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con-tendo, di, tum, 3, v. a. and n., to stretch, stretch out vigorously, to draw tight, strain.

I. Lit. (rare and mostly poet.): arcum, Verg. A. 12, 815; Ov. M. 6, 286; id. R. Am. 435: tormenta, Sisen. ap. Non. p. 258, 27; Cic. Tusc. 2, 24, 57: muscipula, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 181, 31: tenacia vincla, Verg. G. 4, 412: ilia risu, Ov. A. A. 3, 285: pontem in alto, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 7, 21 Müll. (Ann. v. 358 Vahl.): oculi contendunt se, Lucr. 4, 810.— Of stringed instruments, to tune by stretching the strings: ut in fidibus pluribus, si nulla earum ita contenta nervis sit, ut concentum servare possit, Cic. Fin. 4, 27, 75; cf. infra, P. a.

B. Meton.

1. (Causa pro effectu.) Of weapons, to shoot, hurl, dart, throw: infensam hastam, Verg. A. 10, 521: tela, id. ib. 12, 815: sagittas nervo, Sil. 1, 323: telum aërias in auras, Verg. A. 5, 520. —

2. Of places, neutr., to stretch, reach, extend: haec patulum vallis contendit in orbem, Calp. Ecl. 7, 30: Cappadocum gens usque ad Cyrresticam ejus regionem parte suā, quae vocatur Cataonia, contendit, Plin. 6, 8, 8, 24.—

II. Trop. (freq. in prose and poetry); act., to strain eagerly, to stretch, exert, to direct one's mental powers to something, to pursue or strive for earnestly; or neutr., to exert one's self, to strive zealously for something, etc.

A. In gen.

1. Act.

(a). With acc.: magnum fortasse onus, verum tamen dignum, in quo omnis nervos aetatis industriaeque meae contenderem, Cic. Verr. 1, 12, 35; cf.: contendit omnis nervos Chrysippus, ut persuadeat, etc., id. Fat. 10, 21: summas vires de palmā, Lucr. 4, 990: animum in curas, Ov. P. 1, 5, 11: quo se dira libido, Lucr. 4, 1043: tamen id sibi contendendum aut aliter non transducendum exercitum existimabat, Caes. B. G. 4, 17; cf.: id contendere et laborare, ne ea, etc., id. ib. 1, 31; Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 21, 52: et petere imperium populi et contendere honores, Varr. ap. Non. p. 259, 32.—

(b). With inf., to exert one's self vigorously to do something, to apply one's self with zeal to, to go to: hunc locum duabus ex partibus oppugnare contendit, Caes. B. G. 5, 21: summā vi transcendere in hostium naves, id. ib. 3, 15: fugā salutem petere, id. ib. al.; Quint. 10, 1, 125: neque ego nunc hoc contendo ... mutare animum, sed, etc., Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 13, 38.—

2. Neutr.: quantum coniti animo potes, quantum labore contendere ... tantum fac ut efficias, Cic. Off. 3, 2, 6.— With ut: quántum potero voce contendam, ut populus hoc Romanus exaudiat, Cic. Lig. 3, 6; so, remis, ut eam partem insulae caperet, Caes. B. G. 5, 8 et saep.: contende quaeso atque elabora, ut, etc., Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 14, 42.—Absol.: vociferarer et, quantum maxime possem, contenderem, Cic. Fl. 16, 38 al.: non possis oculo quantum contendere Lynceus (= collineare), to aim at, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 28.—

B. In partic.,

1. To direct or bend one's course eagerly somewhere; or, neutr., to strive to get to a place, to seek to arrive at, to go, march, or journey hastily to, etc.

a. Act.

(a). With acc. (very rare): rectā plateā cursum suum, Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 58: nocte unā tantum itineris, Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97.—

