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dŭbĭus, a, um, adj. [for duhibius, duohabeo, held as two or double, i. e. doubtful; cf. dubito, Corss. Ausspr. 2, 1027].

I. Moving in two directions alternately, vibrating to and fro, fluctuating (cf. ambiguus, anceps, incertus, perplexus, duplex).

A. Lit. (very rare): ut vas non quit constare, nisi humor Destitit in dubio fluctu jactarier intus, Lucr. 6, 556; cf.: fluctibus dubiis volvi coeptum est mare, Liv. 37, 16, 4.—Far more freq. and class.,

B. Trop., vacillating in mind, uncertain.

1. Act.

a. Wavering in opinion, doubting, doubtful, dubious, uncertain, = ambigens, haesitans, etc.: sin est is homo, anni multi me dubiam dant, Plaut. Ep. 4, 1, 17: quae res est, quae cujusquam animum in hac causa dubium facere possit? Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 10.— With an interrog. clause, A. and S. Gr. 213 R. 4 (1.): temptat dubiam mentem rationis egestas, ecquae nam fuerit mundi genitalis origo, Lucr. 5, 1211; cf.: equites procul visi ab dubiis, quinam essent, Liv. 4, 40: dubius sum, quid faciam, Hor. S. 1, 9, 40: dubius, unde rumperet silentium, id. Epod. 5, 85: spemque metumque inter dubii, seu vivere credant, Sive extrema pati, Verg. A. 1, 218; cf. Liv. 1, 42: Philippus non dubius, quin, etc., id. 31, 42: haud dubius quin, id. 42, 14; Curt. 5, 12.—With acc. and inf.: dictator minime dubius, bellum cum his populis Patres jussuros, Liv. 6, 14; so, haud dubius, id. 31, 24; Curt. 9, 7: nec sum animi dubius, verbis ea vincere magnum Quam sit, well aware how hard it is, Verg. G. 3, 289; so, dubius with the genitives animi, Auct. B. Alex. 56, 2: mentis, Ov. F. 6, 572: consilii, Just. 2, 13: sententiae, Liv. 33, 25 Drak.: salutis, Ov. M. 15, 438: vitae, id. Tr. 3, 3, 25: fati, Luc. 7, 611 al.; cf. Zumpt, Gr. 437; A. and S. Gr. 213 R. 1 (a.).—

b. Wavering in resolution, irresolute, undecided (very rare): dubio atque haesitante Jugurtha incolumes transeunt, Sall. J. 107, 6; cf. hostes (opp. firmi), id. ib. 51 fin.: nutantes ac dubiae civitates, Suet. Caes. 4 fin.: quid faciat dubius, Ov. M. 8, 441.—Poet. transf.: cuspis, Sil. 4, 188.—

