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infĕrus, a, um (ante-class. collat. form of the nom. sing. infer: ubi super inferque vicinus permittet, Cato, R. R. 149), adj. [cf. Sanscr. adh-aras, adh-amas, the lower, lowest; and Lat. infra], that is below, underneath, lower; opp. superus.

I. Posit.

A. In gen.: inferus an superus tibi fert Deus funera, Liv. Andr. ap. Prisc. p. 606 P.; cf.: Di Deaeque superi atque inferi, Plaut. Cist. 2, 1, 36; Ter. Phorm. 4, 4, 6; cf. also: ut ex tam alto dignitatis gradu ad superos videantur deos potius quam ad inferos pervenisse, Cic. Lael. 3, 12: limen superum inferumque salve, Plaut. Merc. 5, 1, 1: ut omnia supera, infera, prima, ultima, media videremus, Cic. Tusc. 1, 26, 64: loca, the lower parts, id. Arat. 474: fulmina, that come out of the ground, Plin. 2, 52, 53, 138: aqua, that falls down, rain-water, Varr. ap. Non. 1, 221: mare inferum, the Lower, i. e. the Tuscan Sea (opp. mare superum, the Upper or Adriatic Sea), Mel. 2, 4; Plin. 3, 5, 10, 75; Cic. Att. 9, 3, 1; id. de Or. 3, 19 et saep. also without mare: navigatio infero, upon the Tuscan Sea, id. Att. 9, 5, 1.—

B. In partic., underground, belonging to the Lower World: infĕri, ōrum, m. (gen. inferūm for inferorum, Varr. ap. Macr. S. 1, 16; Sen. de Ira, 2, 35), the inhabitants of the infernal regions, the dead: triceps apud inferos Cerberus, Cic. Tusc. 1, 5, 10: si ab inferis exsistat rex Hiero, were to rise from the dead, Liv. 26, 32: si salvi esse velint, Sulla sit iis ab inferis excitandus, to be raised from the dead, Cic. Cat. 2, 9, 20: inferorum animas elicere, id. Vatin. 6, 14: ad inferos poenas parricidii luere, in the infernal regions, id. Phil. 14, 12, 32: ab inferis excitare aliquem, i. e. to quote the words of one deceased, id. Or. 25, 85; id. Brut. 93, 322.

II. Comp.: infĕrĭor, ius, lower in situation or place.

A. Lit.: spatium, Caes. B. G. 7, 46, 3: locus, id. ib. 2, 25: pars, id. ib. 7, 35: ex inferiore loco dicere, from below (opp. ex superiore loco, from the tribunal), Cic. Att. 2, 24, 3; cf. superus, II. A.: onerosa suo pondere in inferius feruntur, downwards, Ov. M. 15, 241: scriptura, Cic. Inv. 2, 40, 117.—Plur. subst.: infĕrĭōres, um, m., the people of the lower part of the city, Auct. B. Alex. 6, 3. —

B. Trop.

1. Subsequent, later, latter, in time or succession: erant inferiores quam illorum aetas, qui, etc., lived later, were younger, Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 5, 2; cf.: aetate inferiores paulo quam Iulius, etc., id. Brut. 49, 182; and: inferioris aetatis esse, id. ib. 64, 228: inferiores quinque dies, the latter, Varr. L. L. 6, 13 Müll. —

2. Inferior in quality, rank, or number.

(a). With abl. specif.: voluptatibus erant inferiores, nec pecuniis ferme superiores, Cic. Rep. 2, 34: inferior fortunā, id. Fam. 13, 5, 2: dignitate, auctoritate, existimatione, gratia non inferior, quam qui umquam fuerunt amplissimi, id. Q. Fr. 1, 3, 6: inferiores animo, Caes. B. G. 3, 24: quemadmodum causa inferior, dicendo fieri superior posset, Cic. Brut. 8: erat multo inferior navium numero Brutus, Caes. B. C. 1, 57. — With abl.: ut humanos casus virtute inferiores putes, Cic. Lael. 2.—

(b). With in and abl.: in jure civili non inferior, quam magister fuit, Cic. Brut. 48, 179.—

(g). Absol.: inferiores extollere, Cic. Lael. 20, 72; cf. id. ib. 71: invident homines maxime paribus aut inferioribus, id. de Or. 2, 52, 209; cf.: indignum est, a pari vinci aut superiore, indignius ab inferiore atque humiliore, id. Quint. 31: supplices inferioresque, id. Font. 11: ordines, Caes. B. C. 1, 46: crudelis in inferiores, Auct. Her. 4, 40: non inferiora secutus, naught inferior, Verg. A. 6, 170.