(b). With inf. (freq.): Bibracte ire, Caes. B. G. 1, 23; so, ire cum his legionibus, id. ib. 1, 10: in Britanniam proficisci, id. ib. 4, 20: in provinciam reverti, id. ib. 3, 6 fin.: Dyrrhachium petere, Cic. Planc. 41, 97; cf.: proxima litora petere cursu, Verg. A. 1, 158; and: iter a Vibone Brundisium terrā petere, Cic. Planc. 40, 96 Wund.—

b. Neutr. (so most freq.): in Italiam magnis itineribus, Caes. B. G. 1, 10; cf.: huc magnis itineribus, id. ib. 1, 38 fin.: huc magno cursu, id. ib. 3, 19: inde in Italiam, id. ib. 1, 33: in fines Sigambrorum, id. ib. 4, 18: in castra, id. ib. 4, 37: ex eo loco ad flumen, id. ib. 2, 9: ad Rhenum finesque Germanorum, id. ib. 1, 27 fin.: ad oppidum Noviodunum, id. ib. 2, 12: ad castra, id. ib. 2, 19 fin.; 3, 24 fin.: ad hostes, id. ib. 5, 9: ad Amanum, Cic. Att. 5, 20, 3: Tarentum ad Heraclidem Ponticum, Varr. ap. Non. p. 260, 19: Lacedaemonem, Nep. Cim. 3, 3: domum, Caes. B. G. 2, 24 fin. et saep.: ad ultimum animo, Cic. Mur. 31, 65; cf.: magna spectare atque ad ea rectis studiis contendere, id. Off. 2, 13, 44: ad summam laudem gloriamque maximis laboribus et periculis, id. Phil. 14, 12, 32: ad salutem, Caes. B. G. 3, 3 fin.

2. (Neutr.) To measure or try one's strength with, with weapons, by words, in action, etc.; to strive, dispute, fight, contend against, vie with; constr. with cum aliquo, contra or adversus aliquem, the dat., inter se, or absol.

(a). Cum aliquo: neque post id tempus umquam summis nobiscum copiis hostes contenderunt, Caes. B. G. 5, 17 fin.; 1, 36: cum Sequanis bello, id. ib. 7, 67 fin.: cum eo armis, Cic. Att. 7, 9, 2: cum magnis legionibus parvā manu, Sall. C. 53, 3: cum barbaro, Nep. Con. 4, 3: cum victore, Hor. S. 1, 9, 42: mecum ingenio et arte, Prop. 2 (3), 24, 23 al.: cum eo de principatu, Nep. Arist. 1, 1; cf. id. Ages. 1, 4 al.: divitiis et sumptibus, non probitate neque industriā cum majoribus suis, Sall. J. 4, 7: humilitas cum dignitate et amplitudine, Cic. Rosc. Am. 47, 136.—So with acc. of neutr. pron.: tamenne vereris, ut possis haec contra Hortensium contendere? Cic. Quint. 25, 78.—

(b). Contra aliquem: contra populum Romanum armis, Caes. B. G. 2, 13: tauri pro vitulis contra leones summā vi impetuque contendunt, Cic. Fin. 3, 20, 66: contra vim gravitatemque morbi, id. Phil. 9, 7, 15: nihil contra naturam universam, id. Off. 1, 31, 110; Cat. 64, 101.—

(g). Adversus aliquem: non contendam ego adversus te, Anton. ap. Cic. Att. 14, 13, A, 2.—

(d). With dat. (poet.): hirundo cycnis, Lucr. 3, 6: Homero, Prop. 1, 7, 3; 1, 14, 7: Pindaricis plectris, Stat. S. 1, 3, 101.—(ε) Inter se: hi cum tantopere de potentatu inter se multos annos contenderent, Caes. B. G. 1, 31, 4; 1, 5, 3: viribus inter se, Lucr. 3, 784.—Impers.: interim proelio equestri inter duas acies contendebatur, the contest was carried on, Caes. B. G. 2, 9.—(ζ) Absol.: proelio, Caes. B. G. 1, 48; 1, 50 fin.; 3, 28 al.: magis virtute quam dolo, id. ib. 1, 13; Nep. Epam. 2, 5: translatio non habet quaestionem, de quā contendit orator, sed propter quam contendit, Quint. 3, 6, 72; cf. id. 6, 1, 50; 7, 9, 3 al.Impers.: summo jure contenditur, Cic. Caecin. 23, 65: de his lite contenditur, Quint. 3, 4, 8: de personis judicatur, sed de rebus contenditur, id. 10, 5, 13.—

b. In auctions, to vie with in bidding, to bid against: is liceri non destitit; illi quoad videbatur ferri aliquo modo posse, contenderunt, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 42, 99.—

3. (Act.) To place together in comparison, to compare, contrast; constr. with cum, ad, the dat., or acc. only.

