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λαμβάνω, fut. λήψομαι (λήψω only late, v.l. in LXX 1 Ma.4.18); Ion. λάψομαι GDI5497.3, al. (Milet., iv/iii B. C.), 5597.11 (Ephesus, iii B. C.), corrupted to λάμψομαι in Mss. of Hdt.1.199; Dor.fut.2sg. λαψῇ Epich.34.2, Theoc.1.4,10, inf. λαμψεῖσθαι PSI9.1091.19; Hellenistic λήμψομαι PPar.14.47 (ii B. C.), CIG4224c (add.) (Telmessus), 4244 (Tlos), al.: aor. 2 ἔλᾰβον, Ep. ἔλλᾰβον Il.24.170, etc.; Ion. Iterat. λάβεσκον Hes.Fr.112, Hdt.4.78, 130; imper. λαβέ Il.1.407, etc.; written λάβε in Med. Ms. of A.Eu.130, but λαβέ Att.acc. to Hdn. Gr.1.431: pf. εἴληφα S.OT643, Ar.Ra.591 (lyr.), etc. (dub.in Archil. 143); Ion., Dor., Arc. λελάβηκα Hdt.4.79, IG42(1).121.68 (Epid., iv B. C.), 5(2).6.14 (Tegea, iv B. C.), also Eup.426; inf. λελαβήκειν IG 42(1).121.59 (Epid.), PSI9.1091.7: plpf. εἰλήφειν Th.2.88, Ion.3sg. λελαβήκεε v.l. in Hdt.3.42 (κατα-); Dor. pf. subj. 3sg. (παρ-) λελόνβῃ GDI5087b1 (Crete):—
Med., aor. 2 ἐλαβόμην, Ep. ἐλλ-, Od. 5.325, etc.; Ep. redupl. λελαβέσθαι 4.388:—
Pass., fut. ληφθήσομαι S.Ph.68, Th.6.91, κατα-λελήψομαι Aristid.Or.54p.677D.: aor. ἐλήφθην Ar.Eq.101, etc.; Ion. ἐλάφθην SIG58.8 (Milet., v B. C.), (κατ-) GDI5532.7 (Zeleia), ἐλάμφθην Hdt.2.89, 6.92, 7.239 (-λάφθ- by erasure in cod. B); Hellenistic ἐλήμφθην IG14.1320, Ev.Marc. 16.19 (ἀν-); Dor. ἐλάφθην Archim.Aren.1.13: pf. εἴλημμαι D.24.49, Ar.Pl.455; but in Trag.usu. λέλημμαι, A.Ag.876, E.Ion1113, IA363 (troch.), Cyc.433, cf. Ar.Ec.1090 (δια-); so later προ-λέληπτε (sic) Supp.Epigr.2.769 (Dura); Ion. λέλαμμαι (ἀπο-) Hdt.9.51, (δια-) 3.117; inf. ἀνα-λελάφθαι Hp.Off.11 (acc. to many codd., Hsch.and Erot., -λελάμφθαι vulg.); Ion.3pl. λελήφαται An.Ox.1.268; Dor. pf.imper. λελάφθω Archim. Con.Sph.3, al.:—
in the fut., aor. Pass., and pf. Pass. the a is short by nature in Ion., prob. long in Dor. and in Doricized Hellenistic forms such as λαμψοῦνται Test.Epict.5.14, λάμψεσθαι IG5(1).1390.67 (Andania, i B. C.); it is marked long in Aeol. λᾱ́μψεται Alc.Supp.5.9:—
of these tenses Hom. uses only aor. Act., and aor.Med. twice (v. supr.); the Homeric pres. is λάζομαι. —
The word has two main senses, one (more active) take; the other (more passive) receive:

