Previous: exequiaeNext: exercibilis


ex-ercĕo, ŭi, itum, 2, v. a. [arceo], to drive on, keep busy, keep at work; to oversee, superintend; with an inanimate object, to work, work at, employ one's self about a thing.

I. Lit. (mostly poet. and in postAug. prose): quod in opere faciundo operae consumis tuae, Si sumas in illis (servis) exercendis, plus agas, Ter. Heaut. 1, 1, 22; cf.: homines qui agrum colunt, et qui eos exercent praepositive sunt his, quorum in numero sunt vilici et monitores, who oversee them, Dig. 33, 7, 8: exercete, viri, tauros, Verg. G. 1, 210: i sane, ego te exercebo hodie, ut dignus es, keep agoing, exercise, Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 48: corpora assiduo varioque exercita motu, etc., driven, impelled, Lucr. 2, 97; cf. id. 4, 862; 2, 120; and: exercita cursu Flumina (with fontes liquidi), Verg. G. 3, 529 Wagn.: (Maeandros) Incertas exercet aquas, Ov. M. 8, 165: exercere feras, to drive, hunt, Dig. 7, 1, 62: Mi. Gestiunt pugni mihi. So. Si in me exercituru's, quaeso in parietem ut primum domes, to let loose, set them at me, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 168: litus arant Rutulosque exercent vomere colles, work, till, Verg. A. 7, 798: solum presso sub vomere, id. G. 2, 356: rura bubus, Hor. Epod. 2, 3: humum in messem, Verg. G. 1, 219: vineas, arbusta, campos (with curare), Plin. Ep. 1, 20, 16: agrum multis arationibus, Pall. Jan. 13, 2: pinguia culta, Verg. A. 10, 142: ferrum vasto in antro (Cyclopes), id. ib. 8, 424: telas (aranea), Ov. M. 6, 145 al.; cf.: neque arva nobis aut metalla aut portus sunt, quibus exercendis reservemur, Tac. Agr. 31.—Poet.: ut possint (aratores), sole reducto, Exercere diem, i. e. employ the day in labor, perform their day's work, Verg. A. 10, 808.

II. Trop. (freq. and class.).

A. To engage busily, to occupy, employ, exercise a person or thing in some action.

(a). Aliquem or aliquid (in aliqua re, ad aliquid, aliqua re, etc.): me adolescentem multos annos in studio ejusdem laudis (Hortensius) exercuit, Cic. Brut. 64, 230: quod genus belli esse potest, in quo illum non exercuerit fortuna rei publicae, id. de Imp. Pomp. 10, 28: a Diodoto studiosissime in dialectica exercebar, id. Brut. 90, 309; cf. id. de Or. 1, 57, 244: hanc (animi vim) tu exerce in optimis rebus, id. Rep. 6, 26: haec aetas (juvenum) exercenda in labore patientiaque et animi et corporis, id. Off. 1, 34, 122: animos in armis, Ov. Am. 1, 8, 41: in gramineis exercent membra palaestris, Verg. A. 6, 642: vocem et vires in hoc, Cic. de Or. 1, 33, 149 et saep.: Aristoteles adolescentes ... ad copiam rhetorum in utramque partem exercuit, id. Or. 14, 46: ad hanc te amentiam natura peperit, voluntas exercuit, id. Cat. 1, 10, 25: facultatem dicendi his exercuerunt, Quint. 2, 4, 41: ingenium multiplici variaque materia, id. 2, 4, 20: linguas litibus, Ov. M. 6, 375 et saep.—With simple acc.: quid te exercuit Pammenes? Cic. Brut. 97, 332: Induciomarus copias cogere, exercere coepit, to exercise, drill, Caes. B. G. 5, 55, 3: juventutis exercendae causa, id. ib. 6, 23, 6: ingenium nostrum, Auct. Her. 3, 21, 34: corpus, Cic. de Off. 1, 23, 79: exercendae memoriae gratia, id. de Sen. 11, 38: exercendi stili, Quint. 10, 5, 15: exercendus est spiritus, id. 11, 3, 54 et saep.—