2. Pass., that is doubted of, uncertain, doubtful, dubious, undetermined (so most freq. in all periods and kinds of composition): videsne igitur, quae dubia sint, ea sumi pro certis atque concessis? Cic. Div. 2, 51, 106; cf. id. ib. 2, 50 fin.; id. Fin. 4, 24, 67; id. de Or. 1, 20, 92; id. Mur. 32, 68; Quint. 3, 4, 8; 7, 8, 6: nihil aegrius est quam res secernere apertas Ab dubiis, Lucr. 4, 468 (cf. verba, vague language, opp. aperta, Quint. 7, 2, 48): jus, opp. certum, id. 12, 3, 6; opp. confessum, id. 7, 7, 7: in regno, ubi ne obscura quidem est aut dubia servitus, Cic. Rep. 1, 31: dubium vel anceps genus causarum, Quint. 4, 1, 40; cf. id. 9, 2, 69: dubii variique casus, Auct. ap. Cic. Clu. 21, 58: et incerta societas, Suet. Aug. 17 et saep.: quia sciebam dubiam esse fortunam scenicam, Ter. Hec. prol. alt. 8: salus (opp. aperta pernicies), Cic. N. D. 3, 27, 69: spes pacis, id. Att. 8, 13: victoria, Caes. B. G. 7, 80, 6; cf.: victoria, praeda, laus, Sall. J. 85, 48: Marte, Vell. 2, 55, 3: spes armorum, id. 2, 71: discrimen pugnae, indecisive, Sil. 5, 519: proelia, Tac. G. 6: auctor, unknown, Ov. M. 12, 61 et saep.: an auspicia repetenda, ne quid dubiis diis agerem? i. e. unassured of their favor, Liv. 8, 32: dubii socii suspensaeque ex fortuna fidei (opp. fideles socii and certi hostes), id. 44, 18; cf. Caes. B. C. 1, 3, 5: Hispaniae, Tac. A. 3, 44; cf.: gens dubiae ad id voluntatis, Liv. 9, 15: lux, i. e. morning twilight, dawn, Ov. M. 11, 596: sidera, Juv. 5, 22; cf. nox, evening twilight, Ov. M. 4, 401: caelum, i. e. over cast, Verg. G. 1, 252: fulgor solis, Sen. Herc. Fur. 670; cf.: et quasi languidus dies, Plin. Ep. 6, 20, 6: dubiāque tegens lanugine malas, i. e. between down and a beard, Ov. M. 9, 398; 13, 754; cf.: dubia lanuginis umbra, Claud. Epith. Pall. et Cel. 42: vina, not sure to ripen, Plin. 18, 31, 74, 319: consilia, wavering, Tac. Agr. 18 et saep.: hunc annum sequitur annus haud dubiis consulibus (shortly thereafter the contrary: Papirius Semproniusque, quorum de consulatu dubitabatur), Liv. 4, 8; so, haud dubius praetor, id. 39, 39 fin.: haud dubii hostes, open enemies, id. 37, 49: haud dubii Galli (opp. degeneres, mixti, Gallograeci vere), id. 38, 17: cena dubia, see below, II.—

b. In the neutr. absol.

(a). (Non, haud) dubium est, it is (not, not at all) doubtful, uncertain, undecided. (αα) Absol.: si quid erit dubium, Plaut. Ep. 5, 1, 40: haud dubium id quidem est, id. Poen. 3, 4, 27; Ter. And. 2, 3, 25; cf. in the interrog.: o! dubiumne id est? Ter. Eun. 1, 2, 49; id. Heaut. 3, 3, 46; id. Phorm. 5, 2, 9; and with the dat.: an dubium id tibi est? Ter. Heaut. 5, 1, 38; Cic. Fam. 4, 15.—(ββ) With de: de Pompeii exitu mihi dubium numquam fuit, Cic. Att. 11, 6, 5; so, de eorum jure, id. de Or. 1, 57: de re, Quint. 7, 3, 4; cf. id. 7, 6, 3.—(γγ) With an interrog. clause: illud dubium (est), ad id, quod summum bonum dicitis, ecquaenam fieri possit accessio, Cic. Fin. 4, 24, 67; cf. Quint. 7, 9, 12: hoc ergo, credo, dubium est, uter nostrum sit verecundior, Cic. Ac. 2, 41, 126: hoc enim dubium est, utrum ... an, Quint. 6, 3, 83: Ambiorix copias suas judicione non conduxerit ... an tempore exclusus, dubium est, Caes. B. G. 6, 31, 1: an dubium vobis fuit inesse vis aliqua videretur necne? Cic. Caecin. 11, 31 et saep.—Since the Aug. per. freq. dubium, absol. and adv.: codicilli, dubium ad quem scripti, Quint. 7, 2, 52: quo postquam dubium pius an sceleratus, Orestes venerat, Ov. Tr. 4, 4, 69; Suet. Caes. 58; id. Aug. 28; id. Tib. 10; Flor. 1, 1, 12; 2, 14, 3: Erechtheus, Justitiā dubium validisne potentior armis, Ov. M. 6, 678; cf. id. Pont. 3, 1, 17: neque multo post exstincto Maximo, dubium an quaesita morte, Tac. A. 1, 5; Flor. 1, 1, 8; 4, 2, 91 al.—(δδ) Non dubium est quin uxorem nolit filius, Ter. And. 1, 2, 1; id. Eun. 5, 6, 27; Cic. de Or. 2, 8, 32; id. Att. 13, 45; Quint. 11, 2, 10 et saep.: haud dubium est, quin, Ter. And. 2, 3, 17; 3, 2, 50; id. Ad. 5, 9, 19; and interrog., Quint. 3, 2, 1; 10, 1, 5. —(εε) With acc. and inf.: periisso me una haud dubium est, Ter. Hec. 3, 1, 46; so Liv. 38, 6; Suet. Caes. 52 fin.; cf. interrog.: an dubium tibi est, eam esse hanc? Plaut. Mil. 2, 5, 9.—Ellipt.: si exploratum tibi sit posse te, etc., non esse cunctandum: si dubium sit, non esse conandum, Cic. Fam. 1, 7, 5.—

