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ξύλον [ῠ], τό (pl. spelt ξύλεα Abh. Berl. Akad. 1928(6).32 (Cos, v B. C.)), wood cut and ready for use, firewood, timber, etc., Hom., mostly in pl., Il.8.507,547, Od.14.418; ξ. νήϊα ship-timber, Hes.Op. 808; ξ. ναυπηγήσιμα Th.7.25, X.An.6.4.4, Pl.Lg.706b, D.17.28; ξ. τετράγωνα logs cut square, Hdt.1.186, cf. Pl.Prt.325d, Arist.EN 1109b7.

2. in pl., also, the wood-market, ἐπὶ ξύλα ἰέναι Ar.Fr. 403.

II. in sg., piece of wood, log, beam, post, once in Hom., ξ. αὖον ..ἢ δρυὸς ἢ πεύκης Il.23.327; ξ. σύκινον spoon made of fig wood, Pl.Hp.Ma.291c; peg or lever, Arist.MA701b9; perch, ἐπὶ ξύλου καθεύδειν Ar.Nu.1431: by poet. periphr., Ἀργοῦς ξύλον A.Fr.20; ἵπποιο κακὸν ξ., of the Trojan horse, AP9.152 (Agath.): hence anything made of wood, as,

2. cudgel, club, Hdt.2.63,4.180, Ar.Lys.357, PHal.1.187 (iii B.C.); μετὰ ξύλων εἰσπηδῆσαι PTeb.304.10 (ii A.D.); ξύλοις συντρίψειν Luc.Demon.50; of the club of Heracles, Plu.Lyc.30.

3. an instrument of punishment,

a. wooden collar, put on the neck of the prisoner, ξύλῳ φιμοῦν τὸν αὐχένα Ar.Nu.592; ἐς τετρημένον ξ. ἐγκαθαρμόσαι ..τὸν αὐχένα Id.Lys.680; or,

b. stocks, in which the feet were confined, Hdt.9.37, 6.75, Ar.Eq.367, D.18.129; ξ. ἐφέλκειν Polyzel.3; ἐν τῷ ξ. δεδέσθαι Lys.10.16 (v. ποδοκάκκη), cf. Act.Ap.16.24, OGI483.181 (Pergam., ii A.D.): also in pl., ἔδησεν ἐν τοῖς ξ. And.1.45.

c. πεντεσύριγγον ξύλον (v. sub voc.) was a combination of both, with holes for the neck, arms, and legs, Ar.Eq.1049.

d. gallows, κρεμάσαι τινὰ ἐπὶ ξύλου LXX De.21.22; ξ. δίδυμον ib.Jo.8.29: prov., ἐξ ἀξίου τοῦ ξύλου κἂν ἀπάγξασθαι, i.e. if one must be hanged, at least let it be on a noble tree, App.Prov.2.67, cf. Ar.Ra.736; in NT, of the cross, Act.Ap.5.30,10.39.

e. stake on which criminals were impaled, Alex.222.10.

4. bench, table, esp. money-changer's table, D.45.33.

5. πρῶτον ξύλον front bench in the Athenian theatre, Ar.Ach.25, V.90, cf. Sch.adlocc.: hence οὑπὶ τῶν ξύλων the official who had to take care of the seats, Hermipp.9 (according to Meineke).

6. the Hippocratic bench, Hp.Fract.13, Art.72.

III. of live wood, tree, [ὄρος] δασὺ πολλοῖς καὶ παντοδαποῖς καὶ μεγάλοις ξύλοις X.An.6.4.5, cf. Call.Cer.41, Agatharch.55, LXX Ca.2.3, al.: opp. σάρξ, Thphr.HP1.2.6,al.; τῷ ξ. τοῦ δένδρου ἀνάλογον τὴν λεγομένην εἶναι γῆν Plot.6.7.11; τὸ ξ. τῆς ἀμπέλου E.Cyc.572; εἴρια ἀπὸ ξύλου, of cotton, Hdt.3.47; εἵματα ἀπὸ ξύλων πεποιημένα Id.7.65, cf.Poll.7.75.

IV. of persons, blockhead, APl.4.187; of a stubborn person, σίδηρός τις ἢ ξ. πρὸς τὰς δεήσεις Ach.Tat.5.22.

V. a measure oflength, = 3 (also 2 2/3) cubits, the side of the ναύβιον, Hero *Geom.23.4,11, POxy.669.11,28 (iii A.D.), 1053 (vi/vii A.D.).