(b). With se, or pass. in mid. force; and in part. praes. and gerund., to exercise or train one's self, to practise: si ad hoc unum est natus aut in hoc solo se exercuit, etc., Cic. Or. 28, 99: se vehementissime in his subitis dictionibus, id. de Or. 1, 33, 152: se in consultationibus, id. Att. 9, 4, 3: sese ad cursuram, Plaut. Most. 4, 1, 5: se ad velitationem, id. Rud. 2, 6, 41: sese quotidianis commentationibus, Cic. Brut. 71, 249: se genere pugnae, Caes. B. G. 1, 48, 4: se genere venationis, id. ib. 6, 28, 3: se saliendo, Plaut. Bacch. 3, 3, 25: cur non in utrumque protinus locum se exerceant? Quint. 4, 2, 29 Zumpt N. cr.: Jovem Olympium, eum ipsum, cui se exercebit, implorabit, Cic. Tusc. 2, 17, 40: cum athletas se exercentes in curriculo videret, id. de Sen. 9, 27; so, ad virtutem, Vulg. 1 Tim. 4, 7.— Mid.: ut exerceamur in venando, Cic. N. D. 2, 64, 161: ut in utrumque locum simul exerceamur, Quint. 5, 13, 50: faciunt idem, cum exercentur, athletae, Cic. Tusc. 2, 23, 56: Ciceronis pueri amant inter se, discunt, exercentur, id. Att. 6, 1, 12: ne aliter exerceri velint, Quint. 3, 8, 70: in mandatis tuis exercebor, Vulg. Psa. 118, 15.—Act. part. in mid. force: cum, ceteris in campo exercentibus, in herba ipse recubuisset, Cic. de Or. 2, 71, 287; so, ipsique dictata exercentibus darent, Suet. Caes. 26: spectavit assidue et exercentes ephebos, id. Aug. 98; cf.: si ludicra exercendi aut venandi consuetudine adamare solemus, of exercising ourselves, Cic. Fin. 1, 20, 69, v. Madv. ad h. l.—

B. To practise, follow, exercise any employment; to employ one's self about, to make use of any thing: medicinae exercendae causa, Cic. Clu. 63, 178: hoc civile quod vocant eatenus exercuerunt, quoad populum praestare voluerunt, id. Leg. 1, 4, 14: rhetoricen, Quint. 2, 1, 3; 2, 15, 27: eloquentiam, id. 1, 4, 6: artem, id. 3, 6, 18; cf. Hor. Ep. 1, 14, 44: exercere atque exigere vectigalia, Cic. de Imp. Pomp. 6, 16: cauponam vel stabulum, Dig. 4, 9, 1, 5: navem, ib. 14, 1, 1: auri, argenti, sulphuris, etc.... fodinas, ib. 7, 1, 13, 5: negotiationem per libertos, ib. 26, 7, 58: commercium turis, Plin. 12, 14, 30, 54: arma, Verg. A. 4, 87: arma contra patriam, Tac. A. 11, 16: gymnasia et otia et turpes amores, id. ib. 6, 1: acies pueriles, batiles in sport, Juv. 15, 60: pharetram et arcum, Val. Fl. 3, 161: vocem (with clamare), Plaut. Poen. prol. 13.—