I. take,

1. take hold of, grasp, seize, μάστιγα καὶ ἡνία Od.6.81: freq. with χειρί or χερσί added, χειρὶ χεῖρα λαβόντες Il.21.286; χερμάδιον λάβε χειρί 5.302; χείρεσσι λαβὼν περιμήκεα κοντόν Od.9.487; ἐν χείρεσσι λάβ' ἡνία Il.8.116; ἐν χεροῖν λ. S.OT913; διὰ χερῶν λαβών Id.Ant.916; ἐς χέρας E.Hec.1242; ἐν ἀγκάλαις A.Supp.481, etc.; of an eagle, λ. ἄγραν ποσίν Pi.N.3.81: c.acc. of the thing seized, λ. γούνατα Il.24.465; but also c. acc. of whole, gen. of part seized, τὴν πτέρυγος λάβεν caught her by the wing, 2.316; τὸν δὲ πεσόντα ποδῶν ἔλαβε 4.463; γούνων λαβὼν κούρην Od. 6.142; λ. τινὰ τῆς ζώνης X.An.1.6.10, etc.: sts. c. gen. only, ἀγκὰς ἀλλήλων λαβέτην χερσί they took hold of one another with their arms, Il.23.711:—
freq. in Med., v. infr. B.

b. take by violence, carry off as prize or booty, Il.5.273, 8.191, Hdt.4.130, S.Ph.68 (Pass.), 1431, etc.; capture a city, Plb.1.24.11, 3.61.8; ἐκ πόλιος ..ἀλόχους καὶ κτήματα Od.9.41; of lions, λαβὼν κρατεροῖσιν ὀδοῦσιν Il.11.114; ἵνα δαῖτα λάβῃσιν 24.43; of an eagle, 17.678; of a dolphin, 21.24.

c. λ. δίκην take, exact punishment, Lys.1.29,34, Isoc.4.181; ποινάς E.Tr. 360, etc. (rarely for δοῦναι δίκην, v.infr.11.1 e); λ. τιμωρίαν D.18.280.

2. of passions, feelings, etc., seize, μένος ἔλλαβε θυμόν Il.23.468; Ἀτρεί̈ωνα ..χόλος λάβεν 1.387; ὁππότε κέν μιν γυῖα λάβῃ κάματος 4.230; τὸν δὲ τρόμος ἔλλαβε γυῖα 24.170, al.; δὴν δέ μιν ἀμφασίη ἐπέων λάβε Od.4.704; τοὺς Ἀθηναίους θάρσος ἔλαβε Th.2.92; ἄχος X.Cyr. 5.5.6; δέος Pl.Lg.699c; ἐπειδὴ καιρὸς ἐλάμβανε when the occasion came to them, i.e. occurred, Th.2.34, D.C.44.19; of fevers and sudden illnesses, attack, Hp.Morb.1.19, Th.2.49, Ar.Ec.417, etc. (cf. λάζομαι, λῆψις):—
Pass., λαμβάνεσθαι νόσῳ, ὑπὸ [νόσου], S.Tr.446, Hdt.1.138; ἔρωτι X.Cyr.6.1.31, etc. (reversely of the person, λ. θυμόν, etc., v. infr.11.3).

b. of a deity, seize, possess, τινα Hdt.4.79:—
Pass., τῇ Ῥέᾳ λαμβάνονται Luc.Nigr.37.

c. of darkness, etc., occupy, possess, εὖτ' ἂν κνέφας τεμενος αἰθέρος λάβῃ A.Pers.365.

3. catch, overtake, as an enemy, Il.5.159, 11.106, 126, etc.; λ. τινὰ στείχοντα θύραζε Od.9.418; ζῶντες ἐλάμφθησαν Hdt.9.119; simply, find, come upon, S.OT1031, E.Ion1339.

4. catch, find out, detect, Hdt.2.89 (Pass.); ποίῳ λαβών σε Ζεὺς ἐπ' αἰτιάματι; A.Pr.196; τὸν αὐτόχειρα τοῦ φόνου λ. S.OT266: freq. c. part., κἂν λάβῃς ἐψευσμένον ib.461; κλέπτοντα Κλέωνα λάβοιμι Ar.V.759; λ. τινὰ ψευδόμενον Pl.R.389d; τοῦτον ὑβρίζοντα λαβόντες D.21.97: with Adj., ὅπως μὴ λήψομαί σε προπετῆ Men.Epit.570:—
Pass., δρῶσ' ἐλήφθης S.Tr.808; ἐπ' αὐτοφώρῳ δεινὰ δρῶντ' εἰλημμένω Ar.Pl.455; ληφθεῖσαν ἐπ' αὐτοφώρῳ μηχανωμένην τι Antipho 1.3; ἐλήφθη μοιχός Lys.13.66: in good sense, οὐκ ἂν λάβοις μου μᾶλλον οὐδέν' εὐσεβῆ S.Ph.1051.

