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corpus, ŏris, n. [cf. Sanscr. kar-, to make; Lat. creo], any object composed of materials perceptible by the senses, body, substance (opp. anima and animus; cf. the definition in Dig. 41, 3, 30 pr.).

I. Lit. (very frequent in every period and species of composition).

A. In gen., a body, whether living or lifeless: tangere aut tangi nisi corpus nulla potest res, Lucr. 1, 305: animi voluptates et dolores nasci fatemur e corporis voluptatibus et doloribus, etc., Cic. Fin. 1, 17, 55; cf. id. Tusc. 4, 10, 23: vita, quae corpore et spiritu continetur, id. Marcell. 9, 28: parvissima quaeque Corpora constabunt ex partibus infinitis, Lucr. 1, 617: ignea rerum, id. 1, 680: terraï, id. 5, 236: acerbum Neptuni, id. 2, 472: aquae, id. 2, 232 et saep.—Poet., plur. for sing.: nudabant corpora (nymphae) venti, Ov. M. 1, 527; Tib. 1, 8, 52 (cf. σώματα, Soph. Elec. 1232).—

B. In partic.

1. The flesh of animal bodies: ossa subjecta corpori, Cic. N. D. 2, 55, 139; cf. Quint. 1, prooem. 24; 12, 10, 5: amittere, to become poor, lean, Lucr. 1, 1038; Cic. Fam. 7, 26, 2 fin.; cf.: abiit corpusque colorque, Ov. H. 3, 141; and the opp. facere, to become fat, to thrive, Cels. 7, 3 fin.; cf.: quo cibo fecisti tantum corporis, Phaedr. 3, 7, 5.—In a play upon words: inque omni nusquam corpore corpus erat, Mart. Spect. 7, 6.—

b. Transf., the wood under the bark of a tree, Plin. 17, 24, 37, 234.—Of discourse: nervis illis, quibus causa continetur, adiciunt superinducti corporis speciem, the covering, integument, Quint. 5, 8, 2; 2, 10, 5: corpus eloquentiae facere, the substance, the most essential part, id. 10, 1, 87; cf.: corpus orationis enervatur, Petr. 2.—

2. A lifeless body, a corpse, Caes. B. G. 2, 10; 2, 27; Liv. 32, 13, 8 et saep.; Ov. M. 7, 548; id. F. 2, 835 al.—In a double sense, Cic. Sull. 31, 89 Halm.—Poet., the souls of the dead, the shades or departed spirits, Verg. A. 6, 303; 6, 306.—

3. As opposed to the head, the trunk, Ov. M. 11, 794.—

4. In mal. part., the body, person: usuram ejus corporis cepit sibi, Plaut. Am. prol. 108: illa quae corpus puplicat volgo suum, id. Bacch. 4, 8, 22; id. Cist. 2, 3, 21; cf.: corpore quaestum facere, id. Poen. 5, 3, 21 al.; v. quaestus.— Hence also, the testicles, Phaedr. 3, 11, 3; Hor. S. 1, 2, 43.—

5. Periphrastically for the individual, the person (esp. poet., to suggest that which is physically admirable or excellent; also freq. in the histt.): delecta virum corpora, Verg. A. 2, 18; cf.: lectissima matrum, id. ib. 9, 272: quo pulchrior alter non fuit, excepto corpore Turni, id. ib. 7, 650; 11, 690: septena quot annis Corpora natorum, id. ib. 6, 22: ultor vestrae, fidissima corpora, mortis, Ov. M. 3, 58; 7, 655: sororum, Sil. 14, 105; Val. Fl. 2, 653: conjugum vestraque ac liberorum vestrorum, Liv. 21, 13, 7; Tac. A. 4, 72 et saep.: uti corpora nostra ab injuriā tuta forent, Sall. C. 33, 2; Liv. 9, 8, 5; 31, 46, 16: qui liberum corpus (sc. Virginiam) in servitutem addixissent, id. 3, 56, 8; so, liberum, Sall. C. 33, 2; Liv. 5, 22, 1; 29, 21, 6; Plin. Pan. 33, 1.—Of animals: corpora magna boum, heads, Verg. G. 3, 369: seu quis Pascit equos ... Corpora praecipue matrum legat, id. ib. 3, 51; id. A. 1, 193: pro tribus corporibus triginta milia talentum auri precatur accipias, Curt. 4, 11, 6.—

II. Meton., a whole composed of parts united, a body, frame, system, structure, community, corporation, etc.; of ships, the framework, Caes. B. C. 1, 54.—Of fortifications: totum corpus coronā militum cingere, Caes. B. G. 7, 72.—Of a land: Sicilia dirempta velut a corpore majore, Just. 4, 1, 1.—Of the state: alterum (praeceptum Platonis), ut totum corpus rei publicae curent, nec dum partem aliquam tuentur, reliquas deserant, Cic. Off. 1, 25, 85: quae (multitudo) coalescere in populi unius corpus poterat, Liv. 1, 8, 1; cf. id. 34, 9, 3; and: nullum civitatis, a political body, id. 26, 16, 9; 38, 9, 12; Tac. G. 39; Just. 3, 2, 2: totum corpus Macedoniae, id. 7, 1, 12; Liv. 26, 16, 9: sui corporis regem creari, id. 1, 17, 2: corpus mercatorum, guild, Ambros. Ep. 20, 6: corpori valido caput deerat (sc. exercitui dux), Liv. 5, 46, 5: oriundi ab Sabinis sui corporis creari regem volebant, id. 1, 17, 2; cf. id. 4, 9, 4; 6, 34, 5 al.: fabrorum et naviculariorum, Dig. 50, 6, 5: utros ejus habueris libros ... duo enim sunt corpora ... an utrosque, nescio, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 11 (13), 4; so of a book, id. Fam. 5, 12, 4; Sen. Tranq. 9, 6; Suet. Gram. 6; Dig. 32, 50 al.; cf.: corpus omnis Romani juris, Liv. 3, 34, 7; hence, Corpus Juris, title of a Roman collection of laws, Cod. Just. 5, 13: rationum, Dig. 40, 5, 37: patrimonii, ib. 4, 2, 20: omnia maternae hereditatis, ib. 4, 31, 79.