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ex-cūso (excuss-), āvi, ātum, 1, v. a. [causa; cf. accuso, from ad-causa; qs. to release from a charge, to free from blame; hence], to excuse a person or thing.

I. Lit.

(a). With a personal object, aliquem alicui: Atticae meae velim me ita excuses, ut omnem culpam in te transferas, Cic. Att. 15, 28; cf.: aliquem alicui per litteras, id. Fam. 11, 15, 1; and: his omnibus me vehementer excusatum volo, id. Verr. 2, 1, 40, 103.—With quod: Titium excusavit Vespa Terentius, quod eum brachium fregisse diceret, id. de Or. 2, 62, 253: Libo excusat Bibulum, quod is, etc., Caes. B. C. 3, 16, 3: primum me tibi excuso in eo ipso, in quo te accuso, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 2, 1: se de aliqua re, Caes. B. G. 4, 22, 1: de me excusando apud Apuleium, dederam ad te litteras, Cic. Att. 12, 14, 1: se alicui, Plaut. As. 4, 2, 4; Quint. 4, 1, 75 et saep.—In pass.: cura, ut excuser morbi causa in dies singulos, Cic. Att. 12, 13, 2: si citatus judex non responderit excuseturque Areopagites esse, etc., excuses himself as being, etc., id. Phil. 5, 5, 14: dixi, cur excusatus abirem, Hor. Ep. 1, 9, 7: apud Appuleium in dies ut excuser videbis, Cic. Att. 12, 15, 1: me excusatum esse apud Appuleium a Laterense, id. ib. 12, 17, 1.—

(b). With inanim. or abstr. objects, to excuse, apologize for: Varroni memineris excusare tarditatem litterarum mearum, Cic. Att. 15, 26 fin.: habitum permutatum, Quint. 3, 7, 6: palliolum, fascias, etc. (sola valetudo), id. 11, 3, 144: commentarios, id. 10, 7, 31: missos ignes, Ov. M. 2, 397; dolorem, id. ib. 4, 256: toros, Stat. Th. 2, 256: reditum Agrippinae ob imminentem partum et hiemem, her not returning, Tac. A. 1, 44.

II. Transf.

A. Aliquid (alicui), i. q. se propter aliquid, to allege in excuse, to plead as an excuse, to excuse one's self with.

(a). With acc.: propinquitatem excusavit, Cic. Phil. 8, 1, 1: morbum, id. ib. 9, 4, 8: inopiam (with calamitatem queri), Caes. B. C. 3, 20, 3: valetudinem, Liv. 6, 22 fin.: imbecillitatem, Suet. Tib. 6: vires, Ov. M. 14, 462: diversa, Tac. A. 3, 11 et saep.: ille Philippo Excusare laborem et mercenaria vincla, Quod non mane domum venisset, etc., Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 67: dictatorem se apud patres excusare solitum, Liv. 6, 39, 4: aliquid apud aliquem, Curt. 5, 10, 8; Suet. Tib. 68.—Pass.: quae apud Vitellium excusanda erant, Tac. H. 2, 85: excusata necessitas praesentium, id. ib. 1, 78: excusata rei familiaris mediocritate, Suet. Aug. 101: excusatus languor faucium, propter quem non adesset, id. Ner. 41 et saep.—

(b). With an object-clause: si prehensi sumus, excusemus, ebrios Nos fecisse, etc., Plaut. Aul. 4, 10, 19 (but in id. Merc. 2, 3, 126, the correct reading is incusato, v. Ritschl ad h. l.): excusanti, minus datum ad occultandam facinoris invidiam, Suet. Ner. 33; id. Aug. 69.—

B. Aliquem ab aliqua re, aliqua re, or alicui rei, to excuse, absolve one from any thing; to discharge, dispense with one (postAug.): a coepta (tutela) excusari, Dig. 27, 1, 11: collegarum filiorum tutela excusari, ib. 9; cf. Ambros. in Psa. 1, 46: cui excusari mallet, Tac. A. 1. 12; Vulg. Luc. 14, 19. But (class.): se de aliqua re: legati venerunt, qui se de superioris temporis consilio excusarent, quod, etc., Caes. B. G. 4, 22, 1.—

C. Se ab aliqua re, to shelter, protect one's self from any thing (post-class.): ut invicom se a calore excusent (plantae), Pall. Nov. 7, 2. —Hence,

D. Aliquid aliqua re, to compensate, atone for any thing (post-Aug. and rare): nefas armis, Claud. de Bell. Get. 562; Stat. Th. 6, 44; Plin. Pan. 32, 4.—Hence, excūsātus, a, um, P. a., excused (postAug. and rare): hoc et ego excusatior, si forte sum lapsus, et tu dignior laude, Plin. Ep. 8, 14, 11; 4, 5, 4: excusatissimus essem, etiamsi, etc., Sen. Const. Sap. 29.—Adv.: excūsātē, without blame, excusably: fieri id videtur excusate, Quint. 2, 1, 13.—Comp.: quod exoratus excusatius facies, Plin. Ep. 9, 21, 3; Tac. A. 3, 68; Just. 32, 2.