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dŭbĭto, āvi, ātum, 1, v. freq. n. and a. [for duhibitare, freq. from duhibeo, i. e. duohabeo (cf. habitare from habeo), to have or hold, as two, v. dubius; cf. also Gr. δοιάζω from δοιοί; Germ. zweifeln from zwei], to vibrate from one side to the other, to and fro, in one's opinions or in coming to a conclusion (freq. in all periods and sorts of composition; in class. prose usually with negations or in a negative interrogation, as: non dubito, haud dubito, quis dubitat? etc.

I. To waver in opinion or judgment, to be uncertain, to be in doubt, to doubt, question.

(a). Absol. (rare but class.): ne vinolenti quidem quae faciunt eadem approbatione faciunt qua sobrii; dubitant, haesitant, revocant se interdum, Cic. Ac. 2, 17, 52; cf. id. ib. 2, 23, 72: et interrogamus et dubitamus et affirmamus, Quint. 6, 3, 70; cf. id. 10, 1, 19; 10, 3, 19: Livius frequentissime dubitat, id. 2, 4, 19; 9, 2, 20: vivo equidem, ne dubita; nam vera vides, Verg. A. 3, 316: ut jam liceat una comprehensione omnia complecti non dubitantemque (= sine ulla dubitatione) dicere, Cic. Fin. 5, 9, 26; id. Fam. 5, 16, 4 Madv.; so id. Div. 1, 55, 125.—

(b). With de (class.): de indicando dubitat, Cic. Sull. 18, 52; id. Fam. 12, 17; Quint. 1, 10, 29; 4, 5, 13.—With a negation: nec vero de hoc quisquam dubitare posset, nisi, etc., Cic. Tusc. 1, 30, 73: de aliqua re, id. N. D. 1, 8: de divina ratione, id. ib. 2, 39, 99: de tua erga me voluntate, id. Fam. 13, 45 fin.; cf. id. Att. 12, 26: de ejus fide, Caes. B. G. 7, 21, 1: cf. id. ib. 7, 77, 10; 1, 40 fin.: de carminibus, Quint. 10, 5, 4: de ultima illa (parte), id. 12, 2, 10: de se, Pompei ap. Cic. Att. 8, 12 A et saep.—Pass. impers.: de armis dubitatum est, Cic. Caecin. 13, 38: de judicio Panaetii dubitari non potest, id. Off. 3, 3; so, de auctore, Quint. 7, 2, 8: de hac (virtute) nihil dubitabitur, id. 2, 20, 7.—

(g). With acc. (in class. prose only with a neutr. pron.): haec non turpe est dubitare philosophos, quae ne rustici quidem dubitant? Cic. Off. 3, 19, 77; Quint. 2, 17, 2; Plaut. Ps. 2, 1, 2; Ov. H. 17, 37; id. M. 6, 194; id. Tr. 2, 331.—In the pass.: causa prorsus, quod dubitari posset, nihil habebat, Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 22; cf. id. ib. 28; Liv. 5, 3: dubitati tecta parentis, Ov. M. 2, 20: sidera, Stat. S. 1, 4, 2: ne auctor dubitaretur, Tac. A. 14, 7; cf. infra, ε: dicta haud dubitanda, Verg. A. 3, 170.—

