in narrando (T. Livius) clarissimi candoris, id. 10, 1, 101 Spald. and Frotsch.: Massinissam regem post LXXXVI. annum generasse filium clarum est, Plin. 7, 14, 12, 61: somno clarius, Ov. F. 3, 28: exempla, Tac. Or. 8; id. A. 4, 11: documenta, id. ib. 6, 22.—

B. Brilliant, celebrated, renowned, illustrious, honorable, famous, glorious, etc. (cf.: illustris, insignis, eximius, egregius, praestans, nobilis; a favorite epithet, esp. in the sup., like fortissimus, designating the highest praise of the honor-loving Roman; hence, a standing title, at all times, of distinguished public characters, as consuls, proconsuls, pontifices, senators, etc.): nobilitas, Plaut. Rud. 4, 2, 28; opp. to obscurus, Lucr. 1, 639; so Quint. 5, 10, 26: clari viri atque magni, Cato ap. Cic. Planc. 27, 66; Cic. Sest. 69, 144: certe non tulit ullos haec civitas aut gloriā clariores, aut auctoritate graviores, Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154: vir fortissimus et clarissimus, id. Verr. 1, 15, 44; cf. id. ib. 2, 5, 58, 153; id. de Or. 1, 45, 198; id. Clu. 48, 134: exempla clara et inlustria, id. Div. 2, 3, 8: pugna clara et commemorabilis, Plaut. Ps. 1, 5, 111: pax clarior majorque quam bellum fuerat, Liv. 10, 37, 4: animus abunde pollens potensque et clarus, Sall. J. 1, 3; so, facundia clara pollensque, id. ib. 30, 4: clara et magnifica, id. ib. 4, 8: clari potentesque fieri, id. C. 38, 1: familia, Tac. A. 2, 37; 3, 76: majores, id. ib. 4, 61: pater si in Equestri gradu clarus, clarior vitricus, Plin. Ep. 2, 13, 4: clarissimi consules, id. ib. 7, 33, 8: generis clarissimus auctor, Ov. P. 2, 9, 19: clarissima civitas, Nep. Thras. 2, 1: apud Germanicos quoque (Titus), Tac. H. 2, 77: scriptores, id. A. 1, 1.—

(b). With abl.: clariores gloriā, Cic. de Or. 2, 37, 154; v. supra: arte medicinae, Quint. 3, 6, 64: eloquendi suavitate, id. 10, 1, 83: sententiis, id. 10, 1, 90: Juppiter giganteo triumpho, Hor. C. 3, 1, 7: agendis causis, id. Ep. 1, 7, 47: Ajax toties servatis Achivis, id. S. 2, 3, 194: bello, Tac. Agr. 29; id. H. 3, 44: gens memoriā nominis, id. ib. 1, 67: Cluvius Rufus eloquentiā, id. ib. 4, 43.—

(g). With in: in arte tibiarum, Quint. 2, 3, 3; cf.: clarissimi in eā scientiā, Plin. 36, 5, 4, 11: in litteris, Quint. 1, 6, 35: in agendo, id. 12, 10, 49: in foro, id. 10, 5, 14: in contionibus, id. 12, 2, 7; 12, 10, 49.—

(d). With ex: ex doctrinā nobilis et clarus, Cic. Rab. Post. 9, 23.—(ε) With ob: ob obscuram linguam, Lucr. 1, 639: ob id factum, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 32; cf.: urbs clara ob insignem munimento naturali locum, Liv. 24, 39, 8.—(ζ) With ab: Trojanoque a sanguine clarus Acestes, Verg. A. 1, 550.—(η) With gen.: artis ejus, Plin. 37, 1, 4, 8.—

2. As a title: clarissimus vir, Cic. Att. 15, 20, 2; cf. id. ib. 14, 11, 1: clarissimi consules, Plin. Ep. 7, 33, 8; cf. Dig. 49, 14, 18; Lampr. Elag. 4; Alex. Sev. 21 al.: permitto tibi vir clarissime Veiento (a senator), dicere, Plin. Ep. 9, 13, 19; so, ordo = senatorius, Vop. Aur. 18 fin.; cf. also Isid. Orig. 9, 4, 12.—

b. Meton., of the wives of such distinguished public characters: clarissimae feminae, Dig. 1, 9, 8.—

c. In a bad sense, notorious: minus clarum putavit fore quod de armario quam quod de sacrario esset ablatum, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 12, 27; 2, 1, 19, 50; 2, 4, 12, 29: ecquid hoc totā Siciliā clarius, ecquid indignius? etc., id. ib. 2, 5, 7, 16: populus (sc. Campanus), luxuriā superbiāque clarus, Liv. 7, 31, 6.—Hence, adv.: clārē (freq. and class.).

I. Lit.

1. Of sight (acc. to I. A.), brightly, clearly: clare oculis video, Plaut. Mil. 3, 1, 35: clare fulgens caesaries, Cat. 66, 9: occidere, of a star, Col. 11, 2, 52.—Comp.: clarius micare, Plin. 10, 20, 22, 43: nitere, Stat. S. 4, 1, 4. —Sup.: clarissime lucere, Vitr. 9, 4.—

2. Of hearing (acc. to I. B.), clearly, distinctly, plainly, aloud: clare recitare, Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 30: plaudite, id. Am. fin.; cf. id. Bacch. fin.: dic, Ter. And. 4, 4, 15 Ruhnk.: gemere, Cic. Att. 2, 20, 3: res clare enuntiare, Quint. 8, 3, 62: sonare, id. 11, 3, 55: exscreare, id. 11, 3, 160: maledicere, Suet. Vit. 14 et saep.: palam et clare, id. Claud. 3; cf. Mart. 7, 92, 5.—Comp.: clarius fabulari, Suet. Calig. 22.—Sup.: pisces clarissime audiunt, Plin. 10, 70, 89, 193; Vitr. 5, 3.—

II. Trop.

1. Mentally (acc. to II. A.), distinctly, intelligibly, clearly: clare atque evidenter ostendere, Quint. 8, 3, 86; cf. id. 4, 1, 1: aliquid intellegere, Plin. 37, 2, 6, 16. —Comp.: eo clarius id periculum apparet, Cael. ap. Cic. Fam. 8, 14, 2; so, clarius intellegi, Quint. 2, 5, 7: clarius elucebit, id. 12, 1, 26: clarius ostendemus, id. 2, 17, 25 al.Sup., Quint. 9, 1, 19.—

2. Morally (acc. to II. B.), illustriously, honorably (very rare): clarius exsplendescebat, Nep. Att. 1, 3.