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κᾰκός, ή, όν, bad:

I. of persons,

1. of appearance, ugly, εἶδος μὲν ἔην κακός Il.10.316, cf. Paus.8.49.3.

2. of birth, ill-born, mean, γένος ἐστὲ διοτρεφέων βασιλήων .., ἐπεὶ οὔ κε κακοὶ τοιούσδε τέκοιεν Od.4.64; Ζεὺς δ' αὐτὸς νέμει ὄλβον ..ἐσθλοῖς ἠδὲ κακοῖσι 6.189; οὐ κακὸν οὐδὲ μὲν ἐσθλόν 22.415; οὐδ' ἐὰν ..φανῶ τρίδουλος, ἐκφανῇ κακή S.OT1063; κακός τ' ὢν κἀκ κακῶν ib.1397.

3. of courage, craven, base, Il.2.365, 6.489; κακοῦ τρέπεται Χρὼς ἄλλυδις ἄλλῃ (called δειλὸς ἀνήρ in the line above) 13.279; Ἕκτωρ σε κ. καὶ ἀνάλκιδα φήσει 8.153, cf. Od.3.375; κ. καὶ ἀνήνορα 10.301; οἵτινες ..ἐγένοντο ἄνδρες κ. ἢ ἀγαθοὶ ἐν τῇ ναυμαχίῃ Hdt.6.14; κ. καὶ ἄθυμος Id.7.11; οὐδαμῶν κακίονες ib.104; κακοὺς πρὸς αἰχμήν S.Ph.1306; κακή τ' ἐς ἀλκὴν καὶ σίδηρον εἰσορᾶν E.Med.264; οὐδενὶ ἐπιτρέψοντας κακῷ εἶναι X.An.3.2.31.

4. bad of his kind, i. e. worthless, sorry, unskilled, ἡνίοχοι Il. 17.487; [τοξότης] ἢ κ. ἢ ἀγαθός ib.632; νομῆες Od.17.246; κ. ἀλήτης a bad beggar, ib.578; ἰατρός A.Pr.473; κυβερνήτης, ναύτης, E.Supp. 880, Andr.457; μάγειρος Pl.Phdr.265e: c. acc. modi, πάντα γὰρ οὐ κακός εἰμι I am not bad in all things, Od.8.214; κ. γνώμην S.Ph.910: also c. dat., κακοὶ γνώμαισι Id.Aj.964: c. inf., κ. μανθάνειν Id.OT545; [νῆσος] φυτεύεσθαι κακή Trag.Adesp.393; cf. 11.

5. in moral sense, base, evil, Od.11.384, Hes.Op.240; opp. Χρηστός, S.Ant.520; ὦ κακῶν κάκιστε Id.OT334, Ph.984; πλεῖστον κάκιστος Id.OC744; κ. πρός τινας Th.1.86; εἰς φίλους E.Or.424 codd.; περὶ τὰ Χρήματα Pl.Clit. 407c.

6. wretched, Herod.3.42.

II. of things, evil, pernicious, freq. in Hom., etc., as δαίμων, θάνατος, μοῖρα, αἶσα, κῆρες, νοῦσος, ἕλκος, φάρμακα, ὀδύναι, Od.10.64, Il.3.173, 13.602, 1.418, Od.2.316, Il.1.10, 2.723, 22.94, 5.766; Χόλος, ἔρις, Il.16.206, Od.3.161; πόλεμος, ἔπος, ἔργα, Il.4.82, 24.767, Od.2.67, al.; ἦμαρ, ἄνεμος, Il.9.251, Od.5.109; of omens and the like , unlucky, ὄρνις, ὄναρ, σῆμα, Il.24.219, 10.496, 22.30: also in Trag., κ. τύχη, δαίμων, μόρος, S.Tr.328, A.Pers.354, 369, etc.; of words, abusive, foul, κ. λόγοι S.Ant.259, cf. Tr.461; κ. ποιμήν, i.e. the storm, A.Ag.657: Astrol., unlucky, τόποι Heph.Astr.1.12; κ. τύχη, name for the sixth region, Paul.Al.M.1.