(d). With an interrog. pron. (good prose, but rare): ubi tu dubites, quid sumas potissimum, Ter. Ph. 2, 2, 29: non dubito, quid nobis agendum putes, Cic. Att. 10, 1, 2; id. Fam. 11, 17, 2; 15, 9; Caes. B. C. 2, 32, 10: cur dubitas, quid de re publica sentias? Cic. Rep. 1, 38 fin.; cf. id. ib. 3, 17 fin.; id. de Imp. Pomp. 16 fin.—(ε) With interrog. particles (very freq. and class.): si me non improbissime tractasset, dubitassem fortasse utrum, etc., Cic. Att. 16, 15, 1: desinite dubitare, utrum sit utilius, etc....an, etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 89; cf. impers., id. Att. 4, 15, 7; Liv. 5, 3: honestumne factu sit an turpe dubitant, Cic. Off. 1, 3, 9: dubitavi, hos homines emerem, an non emerem, Plaut. Capt. 2, 3, 95; cf. Sall. J. 74, 2; Hor. C. 1, 12, 35: recte necne, etc., id. Ep. 2, 1, 80: licet et dubitare num quid nos fugerit, Quint. 6, 1, 3: dubito, num, etc., Plin. Ep. 6, 27, 1; Tac. H. 2, 37; de L. Bruto fortasse dubitarim, an, etc., Cic. Tusc. 4, 22, 50 et saep.—Cf. respecting the expression dubito an, the art. an, II., and Zumpt, Gramm. 354.—Poet. in pass. (cf. supra, γ): an dea sim, dubitor, Ov. M. 6, 208.—(ζ) Non dubito, quin (very freq. and class.): non hercle dubito, quin tibi ingenio nemo praestiterit, Cic. Rep. 1, 23; id. Div. 1, 57, 129; id. de Sen. 10, 31; id. Att. 6, 2, 3; id. Fam. 13, 73 fin.; id. Verr. 2, 1, 40: numquid tu dubitas quin ego nunc perpetuo perierim? Have you a doubt? etc., Ter. Eun. 5, 8, 13; Caes. B. G. 1, 17, 4; 1, 31, 15; Quint. 12, 1, 42; Suet. Tib. 17; Ov. H. 17, 11; 245; id. Tr. 5, 7, 59 et saep.; cf. pass. impers.: dubitari (non) potest, quin, etc., Cic. Ac. 2, 23 fin.; id. Off. 3, 2, 9; Quint. 10, 2, 1: dubitari potest quin usque eo eicienda sit, Sen. Contr. 1, 3, 1: illud cave dubites, quin, etc., Cic. Fam. 5, 20, 6; quid dubitas, quin sit, etc., Plaut. Aul. 2, 1, 42; so in an interrog., id. Poen. 1, 1, 55; 4, 2, 59; Quint. 7, 6, 10; cf. Cic. N. D. 2, 38, 97; Caes. B. G. 7, 38, 8.—(η) With acc. and inf. (freq. only since the Aug. period, and in gen. only negatively; not found in Plaut., Ter., or Cic.; but usual in Nepos): neque humorem dubitavi aurasque perire, Lucr. 5, 249: gratos tibi esse qui de me rumores afferuntur, non dubito, Cic. Fil. Fam. 16, 21, 2 (cf., on the contrary, 7: noli dubitare, quin te sublevaturus sim): ignorabant aut dubitabant animas hominum immortales esse, Lact. 6, 3, 5: non dubito, fore plerosque qui, etc., Nep. praef. 1; id. Milt. 3, 6; id. Lys. 3, 5; id. Alcib. 9, 5; id. Ages. 3, 1; id. Eum. 2, 3; id. Hann. 11, 2; Liv. 2, 64; 22, 55 Drak. et saep.; Quint. 3, 7, 5; 5, 10, 76; 9, 4, 114; Suet. Claud. 35 et saep.; cf. in an interrog.: an est quisquam qui dubitet, tribunos offensos esse? Liv. 5, 3; so, quis dubitat, Quint. 9, 4, 68; 130; 10, 1, 81. —Pass. impers.: an dubitabitur, ibi partes oratoris esse praecipuas? id. prooem. 12. —Affirm.: piraticam ut musicam, fabricam dici adhuc dubitabant mei praeceptores, Quint. 8, 3, 34.—

2. Transf., of inan. and abstr. subjects, to be uncertain, doubtful: si tardior manus dubitet, Quint. 5, 10, 124: suspensa ac velut dubitans oratio, id. 10, 7, 22: aut vincere aut, si fortuna dubitabit (= adversabit), etc., Liv. 21, 44 fin.: nec mox fama dubitavit, cum, etc., Flor. 1, 1, 2.—