2. To follow up, follow out, prosecute, carry into effect, practise, administer: judicium, Cic. Arch. 12, 32: latam legem, Liv. 4, 51, 4: Tiberius exercendas leges esse respondit, Tac. A. 1, 72: legem praecipue sumptuariam, Suet. Caes. 43; id. Tib. 58: quaestionem inter sicarios, Cic. Fin. 2, 16, 54: regnum, Plin. 10, 21, 24, 47; cf. imperia, Verg. G. 2, 370: crudelitatem non solum in vivo sed etiam in mortuo, Cic. Phil. 11, 3, 8: inimicitias, id. Div. in Caecil. 4, 13; cf.: graves inimicitias cum aliquo, Sall. C. 49, 2: gratiam aut inimicitias in tanta re, id. ib. 51, 16: jurgia, discordia, simultates cum hostibus, id. ib. 9, 2: cui exercita cum Pisone amicitia, Tac. A. 1, 14: licentiam, id. ib. 13, 47: amicitiam, id. ib. 15, 60: odium, id. ib. 13, 37: odium in aliquo, Ov. M. 9, 275 et saep.: facilitatem et lenitudinem animi, Cic. Off. 1, 25, 88: juris aequabilitatem, id. ib.; cf. justitiam, Plin. Ep. 1, 10, 10: scelus, libidinem, avaritiam in socios, Liv. 29, 17, 13; cf.: avaritiam (juvenes) exercere jubentur, Juv. 14, 108: foede victoriam in captis, Liv. 6, 22, 4: acerrume victoriam nobilitatis in plebem, Sall. J. 16, 2: foede et crudeliter victoriam, id. C. 38: amores ad aliquem, Cat. 68, 69: pacem et hymenaeos, to celebrate, solemnize, Verg. A. 4, 99: nomen patris, to bear his name, Plin. Pan. 21, 4 et saep.—

C. Pregn., to disturb, disquiet, vex, plague (the figure being taken from the baiting of wild beasts): meos casus, in quibus me fortuna vehementer exercuit, Cic. Tusc. 5, 1, 3: nunc me reliquiae vestrae exercent, id. Fam. 12, 4, 1: non te nullius exercent numinis irae, Verg. G. 4, 453: aliquem odiis, id. A. 4, 622 et saep.: te de praedio Oviae exerceri, moleste fero, Cic. Att. 13, 22, 4: ergo exercentur poenis, Verg. A, 6, 739: hominum vitam curis, Lucr. 5, 1424: ambitio animos hominum exercet, Sall. C. 11, 1: simultates nimio plures et exercuerunt eum et ipse exercuit eas, Liv. 39, 40, 9.—In the part. perf.: nate, Iliacis exercite fatis, Verg. A. 3, 182: Venus exercita curis, id. ib. 5, 779; cf.: curis exercita corpora, Ov. M. 7, 634: adversis probitas exercita rebus, id. Tr. 5, 5, 49: habere aliquem exercitum, Plaut. Fragm. ap. Non. 6, 4.—Hence, exercĭ-tus, a, um, P. a. (acc. to II. C.).

A. Vexed, harassed: scito nihil tam exercitum esse nunc Romae quam candidatos omnibus iniquitatibus, Cic. Att. 1, 11, 2: Tiberius tantis rebus, Tac. A. 4, 11.— Hence,

B. Vexatious, severe: quid magis sollicitum, magis exercitum dici potest? Cic. Mil. 2, 5: finem tam exercitae militiae orabant, Tac. A. 1, 35: dura hiems, exercita aestas, id. ib. 1, 17: aestas (with inquieta), Plin. Ep. 7, 2, 2: infantiam pueritiamque habuit laboriosam et exercitam, Suet. Tib. 6 init.

C. Disciplined: (miles) exercitatus et vetus ob eam rem fortior (opp. rudis et inexercitatus), Cic. Tusc. 2, 16, 38: mirum in modum juventus, Flor. 1, 3, 2: proprio in metu, qui exercitam quoque eloquentiam debilitat, Tac. A. 3, 67: militia, id. ib. 3, 20: ad omne flagitium, id. ib. 14, 2: ingenium adulatione, id. H. 4, 4: Graeca doctrina ore tenus, id. A. 15, 45.—Comp. and sup.: exercitiorem, exercitissimum (dicebant antiqui), Paul. ex Fest. p. 81, 8 Müll. —Adv.: exercĭtē, in a practised manner; in comp.: cogitare, App. M. 11, p. 272, 6.