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dē-fendo, di, sum (infin. pass. parag.: defendier, Verg. A. 8, 493: Juv. 15, 157.— Part. gen. plur. sync.: defendentum, Verg. A. 11, 886), 3, v. a. [arch.: FENDO; cf. Sanscr. han (ghan), to smite; Gr. θείνω; hence, also offendo, infensus, infestus, mani-festus; cf. fustis], to fend or ward off any thing hostile or injurious; to repel, avert, keep off: propulsando arcere (for syn. cf.: tueor, tutor, servo, conservo. propugno, protego, vindico, caveo—freq. and class.); regularly constr. with acc. alone (so in Cic. and Caes.); very rarely aliquid (aliquem) ab aliquo, and in poets also aliquid alicui; cf. Zumpt. Gr. 469.

(a). Aliquid (aliquem): ut tu morbos calamitates intemperiasque prohibessis, defendas averruncesque, Cato R. R. 141, 2: serva cives, defende hostes, cum potes defendere, Enn. ap. Non. 277, 21; cf. bellum (opp. inferre), Caes. B. G. 1, 44, 13; 2, 29 fin.: ad defendendos ictus ac repellendos, id. B. C. 2, 9, 3; cf.: ignis jactus et lapides, id. ib. 2, 2, 4: frigus et solem, Cato R. R. 48, 2; cf.: nimios solis ardores, Cic. de Sen. 15, 53; and frigus, Hor. S. 1, 3, 14; also: sitim fonte et purā lymphā, to quench, Sil. 7, 170: qui non defendit injuriam neque propulsat, Cic. Off. 3, 18, 74; so, injuriam, id. Rosc. Am. 1: noxiam, Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 48: imperatoris sui tribunorumque plebis injurias, Caes. B. C. 1, 7 fin.: vim suorum, id. ib. 3, 110, 4; cf.: vim illatam vi, Cic. Mil. 4: pericula, id. Mur. 3; Tac. A. 13, 56: hunc furorem, Verg. A. 10, 905: dedecus manu, Sil. 13, 99 et saep.: crimen, to answer, defend against an accusation, Liv. 42, 48, 2.—

(b). With ab: (milites) a pinnis hostes defendebant facillime, Quadrig. ap. Gell. 9, 1, 1; cf. ib. 8: hostem a fossa, Hirt. B. G. 8, 9: ignem a tectis, Ov. R. Am. 625.—

(g). Aliquid alicui (cf. arceo, no. II. d.): iniuriam foribus, Plaut. Most. 4, 2, 20: solstitium pecori, Verg. E. 7, 47; cf.: aestatem capellis, Hor. Od. 1, 17, 3; Prop. 1, 20, 11: tela misero, Sil. 17, 432: dedecus morti, id. 5, 490: senium famae, Stat. Th. 9, 318.—

(d). Absol., to put a stop (to a fire), to check the flames: nec quisquam defendere audebat, crebris minis restinguere prohibentium, Tac. A. 15, 38; cf.: urbem incendere, feris in populum immissis, quo difficilius defenderentur, Suet. Ner. 43.—

II. Transf., like prohibere, with acc. of that from which any thing is warded off or averted, to defend, guard, protect, cover.

A. In gen. (so most freq. in all perr. and species of composition), constr. with acc. alone; with acc. and ab aliquo (contra aliquid), or merely ab aliquo; and absol.

(a). With simple acc.: Aeduos ceterosque amicos populi Rom., Caes. B. G. 1, 35 fin.: eos, id. ib. 2, 10, 4; id. B. C. 1, 6, 2: se armis, id. B. G. 6, 34: se manu, id. ib. 5, 7, 8; 6, 40, 6 et saep.: castra, id. ib. 3, 3 fin.; id. B. C. 3, 67, 5; 3, 94, 6 (with tueri): oppidum, id. B. G. 3, 16, 3 et saep.: eum defendo, quem tu accusas, Cic. Sull. 17: aliquem apud praetores, id. Clu. 45, 126: aliquem de ambitu, id. Sull. 2, 6: cf. causam, id. Clu. 27, 74; id. Sull. 31, 86; id. Lael. 25, 96 et passim: d. ac tegere scelus, id. Sull. 31, 86; cf. with protegere, id. ib. 18, 50: justitiam, id. Lael. 7, 25: communem salutem, id. Rep. 1, 1; id. Mur. 2 fin. et saep.: locum, to preserve, maintain, id. Quint. 13, 43; cf.: vicem modo rhetoris atque poëtae, to sustain, Hor. S. 1, 10, 12: actorum partes, id. A. P. 194: aedes Vestae vix defensa est (sc. ab incendio), preserved, Liv. 26, 27.—