B. Meton., to reflect upon, to ponder, consider, deliberate: in utramque partem cogitare, deliberare, etc. (very rare): haec dum dubitas, menses abierunt decem, Ter. Ad. 4, 5, 57: restat, judices, ut hoc dubitemus, uter, etc., Cic. Rosc. Am. 31, 88: percipe porro, quid dubitem, Verg. A. 9, 191: dubitaverat Augustus Germanicum rei Romanae imponere, had considered whether he should, Tac. A. 4, 57.

II. To waver in coming to a conclusion, to be irresolute; to hesitate, delay.

(a). With inf. (so most commonly): non dubitaverim me gravissimis tempestatibus obvium ferre, Cic. Rep. 1, 4; so with a negation, id. ib. 1, 15; id. Lael. 1; id. de Or. 1, 40 et saep.; Caes. B. G. 2, 23, 2: flumen transire, 6, 8, 1; id. B. C. 1, 71, 2; 2, 33, 2 and fin.; Verg. A. 7, 311; 8, 614 et saep.: quid dubitamus pultare atque huc evocare ambos foras? Plaut. Bacch. 5, 1, 29; so in an interrog., id. Mil. 4, 2, 17; id. Ps. 2, 2, 30; id. Poen. 3, 5, 44; Caes. B. C. 2, 34, 4; Quint. 12, 5, 3; 12, 10, 63; Verg. A. 6, 807 al.—Very seldom affirmatively: quod ea illi nubere dubitabat, Sall. C. 15, 2: accusat fratrem, quod dubitet omnia quae ad beatam vitam pertineant ventre metiri, Cic. N. D. 1, 40, 113: dubitat agnoscere matrem, Stat. Achill. 1, 250: si forte dubitaret quod afferretur accipere, Curt. 4, 5: isdem mandatum ut occiderent, si venire dubitaret, id. 10, 8.—Ellipt.: quod dubitas, ne feceris, Plin. Ep. 1, 18, 5.—

(b). Non dubito quin (rare in Cic. and Caes.): nemo dubitabat, quin, etc., Cic. Verr. 2, 2, 13; id. Mil. 23, 63; id. Agr. 2, 26, 69: tum dubitandum non existimavit, quin proficisceretur, Caes. B. G. 2, 2, 5; id. B. C. 3, 71, 1; cf.: nolite dubitare, quin huic uni credatis omnia, Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 23, 68; and in an interrog.: dubitabitis, judices, quin? etc., id. Fl. 17, 40; id. de Imp. Pomp. 16, 49.—

(g). Absol. (rare): te neque umquam dubitasse, neque timuisse, Caes. B. G. 1, 41, 3: sed mora damnosa est, nec res dubitare remittit, Ov. M. 11, 377: quid igitur ego dubito? Plaut. Am. 1, 2, 283; so in an interrog., id. Men. 5, 7, 6; Caes. B. G. 5, 44, 3; Verg. A. 9, 12: magnitudine supplicii dubitantes cogit, Caes. B. G. 7, 4, 9; id. ib. 7, 63, 3; Sall. C. 28, 1 al.: dubitantia lumina, failing, Sil. 10, 154. —Hence,

A. dŭbĭtanter, adv.

1. Doubtingly: sine ulla affirmatione, dubitanter unum quodque dicemus, Cic. Inv. 2, 3, 10.—

2. Hesitatingly, with hesitancy (very rare): illum verecunde et dubitanter recepisse, Cic. Brut. 22, 87; cf. Asin. Pollio ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 31, 2.—

B. dŭbĭ-tātim, adv. (i. q. dubitanter, 2.), hesitatingly, with hesitation (only in the foll. passages), Sisenn. ap. Non. 98, 33; so Cael. Ann. ib.