(b). Dubium habere, to regard as uncertain, to doubt: an tu dubium habebis, etiam sancte quom jurem tibi? Plaut. Capt. 4, 2, 112: an dubium habetis, num obficere quid vobis possit? etc., Sall. H. Fragm. III. 61, 8 Dietsch; cf.: haec habere dubia, neque, etc., Cic. Ac. 2, 9 fin.

(g). In dubium: in dubium vocare, to call in question, Cic. de Or. 2, 34; cf.: illud me dixisse nemo vocabit in dubium, Asin. Pollio ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 31, 5. Vid. also under 3. b.: venire in dubium, Cic. Quint. 2; id. ib. 21, 67; Liv. 3, 13; cf.: alii non veniunt in dubium de voluntate, i. e. there is no doubt what their wish is, Cic. Att. 11, 15, 2. Vid. also under 3. b.—

(d). In dubio, in doubt, in question, undetermined: dum in dubio est animus, Ter. And. 1, 5, 31; cf. Luc. 7, 247: in dubioque fuere utrorum ad regna cadendum esset, etc., Lucr. 3, 836; cf. id. 1085; Quint. 7, 9, 9: aestate potius quam hieme dandum, non est in dubio, Plin. 25, 5, 24, 59 et saep.: ut in dubio poneret, utrum ... an, etc., Liv. 34, 5. Vid. also 3. b.—(ε) Sine dubio, without doubt, doubtless, indisputably, certainly (very freq.; in Cic. more than twenty times; not in Caes. and Sall.): Th. Numquid dubitas quin? etc. Gn. Sine dubio, opinor, Ter. Eun. 5, 9, 14; Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 2; 47; id. Cat. 2, 1; id. Balb. 24, 55; id. Tusc. 2, 7, 18; id. Off. 1, 29, 102; id. N. D. 1, 9, 23; id. Att. 1, 19, 2 et saep. Vid. the passages in Stuerenb. Cic. Off. p. 134 sq. Sometimes, esp. in Quint., with adversative particles: sed, verum, at, etc., no doubt, doubtless ... but, yet, etc.: cum te togatis omnibus sine dubio anteferret ... sed, etc.. Cic. N. D. 1, 21, 58; so with sed, id. de Or, 3, 57; Quint. 1, 6, 38; 5, 10, 53; 6, 3, 64; with sed tamen, id. 12, 6, 7; with tamen, id. 3, 8, 21; 5, 7, 28; 6, 4, 12; with verum, id. 8 prooem. 33; with at, id. 8, 3, 67; with autem, id. 1, 6, 12 Spald.—(ζ) Procul dubio, beyond question, undoubtedly (very rare), Lucr. 3, 638; Liv. 39, 40 fin.; Plin. 18, 21, 50, 187; and: dubio procul, Lucr. 1, 812; 2, 261.—

