Previous: frangoNext: fraterculo


frāter, tris, m. [Sanscr. bhrātā; Gr. φράτηρ, φράτωρ, clansman; Goth. brothar; Engl. brother], a brother.

I. Lit.: frater mi, salve, Plaut. Curc. 5, 2, 58; cf.: mi frater, mi frater, mi frater, tune id veritus es? etc., Cic. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 1: amabo te, mi frater, ne, etc., id. ib. 1, 4, 1: L. frater meus, id. Verr. 2, 4, 11, 25: uxores habent inter se communes: et maxime fratres cum fratribus, Caes. B. G. 5, 14, 4; cf.: fratrem a fratre renuntiatum, id. ib. 7, 33, 3: et filius et fratris filius, id. ib. 5, 27, 2: fratris filia, Plin. Ep. 8, 11, 1: fratres gemini, twin-brothers, Cic. Clu. 16, 46; Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 41: fratres gemelli, Ov. H. 8, 77; also in the reverse order: gemini fratres, Cic. Div. 2, 43, 90; Liv. 1, 5, 6; Suet. Caes. 10; Verg. A. 7, 670; Ov. H. 17, 250 (and therefore wrongly censured by Quint.: quaedam ordine permutato fiunt supervacua, ut fratres gemini: nam si praecesserint gemini, fratres addere non est necesse, Quint. 9, 4, 24).— Also in sing.: To. Hic ejus geminus est frater. Do. Hiccine'st? To. Ac geminissimus. Do. Di deaeque et te et geminum fratrem excrucient, Plaut. Pers. 5, 2, 49 sq.: venimus fratrem quaesitum geminum germanum meum, my full twin-brother, id. Men. 2, 1, 7; cf.: spes mihi est, vos inventuros fratres germanos duos Geminos, una matre natos et patre uno uno die, id. ib. 5, 9, 43: Cn. Phaenius ... frater germanus Q. Titinii, full brother, own brother, Cic. Verr. 2, 1, 49, 128; id. Font. 17, 36: fratres uterini, brothers by the same mother, uterine brothers, Cod. Just. 5, 62, 21: fratribus illa (templa) deis fratres de gente deorum Circa Juturnae composuere lacus, the brothers of a race of gods (Tiberius and Drusus), descended from the divine brothers (Castor and Pollux), Ov. F. 1, 707.—Of the giants: fratresque tendentes opaco Pelion imposuisse Olympo, Hor. C. 3, 4, 51: conjurati fratres, Verg. G. 1, 280.—Poet. of dogs: et Thous et Cyprio velox cum fratre Lycisca, Ov. M. 3, 220; Grat. Cyneg. 299.

II. Transf.

A. Like our word brother, as a familiar appellation of friends and lovers.

1. In gen.: quam copiose laudatur Apronius a Timarchide ... Volo, mi frater, fraterculo tuo credas: consorti quidem in lucris atque in furtis, gemino et simillimo nequitia, improbitate, audacia, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 66, 155: frater, pater, adde: Ut cuique est aetas, ita quemque facetus adopta, Hor. Ep. 1, 6, 54: frater erat Romae consulti rhetor, id. ib. 2, 2, 87: eheu cicatricum et sceleris pudet Fratrumque, i. e. of dear fellow-citizens, id. C. 1, 35, 34; Juv. 5, 135; cf. Phaedr. 1, 31, 5.—So freq. of civil wars: gaudent perfusi sanguine fratrum, Verg. G. 2, 510: crudeles gaudent in tristi funere fratrum, Lucr. 3, 70.—

2. In partic.

a. Of lovers: nisi intercederent mihi inimicitiae cum istius mulieris viro: fratre volui dicere: semper hic erro, Cic. Cael. 13, 32; cf. Tib. 3, 1, 23; Mart. 2, 4, 3; 10, 65, 14 (cf. soror); Petr. 9, 2.—

b. In publicists' lang., an honorary title given to allies: Aedui, fratres consanguineique saepenumero a senatu appellati, Caes. B. G. 1, 32, 2; 2, 3, 5: non modo hostes, sed etiam fratres nostri Aedui, Cic. Fam. 7, 10 fin.: Aedui fratres nostri pugnant, id. Att. 1, 19, 2 (cf. fraternitas). —

B. Fratres for brother and sister (as also the Gr. ἀδελφοί): Lucius et Titia fratres emancipati a patre, Dig. 10, 2, 38: tres fratres, Titius, Naevius et Seia, ib. 2, 14, 35: fratrum incestus, amor, Tac. A. 12, 4: INFANTIBVS HILARIONI ET REVOCATAE FRATRIBVS, Inscr. Orell. 4583.—

C. Like Gr. ἀδελφός, of near kindred.

1. Frater patruelis, a cousin, a father's brother's son: hic illius frater patruelis et socer T. Torquatus, Cic. Planc. 11, 27; cf.: L. Cicero frater noster, cognatione patruelis, amore germanus, id. Fin. 5, 1, 1; cf. Dig. 38, 10, 1, 10; for which simply frater, Cic. Clu. 24, 60; id. Att. 1, 5, 1; Cat. 66, 22; Ov. H. 8, 28; id. M. 13, 31; Tac. A. 3, 38; 11, 9; Just. 17, 3; Cic. Post Red. in Sen. 10, 25.—

2. Perh. also for levir (cf. the Fr. beaufrère), a brother-in-law, sister's husband: prope attonitus ipso congressu Numida, gratias de fratris filio remisso agit, Liv. 28, 35, 8 (cf. id. 27, 19, 9).—

D. Fratres Arvales, a college of priests; v. arvalis.—

E. Frater Solis et Lunae, the title of the Parthian kings, Amm. 17, 5; 23, 5.—

F. Of things of a like kind (so, too, the Gr. ὰδελφός; cf. also soror): aspicies illic positos ex ordine fratres (i. e. libros), Ov. Tr. 1, 1, 107; so Mart. 12, 3, 6.—As a proper name: (In Mauretania) montes sunt alti, qui ... ob numerum Septem, ob similitudinem Fratres nuncupantur, Mel. 1, 5, 5; Plin. 5, 2, 1, 18; Sol. 25 (in Ptolemy, Ἑπτὰ ἀδελφοί; cf. Mann. Afr. 2, p. 459).