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κάτω, Adv., (κατά):

I. with Verbs implying Motion, downwards, ἐπισκύνιον κ. ἕλκεται Il.17.136; κ. ὁρόων Od.23.91; κατὰ τείχεος κ. ῥίπτειν Hdt.8.53; κατώρυξέν με κατὰ τῆς γῆς κ. Ar.Pl.238; χώρει κ. A.Pr.74; κ. δάκρυ' εἰβομένη S.Ant.527 (anap.), cf. E.Fr.384; esp. of the nether world, A.Pers.839, S.Ant.197, etc.; κ. βλέπειν, φέρεσθαι, Pl.R.500b, 584e; κ. διεχώρει αὐτοῖς they suffered from diarrhoea, X.An.4.8.20, cf. Hp.Epid.5.20; φάρμακον πῖσαι κ. give a purgative, Id.Aff.32, cf. 15; κ. βοηθεῖν go down to help, D.32.5; for ἄνω καὶ κάτω, ἄνω κάτω, etc., v. ἄνω (B) A. 11.2.

2. downwards, in a chain of causes, ἐπὶ τὸ κ. ἰέναι Arist.Metaph.994a19.

3. c. gen., down from, πετρῶν ὦσαι κ. E.Cyc.448.

II. with Verbs implying Rest (so more freq. in Prose), beneath, below, opp. ἄνω, Hes.Th.301, etc.: ὁ τόπος ὁ κ. καλούμενος Pl.Phd.112c.

b. in the world below, S.Aj.660, OC1563 (lyr.), etc.; οἱ κ. the dead, Id.Aj.865, Ant.75, etc.; οἱ κ. θεοί Id.El.292, cf. E.Alc.851.

c. geographically below, southward, Hdt., v. ἄνω (B) A. 11.1e; also κ. οἰκεῖν to dwell on the coast, Th.1.7; οἱ κ., opp. οἱ τὴν μεσόγειαν κατῳκημένοι, ib.120; ἡ. κ. Γαλατία lower Galatia, Plu Aem.9, etc.; βασιλεὺς τῶν τε ἄνω καὶ τῶν κ. χωρῶν OGI90.3 (Rosetta, ii B.C.).

d. in the race-course, τὰ κ. the starting-place, opp. τὰ ἄνω (the goal), Pl.R.613b.

e. τὰ κ. τῶν μελῶν the lower limbs of the body, Id.Lg.794d; ἡ κ. κοιλία, opp. ἡ ἄνω, Arist.Mete.360b24.PA676a5; περὶ τὰ κ. χωρεῖν miscarry, fail, Luc. Ind.1.

f. of Time, afterwards, later, Ael.VH5.13; οἱ κ. χρόνοι Plu. Cor.25; οἱ κ., opp. οἱ πάλαι, Luc.Hipp.1; τοῦ χρόνου κ. later in time, Ael.VH3.17, NA2.18; Δαρεῖος ὁ κ. ib.6.48; cf. ἄνω (B) A.11.1i.

g. in Logic, τὰ κ. the lower members in a descending series of genera and species, Arist.AP0.97a31, Metaph.992a18.

III. c. gen., under, below, κ. χθονός, γῆς, A.Eu.1023, S.OT968, etc.

IV. Comp. κατωτέρω lower, downwards, Ar.Ra.70, Alex.173.2: c. gen., lower than, below, Hdt.8.132.

2. Sup. κατωτάτω at the lowest part, τὰ κ. Id.2.125 (but in signf. 11.g, Phld.Sign.29).