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con-firmo, āvi, ātum, 1, v. a., to make firm, establish, strengthen, confirm (class., esp. in prose).

I. In gen. (prop. and trop.): stipites confirmare et stabilire, Caes. B. G. 7, 73: ali hōc vires nervosque confirmari putant, id. ib. 6, 21: dentis mobilis, Plin. 28, 11, 49, 178; cf. Scrib. Comp. 57; 59 sq.: confirmare et densare defluentem capillum, Plin. 25, 11, 83, 132: crus debile, Suet. Vesp. 7; cf. id. Aug. 80: maxime religando confirmant parietum soliditatem, Vitr. 2, 8, 7: castellum magnis munitionibus multisque tormentis, Auct. B. Alex. 21, 5: intestina, i. e. to heal, cure, Cels. 4, 19: cicatriculam, id. 2, 10 fin.: se, to recover physically, to grow well (corresp. with convalescere), Cic. Fam. 16, 1, 2; 16, 3, 1; 16, 4, 4; 16, 1, 1.—Transf., of the vine, Col. 4, 3, 4: valetudinem, Cic. Att. 10, 17, 2: pacem et amicitiam cum proximis civitatibus, Caes. B. G. 1, 3; cf.: confirmare societatem datā ac acceptā fide, Sall. C. 44, 3: opes factionis, id. ib. 32, 2; cf.: viris suas, Vell. 2, 44, 2: suam manum, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 9, 24: se transmarinis auxiliis, Caes. B. C. 1, 29: conjurationem, Nep. Dion, 8, 3: regnum Persarum, id. Milt. 3, 5; so, regnum, Suet. Caes. 9: imperium, id. Vit. 9: decreta, to confirm, Nep. Phoc. 3, 2: acta Caesaris, Cic. Att. 16, 16, C, 12: acta alicujus in transmarinis provinciis, Vell. 2, 44, 2: beneficia edicto, Suet. Tit. 8: provinciam a Caesare datam, id. Aug. 10.—

II. Esp.

A. To confirm or strengthen courage, to instil courage into one, to encourage, inspirit, animate, embolden: animum meum, to take heart, take courage, Plaut. Aul. 2, 8, 1: animum sapientissimi hominis, Cic. Fam. 6, 6, 2; id. Quint. 24, 77: maximi animi hominem, id. ib. 4, 8, 1: animos ratione, Lucr. 1, 426: confirmare et excitare afflictos animos bonorum, Cic. Att. 1, 16, 8: animos Gallorum verbis, Caes. B. G. 1, 33; Sall. C. 46, 3: vacillantium gentium animos, Vell. 2, 120, 1: suos ad dimicandum animo, Caes. B. G. 5, 49: milites, id. ib. 5, 52: timentes, id. ib. 7, 7; cf.: diffidentem rebus suis, Cic. Imp. Pomp. 9, 23: territos, Sall. J. 38, 5: perterritos, Suet. Caes. 66; id. Aug. 43: Massilienses obsidione laborantes adventu suo, id. Ner. 2: animum suum ad virtutem, Auct. Her. 4, 22, 31 Klotz (al. conformavit): nepotem suum ad successionem imperii, Suet. Tib. 55 fin.: nunc erige te et confirma, take courage, Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 5: cum ipse te confirmasses, hast acquired courage, id. Quint. 11, 39; cf.: confirmant ipsi se, id. Verr. 2, 5, 36, 95; Caes. B. G. 2, 19; id. B. C. 1, 14 al.: eos multa pollicendo confirmat, uti Romam pergerent, Sall. J. 23, 2: alius alium confirmare, ne nomina darent, Liv. 2, 24, 2.—Aliquem alicui rei: gladiatores Lentulus libertati confirmat, encourages them to freedom, i. e. incites them to make themselves worthy of freedom, Caes. B. C. 1, 14, 4 dub. (Dinter and Kraner: spe libertatis).—With abstr. objects: reliqui temporis spem, Cic. Div. in Caecil. 22, 71: spem alicujus, Suet. Calig. 12: suspitionem, id. Tib. 52; cf.: sensus rectus et confirmatus, Cic. Fam. 1, 8, 2.—

B. To confirm one in his disposition or feelings, in his fidelity (rare): insulas bene animatas, Nep. Cim. 2, 4: homines, Caes. B. C. 1, 15: Gallias, Vell. 2, 120.—

C. To confirm, give full assurance of, a fact, corroborate an assertion, settle, fix, establish, to prove, demonstrate the truth of a thing, etc. (very freq.): confirmare nostra argumentis ac rationibus, deinde contraria refutare, Cic. de Or. 2, 19, 80; so opp. refutare, Quint. 5, prooem. 2; 5, 13, 53; cf. opp. refellere, id. 3, 9, 6; 12, 1, 45; opp. diluere, id. 9, 2, 80: confirmare aut infirmare rem, Cic. Inv. 1, 30, 49: divinationem, id. Div. 1, 32, 71; cf. id. ib. 2, 32, 78: quorum omnium testimoniis de hac Dionis pecuniā confirmatum est, id. Verr. 2, 2, 8, 23: crimen commenticium, id. Rosc. Am. 15, 42: haec istius vituperatio atque infamia confirmabatur eorum sermone, qui, etc., id. Verr. 2, 5, 38, 101: perjurium, id. ib. 2, 4, 9, 19: iste locus est tibi etiam atque etiam confirmandus, id. Fin. 5, 32, 95: his rebus confirmatis, Caes. B. G. 6, 6 Kraner ad loc. —With acc. and inf., Lucr. 2, 185; cf. id. 2, 179; 5, 198.—Pass. impers., with ne: sanctissimo jurejurando confirmari oportere, ne tecto recipiatur, qui non, etc., Caes. B. G. 7, 66 fin.: hoc idem visum esse ex superioribus castellis confirmaverunt, id. B. C. 3, 67; cf.: hoc ex ipsis caeli rationibus ausim Confirmare, nequaquam esse creatam, etc., Lucr. 2, 179.—Hence,

2. To assert, affirm, protest something as true or certain; constr. with acc., acc. and inf., or de: hoc cum mihi non modo confirmasset, sed etiam persuasisset, Cic. Att. 16, 5, 2: talem exsistere eloquentiam non potuisse confirmo, id. de Or. 2, 2, 6.—So with acc. and inf., Cic. Verr. 1, 17, 50; cf.: illud se polliceri et jurejurando confirmare, tutum iter per fines suos daturum, Caes. B. G. 5, 27: confirmare, fidem publicam per sese inviolatam fore, Sall. J. 33, 3: memini me audire te de glorioso et celeri reditu meo confirmare, Cic. Fam. 6, 6, 2.—So with de, Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 1; id. Arch. 7, 15.—Hence, confirmātus, a, um, P. a.

A. (In acc. with II. A.) Encouraged, courageous, resolute: animus certus et confirmatus, Cic. Quint. 24, 77; so, sensus rectus et confirmatus, id. Fam. 1, 8, 2: confirmatiorem exercitum efficere, Caes. B. C. 3, 84.—

B. (Acc. to II. C.) Asserted, affirmed: in quibus (litteris) erat confirmatius idem illud, etc., Cic. Att. 10, 15, 1.—

C. (Proved; hence,) Certain, credible: quod eo confirmatius erit, si, etc., Cic. Inv. 2, 11, 35: fides confirmatissima, most fixed, Porph. ad Hor. S. 1, 5, 27.— Adv.: confirmātē (in acc. with I.), firmly, Auct. Her. 4, 11, 16.