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firmus, a, um, adj. [Sanscr. dhar-, dharā-mi, hold, support; Gr. θρᾶ-, θρή-σασθαι, to sit down, θρῆνυς, θρόνος; cf.: frētus, frēnum], firm (in opp. to frail, destructible), steadfast, stable, strong, powerful (freq. and class.; esp. in the trop. sense; syn.: constans, stabilis, solidus).

I. Lit.: nos fragili vastum ligno sulcavimus aequor: Quae tulit Aesoniden, firma carina fuit, Ov. P. 1, 4, 35: robora, Verg. A. 2, 481: arbor, Ov. A. A. 2, 652: vincula, id. F. 1, 370: janua, i. e. shut fast, id. Am. 2, 12, 3; cf. sera, id. P. 1, 2, 24: solum, Curt. 5, 1: firmioris testae murices, Plin. 9, 33, 52, 102: sunt et Amineae vites, firmissima vina. Verg. G. 2, 97: firmo cibo pasta pecus, strengthening, Varr. R. R. 2, 11, 2: firmius est triticum quam milium: id ipsum quam hordeum: ex tritico firmissima siligo, Cels. 2, 18: effice ut valeas, et ut ad nos firmus ac valens quam primum venias, Cic. Fam. 16, 8, 1 and 2; cf.: mihi placebat, si firmior esses, etc., id. ib. 16, 5, 1: nondum satis firmo corpore, id. ib. 11, 27, 1: hinc remiges firmissimi, illinc inopia affectissimi, Vell. 2, 84, 2.—With dat.: area firma templis sustinendis, Liv. 2, 5, 4: testa in structura oneri ferendo firma, Vitr. 2, 8, 19: adversis, Tac. Agr. 35 fin.

II. Trop., firm in strength or durability, also in opinion, affection, etc., fast, constant, steadfast, immovable, powerful, strong, true, faithful: quae enim domus tam stabilis, quae tam firma civitas est, quae non odiis et discidiis funditus possit everti? Cic. Lael. 7, 23: res publica firma atque robusta, id. Rep. 2, 1 fin.; cf.: civitas imprimis firma, Caes. B. G. 5, 54, 2: Trinobantes prope firmissima earum regionum civitas, id. ib. 5, 20, 1; cf. also: Mutina firmissima et splendidissima colonia, Cic. Phil. 5, 9, 24: tres potentissimi ac firmissimi populi, id. ib. 1, 3 fin.; and: evocatorum firma manus, id. Fam. 15, 4, 3: Antonius ab equitatu firmus esse dicebatur, strong in cavalry, Planc. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 15, 2.— With ad and acc.: satis firmus ad castra facienda, Pomp. ap. Cic. Att. 8, 12, A, 1: Chrysippi consolatio ad veritatem firmissima est, Cic. Tusc. 3, 33, 79: exercitus satis firmus ad tantum bellum, Liv. 23, 25, 6; cf.: cohortes minime firmae ad dimicandum, Caes. B. G. 7, 60, 2; Sall. H. 4, 62, 16.— With contra: Jugurtha nihil satis firmum contra Metellum putat, Sall. J. 80, 1.—With adversus: firmus adversus militarem largitionem, Tac. H. 2, 82: firmior adversus fortuita, id. ib. 4, 51: adversus convicia malosque rumores, Suet. Tib. 28.—Absol.: cum neque magnas copias neque firmas haberet, Nep. Eum. 3, 3; Caes. B. G. 1, 3, 8; Sall. J. 56, 2: concordi populo nihil esse immutabilius, nihil firmius, Cic. Rep. 1, 32: praesidia firmissima, id. Fin. 1, 10, 35: fundamenta defensionis firmissima, id. Cael. 2, 7: firmior fortuna, id. Rep. 1, 17: constitutio Romuli, id. ib. 2, 31 (ap. Non. 526, 10): illud ratum, firmum, fixum fuisse vis, Cic. Ac. 2, 46, 141: officii praecepta firma, stabilia, id. Off. 1, 2, 6; cf.: opinio, firma et stabilis, id. Brut. 30, 114: firma et constans assensio, id. Ac. 1, 11, 42: ne in maximis quidem rebus quicquam adhuc inveni firmius, id. Or. 71, 237: spem firmissimam habere, id. Fam. 6, 5, 4; cf., transf.: firmior candidatus, i. e. who has stronger, greater hopes of being elected, id. Att. 1, 1, 2: litterae, i. e. containing news that may be relied upon, id. ib. 7, 25; cf. id. ib. 16, 5: senatum sua sponte bene firmum firmiorem vestra auctoritate fecistis, id. Phil. 6, 7, 18; cf.: vir in suscepta causa firmissimus, id. Mil. 33, 91: accusator firmus verusque, id. Div. in Caecil. 9, 29; with this cf.: vir pro veritate firmissimus, Plin. Ep. 2, 11, 19: sunt fortasse in sententia firmiores, id. Balb. 27, 61: firmus in hoc, Tib. 3, 2, 5: non firmus rectum defendis et haeres, Hor. S. 2, 7, 26: firmus proposito, Vell. 2, 63 fin.; so, firmissimus irā, Ov. M. 7, 457: firmo id constantique animo facias licet, Cic. Fil. ap. Cic. Fam. 16, 21, 2: nunc opus pectore firmo, Verg. A. 6, 261: firmi amici sunt (opp.: amici collabascunt), Plaut. Stich. 4, 1, 16: firmi et stabiles et constantes (amici), Cic. Lael. 17, 62: ex infidelissimis sociis firmissimos reddere, id. Fam. 15, 4, 14: non brevis et suffragatoria, sed firma et perpetua amicitia, Q. Cic. Petit. Cons. 7, 26: firmissimae amicitiae, Quint. 1, 2, 20: fides firma nobis, Plaut. Capt. 5, 1, 6.—

(b). Poet. with inf.: fundus nec vendibilis nec pascere firmus, able, capable, Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 47. —Hence, adv., firmly, steadily, lastingly, powerfully; in two (equally common) forms: firme and firmĭter.

(a). Form firme, Plaut. Mil. 4, 2, 24; id. Trin. 2, 2, 54: insistere, Suet. Calig. 26: firme graviterque aliquid comprehendere, Cic. Fin. 1, 21, 71; cf.: satis firme aliquid concipere animo, id. ib. 2, 2, 6: continere multa, Quint. 11, 2, 2: sustinere assensus suos, Cic. Fin. 3, 9, 31: graviter et firme respondere, Plin. Ep. 6, 13, 3.—

(b). Form firmiter: firmiter hoc tuo sit pectore fixum, Lucil. ap. Non. 512, 20: nisi suffulcis firmiter, Plaut. Ep. 1, 1, 77: insistere, Caes. B. G. 4, 26, 1: in suo gradu collocari, Cic. Rep. 1, 45 fin.: stabilita matrimonia, Cic. Fragm. ap. Non. 512, 23 (Rep. 6, 2 ed. Mos.): promisisse, Plaut. Ps. 3, 2 111: meminisse, Gell. 13, 8, 2.—

b. Comp.: firmius durare, Plin. 35, 12, 46, 165: firmius coire, Ov. H. 19, 67.—

c. Sup.: asseverare, Cic. Att. 10, 14 fin.: pulvinus quam firmissime statuatur, Vitr. 5, 12.