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incumbo, cŭbŭi, cŭbĭtum, ĕre, v. n. [1. incubo], to lay one's self upon, to lean or recline upon a thing (cf. ingruo; class., partic. in the trop. sense).

I. Lit., constr. with in, ad, super, or dat.; also with the simple acc.: olivae, Verg. E. 8, 16: in parietem, Dig. 39, 2, 28: densis ordinibus nunc alii in alios, nunc in scuta incumbentes sustinebant impetus Romanorum, Liv. 35, 5, 7: toro, Verg. A. 4, 650: materiae, Curt. 8, 10, 25: terrae, Tac. A. 2, 17: super praedam, to lie upon, Petr. 80: in eum, Curt. 6, 9: ad vos, Ov. M. 9, 385: cumulatis in aqua sarcinis insuper incumbebant, Liv. 22, 2, 8: validis incumbere remis, Verg. A. 5, 15; 10, 294; Curt. 9, 9, 4.—Of the heavens: cava in se convexitas vergit, et cardini suo, hoc est terrae, undique incumbit, Plin. 2, 64, 64, 160: mare, to cast itself into the sea, id. 5, 32, 40, 141: fessi arma sua, Sall. Fragm. ap. Serv. ad Verg. A. 9, 229: tecto incubuit bubo, perched on, Ov. M. 6, 432: gladium faciam culcitam, camque incumbam, Plaut. Cas. 2, 4, 29.—

B. Transf., to lean or incline towards, to overhang; to rush towards: silex prona jugo laevum incumbebat ad amnem, Verg. A. 8, 236: laurus incumbens arae, id. ib. 2, 514: in gladium, to fall on one's sword, Cic. Inv. 2, 51, 154: gladio, Auct. Her. 1, 11, 18: ferro, Phaedr. 3, 10, 33: in hostem, to press upon the enemy, Liv. 30, 34, 2; cf.: duo duces circumstare urbem ... et unum in locum totam periculi molem, omne onus incubuisse, id. 27, 40, 6.—

II. Trop.

A. To press upon, burden, oppress, weigh upon: incubuere (venti) mari, Verg. A. 1, 84: tempestas a vertice silvis incubuit, id. G. 2, 311: gravis incumbens scopulis aestas, id. ib. 2, 377: febrium terris incubuit cohors, Hor. C. 1, 3, 30: (aestus) incubuit populo, Lucr. 6, 142. —Absol.: saevior armis Luxuria incubuit, Just. 6, 292.—

B. To bend one's attention to, to apply or devote one's self to, to exert one's self, or take pains with, pay attention to; constr. with in, ad, or dat.: rogandis legibus, Flor. 3, 16: ceris et stilo, Plin. Ep. 7, 27, 9: labori, Sil. 4, 820: toto pectore novae cogitationi, Tac. Or. 3: et animo et opibus in bellum, Caes. B. G. 7, 76: ut jam inclinato (judici) reliqua incumbat oratio, press upon, exert influence on, Cic. de Or. 2, 79, 324; cf.: invidia mihi incumbit, Tac. A. 14, 54: in aliquod studium, Cic. de Or. 1, 8, 34: in causam, id. Phil. 4, 5, 12: acrius graviusque ad ulciscendas rei publicae injurias, id. ib. 6, 1, 2: tota mente in aliquam curam et cogitationem, id. Fam. 10, 3, 3: toto pectore ad laudem, id. ib. 10, 12, 2: omni cogitatione curaque in rem publicam, id. ib. 1, 2: fato urguenti incumbere, to press on, hasten, Verg. A. 2, 653.—With inf.: sarcire ruinas, Verg. G. 4, 249: delatorem pervertere, Tac. H. 2, 10.—With ut and subj.: Appius Claudius ... cum suis tum totius nobilitatis viribus incubuit, ut, etc., Liv. 10, 15, 8.— Absol.: nunc, nunc incumbere tempus, Ov. M. 10, 657.—

C. To incline, choose, be inclined to, lean towards: hoc servi esse officium reor, ... non quo incumbat eum (i. e. erum) inpellere, Plaut. Aul. 4, 1, 8: ut eos, qui audiunt, quocumque incubuerit, possit impellere, whithersoever he may incline, choose, Cic. de Or. 3, 14, 55: eodem incumbunt municipia, are inclined the same way, id. Phil. 6, 7, 18: ad voluntatem perferendae legis, id. Att. 1, 19, 4: voluntatum inclinatio ad virum bonum, to lean towards, turn to, id. Mur. 26, 53: in causam, Cael. ad Cic. Fam. 8, 11, 3: in cupiditatem, Cic. Att. 5, 13, 3: in illo, id. Q. Fr. 3, 8, 6.—

D. To be incumbent upon one as a duty (post-class.): accusandi necessitas domino, Dig. 48, 2, 5: ei probatio, ib. 22, 3, 2: judici omnium rerum officium, ib. 21, 1, 25.