(b). Aliquid (aliquem) ab aliquo: Aedui cum se suaque ab iis defendere non possent, Caes. B. G. 1, 11, 2: se a finitimis, id. ib. 2, 31, 5; id. B. C. 1, 75, 3; Sall. C. 45, 4 et saep.: Galliam omnem ab Ariovisti injuria, Caes. B. G. 1, 31 fin.; so, aliquem ab injuria, id. ib. 5, 20, 3; Sall. C. 35 fin.; cf. Caes. B. C. 1, 22, 5: se regnumque suum ab Romanorum avaritia, Sall. J. 49, 2: provinciam non modo a calamitate, sed etiam a metu calamitatis, Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 6, 14: Italiam a vastatione, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 15 fin.: vitam ab inimicorum audacia telisque, Cic. Mil. 2 fin.: libertatis causam ab regio praesidio, Liv. 39, 24 et saep.: teneras myrtos a frigore, Verg. E. 7, 6: frondes ab acutae vulnere falcis, a pecoris morsu, Ov. M. 9, 384 et saep.—

(g). With ab aliquo: quod et ab incendio lapis et ab ariete materia defendit, Caes. B. G. 7, 23, 5; so id. B. C. 1, 25 fin.; 3, 63, 7.—

(d). Aliquem (aliquid) contra, or adversus aliquem: me scio a te contra iniquos meos solere defendi, Cic. Fam. 11, 27, 7: sese adversus populum Romanum defendere, id. Phil. 1, 6, 13: me adversus Abrupolim, Liv. 42, 41, 10; Just. 2, 4, 32; Suet. Caes. 71; Liv. 5, 35, 4: auctoritatem contra invidiam, Cic. Phil, 8, 4; 13, 11; id. Fam. 5, 2, 6; id. Sest. 67, 141; 23, 51; 52, 111; id. Phil. 2, 18, 45.—(ε) Absol.: filii qui et sentire et defendere possent, Cic. Rosc. Am. 23, 64 fin.: cum jam defenderet nemo, Caes. B. G. 2, 33, 6: defendentibus civibus Romanis, id. B. C. 3, 40, 6; cf. in the abl. absol., id. B. G. 2, 12, 3; id. B. C. 3, 68 fin.; Cic. Lael. 25, 96 et saep.: quibus eae partes ad defendendum obvenerunt, Caes. B. G. 7, 81 fin.

B. In partic.

1. Of speech, to defend, support, maintain; to bring forward, allege in defence (so repeatedly in Cic.; elsewhere rare).

(a). With acc.: (Carneades) nullam umquam in illis suis disputationibus rem defendit, quam non probarit, Cic. de Or. 2, 38 fin.; cf. id. Fam. 4, 14: me id maxime defendisse, ut, etc., have chiefly striven for, id. Rosc. Am. 47; id. Verr. 2, 3, 37; 2, 5, 58.—

(b). With acc. and inf.: gravissimeque et verissime defenditur, numquam aequitatem ab utilitate posse sejungi, etc., Cic. Fin. 3, 21, 71; id. Verr. 2, 3, 90 fin.; id. Tull. 13, 32: ille nihil ex his sponte susceptum sed principi paruisse defendebat, Tac. A. 13, 43: sed id solitum esse fieri defendebat, Gell. 10, 19; so with verb pass. and inf., Cic. Inv. 2, 32 init.

(g). With a relative clause: (quae turpitudines) cur non cadant in sapientem, non est facile defendere, Cic. Fin. 2, 35, 117. —

2. In the later jurid. Lat., to claim, vindicate, or prosecute at law: quia libertatem et hereditatem ex testamento sibi defendebat, Dig. 5, 3, 7: si patris mortem defendere necesse habuerit, i. e. legally to avenge his death, ib. 38, 2, 14, 7; 48, 2, 11.