III. Sup. in two forms: infĭmus (or infŭmus) and īmus.

A. Form infimus (infumus), a, um, lowest, last (= imus; but where the lowest of several objects is referred to, infimus is used, Cic. N. D. 1, 37, 103; 2, 6, 17; v. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 588).

1. Lit.: stabiliendi causa singuli ab infimo solo pedes terra exculcabantur, Caes. B. G. 7, 73, 7: ab infimis radicibus montis, id. B. C. 1, 41, 3; 1, 42, 2: cum scripsissem haec infima, Cic. Q. Fr. 3, 1, 6: ab infima ara, from the lowest part of the altar, id. Div. 1, 33; cf.: sub infimo colle, the foot, Caes. B. G. 7, 79. — Subst.: infĭmum, i, n., the lowest part, bottom, in the phrase: ab infimo, from below, at the bottom, Plaut. Most. 3, 2, 140: collis erat leniter ab infimo acclivis, Caes. B. G. 7, 19, 1 (for which, ab imo; v. below, B. 1.): stipites demissi et ab infimo revincti, id. ib. 7, 73, 3; cf. Sen. Q. N. 3, 30, 4; 6, 4, 1; so, ad infimum, at the bottom, Caes. B. G. 7, 73, 3: collis passus circiter CC. infimus apertus, at the bottom, id. ib. 2, 18, 2.—

2. Trop., lowest, meanest, basest in quality or rank: infima faex populi, Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 6; cf.: condicio servorum, id. Off. 1, 13: infimo loco natus, id. Fl. 11: summos cum infimis pari jure retinebat, id. Off. 2, 12: humilitas natalium, Plin. 18, 6, 7, 37: preces, the most humble, Liv. 8, 2; 29, 30. — Hence, infĭmē, adv., only trop., at the bottom (late Lat.): quid summe est, quid infime, Aug. Ep. 18, 2. —

B. Form imus, a, um, the lowest, deepest, last ( = infimus; but when opp. to summus, to express a whole from end to end, imus is used; v. Suet. Aug. 79; Quint. 2, 13, 9; Liv. 24, 34, 9; Cic. Rosc. Com. 7, 20; Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 54; cf. Krebs, Antibarb. p. 588).

1. Lit.: ab imis unguibus usque ad verticem summum, Cic. Rosc. Com. 7, 20: terra ima sede semper haeret, id. Rep. 6, 18: fundo in imo, at the very bottom, Verg. A. 6, 581: vox, the deepest bass (opp. vox summa, the treble), Hor. S. 1, 3, 7; Quint. 11, 3, 15: conviva, that reclines at the bottom, Hor. S. 2, 8, 40; Mart. 6, 74: ad imam quercum, at the foot of the oak, Phaedr. 2, 4, 3: in aure ima, at the bottom of the ear, Plin. 11, 45, 103, 205. — As substt.

A. Plur.: īmi, ōrum, m., the lowest, most humble: aequalis ad maximos imosque pervenit clementiae tuae admiratio, Sen. Clem. 1, 1, 9: pacis et armorum superis imisque deorum Arbiter, Ov. F. 5, 665. —

B. īmum, i, n., the bottom, depth, low est part. Lit.: ab imo ad summum, Hor. S. 2, 3, 308: locus erat paulatim ab imo acclivis, Caes. B. G. 3, 19, 1 (for which, ab infimo; v. above, A. 1.); so, tigna paulum ab imo praeacuta, id. ib. 4, 17: suspirare ab imo, to fetch a deep sigh, Ov. A. A. 3, 675: (aures) instabiles imo facit, at the bottom. at their roots, id. M. 11, 177: aquae perspicuae imo, down to the bottom, id. ib. 5, 588. — Plur.: ima summis mutare, to turn the lowest into the highest, Hor. C. 1, 34, 12; Vell. 2, 2: ima, the under world, Ov. M. 10, 47.—With gen.: ima maris, the bottom of the sea, Plin. 32, 6, 21, 64: ima montis, the foot of a mountain, id. 4, 11, 18, 40.—

2. Trop., with respect to time or order, the last (mostly poet.): mensis, Ov. F. 2, 52.—Hence, subst.: īmum, i, n., the last, the end: nihil nostrā intersit an ab summo an ab imo nomina dicere incipiamus, Auct. Her. 3, 18, 30: si quid inexpertum scaenae committis ... servetur ad imum, till the last, to the end, Hor. A. P. 126: dormiet in lucem ... ad imum Threx erit, at last, id. Ep. 1, 18, 35.