B. κακόν, τό, and κακά, τά, as Subst., evil, ill, δίδου δ' ἀγαθόν τε κακόν τε Od.8.63; ἀθάνατον κακόν 12.118; ἐκ μεγάλων κακῶν πεφευγέναι Hdt.1.65; so κ. ἄμαχον, ἄπρηκτα, Pi.P.2.76, I.8(7).8; ἔκπαγλον, ἄφερτον, ἀμήχανον, etc., A.Ag.862, 1102, E.Med.447, etc.; κακὸν ἥκει τινί there's trouble in store for some one, Ar.Ra.552; δυοῖν ἀποκρίνας κακοῖν the least of two evils, S.OT640, cf. OC496; κακῶν Ἰλιάς, v. Ἰλιάς; κακόν τι ῥέξαι τινά to do harm or ill to any one, Il.2.195, etc.; πολλὰ κάκ' ἀνθρώποισιν ἐώργει Od.14.289; κακὰ φέρειν, τεύχειν τινί, Il.2.304, Hes.Op.265; κακόν τι (or κακὰ) ποιεῖν τινα (v. δράω, ποιέω, ἐργάζομαι); κακὸν πάσχειν ὑπό τινος to suffer evil from one, Th.8.48, etc.: in Trag. freq. repeated, κακὰ κακῶν, = τὰ κάκιστα, S.OC1238 (lyr.); εἴ τι πρεσβύτερον ἔτι κακοῦ κακόν Id.OT1365 (lyr.); δεινὰ πρὸς κακοῖς κακά Id.OC595, cf. Ant.1281; δόσιν κακὰν κακῶν κακοῖς A.Pers. 1041 (lyr.).

2. κακά, τά, evil words, reproaches, πολλά τε καὶ κακὰ λέγειν Hdt.8.61, cf.A.Th.571, S.Aj.1244,Ph.382, etc.

3. Philos., κακόν, τό, Evil, Stoic.3.18, al., Plot.1.8.1, al.

4. of a person, pest, nuisance, τουτὶ παρέξει τὸ κ. ἡμῖν πράγματα Ar.Av.931; also, comically, ὅσον συνείλεκται κακὸν ὀρνέων what a devil of a lot of birds, ib.294.

C. degrees of Comparison:

1. regul. Comp. in Ep., κακώτερος Od.6.275, 15.343, Theoc.27.22, A.R.3.421, etc.: also in late Prose, Alciphr.3.62: irreg. κακίων, ον [with ῐ], Od.2.277, Thgn.262, etc., with ῑ in Trag., exc. E.Fr.546 (anap.); κακῑότερος AP12.7 (Strato).

2. Sup. κάκιστος Hom., etc.--Cf. also Χείρων, Χείριστος, and ἥσσων, ἥκιστος.

D. Adv. κακῶς ill, ἢ εὖ ἦε κακῶς Il.2.253, etc.; κακῶς ποιεῖν τινα to treat one ill; κακῶς ποιεῖν τι to hurt, damage a thing; κακῶς ποιεῖν τινά τι to do one any evil or harm; κ. πράσσειν to fare ill, A.Pr.266, etc.; κάκιον ἢ πρότερον πράττειν And.4.11; κ. ἔχειν Ar.Ra.58, etc.; of illness, Ev.Matt.4.24; rarely κακῶς πάσχειν A.Pr.759, 1041 (anap.); Χρῆν Κανδαύλῃ γενέσθαι κ. Hdt.1.8; κ. ὄλοισθε S.Ph.1035, etc.; with play on two senses, ὡς κ. ἔχει ἅπας ἰατρός, ἂν κ. μηδεὶς ἔχῃ Philem.Jun.2; κ. ἐρεῖν τινά, λέγειν τὴν πόλιν, Mimn.7.4, Ar.Ach.503; κ. εἰδότες, = ἀγνοοῦντες, X.Cyr.2.3.13, Isoc.8.32, cf. Hyp.Eux.33; κακῶς ἐκπέφευγα I have barely escaped, D.21.126: Comp. κάκιον Hdt.1.109, S.OT428, And.l.c., Pl.Mx.236a, etc.: Sup. κάκιστα Ar. Ra.1456, Pax2, Pl.R.420b, etc.

2. Adv. and Adj. freq. coupled in Trag., Att., etc., κακὸν κακῶς νιν ..ἐκτρῖψαι βίον S.OT248; κακὸς κακῶς ταφήσῃ E.Tr.446 (troch.); ἀπό σ' ὀλῶ κακὸν κακῶς Ar.Pl.65, cf. Eq.189, 190, D.32.6, Procop.Pers.1.24; κακοὺς κακῶς ἀπολέσει αὐτούς Ev.Matt.21.41; κακοὺς κάκιστα S.Aj.839; in reversed order, ὥσπερ ἀξία κακῶς κακὴ θανεῖται E.Tr.1055; with intervening words, κακῶς ..ἀπόλλυσθαι κακούς S.Ph.1369, cf. E.Cyc.268, Ar.Eq.2. (Perh. cogn. with Avest. kasu-, Comp. kasyah-, Sup. kasita- 'small', Lith. nukaëti 'grow feeble, thin', Germ. hager.)