3. Meton., like anceps (4), doubtful, dubious, i. e. precarious, dangerous, critical, difficult (freq. but mostly poet.): res dubias, egenas, inopiosas consili, critical condition, Plaut. Poen. 1, 1, 2; so, res, id. Capt. 2, 3, 46; id. Most. 5, 1, 1; Sall. C. 10, 2; 39, 3; id. J. 14, 5; Liv. 2, 50 fin.; Tac. A. 2, 62; Verg. A. 6, 196; 11, 445 al.; cf. pericla (with advorsae res), Lucr. 3, 55; 1076: tempora (opp. secunda), Hor. C. 4, 9, 36: mons erat ascensu dubius, Prop. 4, 4, 83; cf.: quae (loca) dubia nisu videbantur, Sall. J. 94, 2.—

b. In the neutr. absol. (i. q. discrimen, II. B. 2, and periculum): mea quidem hercle certe in dubio vita est, is in danger, Ter. And. 2, 2, 10 Ruhnk.; Sall. C. 52, 6; cf. Ov. Am. 2, 13, 2: sese suas exercitusque fortunas in dubium non devocaturum, Caes. B. G. 6, 7, 6; cf. Cic. Caecin. 27, 76: tua fama et gnatae vita in dubium veniet, Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 42; cf. id. ib. 2, 2, 35; Ov. H. 16, 138 Loers.— Plur. as subst.: hinc Italae gentes in dubiis responsa petunt, Verg. A. 7, 86: mens dubiis percussa pavet, Luc. 6, 596.

II. For the syn. varius, manifold, various (only in the foll. passages): o multimodis variūm et dubiūm et prosperūm copem diem, Pac. ap. Non. 84, 23 (Trag. Rel. p. 115, ed. Rib.). And so prob. is to be explained dubia cena, a multifarious, richly provided supper, Ter. Ph. 2, 2, 28 (for the subjoined explanation of Terence: ubi tu dubites, quid sumas potissimum, is only outwardly adapted to the meaning of dubius); so, dubia cena, Hor. S. 2, 2, 77; and: fercula dubiae cenae, Aus. Mos. 102; Hier. Ep. 22, no. 16.—Hence, adv., in two forms.

(a). dŭbĭe (acc. to I. B. 1.), doubtfully, dubiously (not in Plaut., Ter., or Caes.): potest accidere, ut aliquod signum dubie datum pro certo sit acceptum, Cic. Div. 1, 55.—Esp. freq. (particularly since the Aug. per.) with negatives: haud (rarely non) dubie, undoubtedly, indisputably, positively, certainly: etsi non dubie mihi nuntiabatur Parthos transisse Euphratem, tamen, etc., Cic. Fam. 15, 1 (nowhere else as an adv. in Cic.): non dubie, Quint. 7, 2, 6; 9, 4, 67; Front. Strat. 2, 3, 16; and with sed (cf. dubius, I. B. 2. b. ε), Quint. 11, 2, 1; so, too, nec dubie, Liv. 2, 23 fin.; Quint. 2, 14, 2; and with verum, id. 3, 4, 1; with sed, Tac. A. 4, 19 fin.: haud dubie jam victor, Sall. J. 102, 1 (cf. on the contrary in Cic.: sine ulla dubitatione hostis, Phil. 14, 4, 10; cf. Liv. 3, 38; Cic. Cat. 4, 3, 5); so, haud dubie, Liv. 1, 9; 13; 3, 24; 38; 53; 4, 2; 23; 5, 10 fin.; 33 fin.; 49 fin. et saep. (about 70 times; see the passages in Stuerenb. Cic. Off. p. 138); Quint. 10, 1, 85; Tac. A. 2, 43; 88; id. H. 1, 7; 46; 72; 3, 86; 4, 27 fin.; 80; id. G. 28; Suet. Caes. 55; id. Calig. 9; id. Galb. 2; Vulg. Lev. 13, 43.—

(b). dubio = dubie, App. M. 9, 2.