(a). With cum: tuam iram contra cum ira Liberi, Naev. ap. Non. p. 259, 7; Caecil. ib. p. 259, 1: id cum defensione nostrā, Cic. Rosc. Am. 33, 93: rationem meam cum tuā ratione, id. N. D. 3, 4, 10; Tac. A. 4, 32 al.: suam vitam mecum, Licinius, Macer. ap. Non. p. 259, 3.—

(b). With ad: ut vim contendas tuam ad majestatem viri, Att. ap. Non. p. 259, 5 (Trag. Rel. v. 648 Rib.).—

(g). With dat.: Thestiadas Ledae, Lucil. ap. Non. p. 258, 30: vellera potantia Aquinatem fucum Sidonio ostro, Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 26; Aus. Grat. Act. 14 al.

(d). With acc. only: anulum, Plaut. Fragm. ap. Non. p. 258, 29: ipsas causas, quae inter se confligunt, Cic. Cat. 2, 11, 25: leges, id. Inv. 2, 49, 145: suam quaeque nobilitatem, formam, opes, Tac. A. 12, 1: vetera et praesentia, id. ib. 13, 3.—

4. (Act.) To demand, ask, solicit, entreat, beg earnestly, to seek to gain: cum a me peteret et summe contenderet, ut suum propinquum defenderem, Cic. Quint. 24, 77: verecundius a te, si quae magna res mihi petenda esset, contenderem, id. Fam. 2, 6, 1; so, ab aliquo, id. Verr. 2, 2, 53, 131; id. de Or. 1, 36, 166; id. Rosc. Am. 1, 4; id. Fam. 13, 7, 3; cf.: a magistris de proferendo die, id. ib. 12, 30, 5; id. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 5, 15: ne quid contra aequitatem, id. Off. 2, 20, 71: omni opere, ut, etc., Suet. Dom. 2: magno opere, ne, etc., id. Aug. 27; id. Vit. 3: pertinaciter, id. Caes. 1.—

5. (Act.) To assert, affirm earnestly, to maintain or contend energetically.

(a). With acc. and inf.: sic ego hoc contendo, me tibi ipsi adversario cujuscumque tribus rationem poposceris redditurum, Cic. Planc. 19, 48; id. Sest. 50, 107; id. Arch. 7, 15: apud eos contendit falsa esse delata, Nep. Them. 7, 2; id. Epam. 8, 1: illud pro me majoribusque meis contendere ausim, nihil nos ... scientes fuisse, Liv. 6, 40, 5; Quint. prooem. 11; 1, 2, 25; Suet. Calig. 15; id. Dom. 6; Lucr. 5, 1343; Cat. 44, 4; Ov. M. 2, 855; Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 37 al.

(b). Absol. (very rare): si manantia corpuscula iter claudunt, ut Asclepiades contendit, Cels. 1, praef. 28.—Hence, contentus, a, um, P. a.

A. Lit., stretched, strained, tense, tight: qui jam contento, jam laxo fune laborat, Hor. S. 2, 7, 20: acies oculorum, Lucr. 1, 325; cf.: contentis oculis prosequi aliquem, Suet. Tib. 7: contentis corporibus facilius feruntur onera (opp. remissa), Cic. Tusc. 2, 23, 54; cf.: contentā cervice trahunt plaustra (boves), Verg. G. 3, 536: Placideiani contento poplite miror Proelia, with the knee stiffly bent, Hor. S. 2, 7, 97.—

B. Trop., eager, intent: contenta mens fuit in eā ratione, Lucr. 4, 965; cf. Ov. M. 15, 515: et contentā voce atrociter dicere et summissā leniter, Cic. Or. 17, 56: ad tribunatum contento studio cursuque veniamus, id. Sest. 6, 13.—Sup.: contentissimā voce clamitans, App. M. 4, p. 147.—Adv.: con-tentē, earnestly, with great exertion, vehemently: pro se dicere ... mittere contentius, Cic. Tusc. 2, 24, 57; cf.: acriter atque contente pro suis decretis propugnare, Gell. 18, 1, 2: contentissime clamitare, App. Flor. n. 8: contentius ambulare, Cic. Tusc. 5, 34, 97: ornamentis iisdem uti fere licebit, alias contentius, alias summissius, id. de Or. 3, 55, 212: aliquid curiose atque contente lectitare, Gell. 3, 3, 1.