5. λ. τινὰ πίστι καὶ ὁρκίοισι bind him by .., Hdt.3.74; ἀραῖον λαβεῖν τινα S.OT276 codd.

6. c. dupl. acc., take as, λαβὼν πρόβλημα σαυτοῦ παῖδα τόνδ' Id.Ph.1007; ξυμπαραστάτην λ. τινά ib.675; τοὺς Ἕλληνας λ. συναγωνιζομένους Isoc.5.86.

7. τὴν Ἴδην λαβὼν ἐς ἀριστερὴν χεῖρα taking, keeping Ida to your left (nisi leg. λαβών, ἐς ..) Hdt.7.42; ἐν δεξιᾷ λ. τὴν Σικελίαν Th.7.1; λ. τὸ στρατόπεδον κατὰ νώτου take in rear, i.e. be behind, Hdt.1.75; cf. ἀπείργω 11.2, ἔχω (A) A.1.7.

8. λ. Ἑλληνίδα ἐσθῆτα assume it, Id.4.78, cf. 2.37; λ. ζυγόν Pi.P.2.93.

b. take food or drugs, Diocl.Frr.121 (Pass.), 140, Sor.1.125, Gal.15.469.

9. apprehend by the senses, ὄμμασιν θέαν S. Ph.537, cf. 656; πρόσφθεγμά τινος ib.234; ὁρᾶται, ἢ ἄλλῃ τινὶ αἰσθήσει λαμβάνεται Pl.R.524d.

b. apprehend with the mind, understand, φρενὶ λ. τὸν λόγον Hdt.9.10; νόῳ Id.3.41; τῇ διανοίᾳ Pl. Prm.143a; λ. ἐν ταῖς γνώμαις βεβαίως X.Cyr.3.3.51; ἐν νῷ Plb.2.35.6: abs., λ. τὴν ἀλήθειαν Antipho 1.6; μνήμην παρὰ τῆς φήμης λ. Lys.2.3, cf. Pl.Phdr.246d, etc.

c. with Adv. added, take, i.e. understand in a certain manner, ταύτῃ ταῦτα ἐλάμβανον Hdt.7.142; λάβετε [τοὺς λόγους] μὴ πολεμίως Th.4.17; τὸ πρᾶγμα μειζόνως ἐλάμβανον took it more seriously, Id.6.27, cf. 61; ὀρθῶς λ. τὸν φιλοκερδῆ Pl.Hipparch.227c; λ. τι οὕτω, ὧδε, Arist.SE174b27, Rh.Al. 1423a4; ὀργῇ καὶ φόβῳ τὸ γεγονὸς λ. Plu.Alc.18: with παρά c.acc., λαμβάνω σε παρὰ βουκόλον ..PMag.Par.1.2434:—
Pass., τρίτου καθεστῶσαι ἐπὶ πρώτου λαμβάνονται are used for the first person, A.D.Pron.78.22; with ἐς, εἰ ἐς κόρην λαμβάνοιτο be taken for a girl, Philostr.Im.2.32: less freq. c. dupl. acc., ὡς μεθυστικὰς λ. [τὰς ἁρμονίας] Arist.Pol.1342b25, cf. S.E.P.1.179; τῆς νίκης ἆθλον τὴν ὑπεροχὴν τῆς πολιτείας λ. Arist.Pol.1296a31; τοῦτο λ. γιγνόμενον Id.Mete. 346a7; also λ. περί τινος τί ἐστι Id.EN1142a32, cf. 1140a24, al.: also c. inf., λ. τι εἶναί τι Id.Mete.389a29, al.: with a relat. clause, οὕτω δεῖ λαμβάνειν, ἀλλ' οὐχ ὅτι ..Id.Metaph.1053a27, cf. Str.2.5.1; εἰλήφθω ὁ ἄδικος ποσαχῶς λέγεται Arist.EN1129a31: in bad sense, πρὸς δέους λ. τι Plu.Flam.7; πρὸς ἀτιμίας Id.Cic.13; λ. δι' οἴκτου E. Supp.194; but also ἐν χάριτι καὶ δωρεᾷ λ. receive as a favour, Plb.1.31.6.

d. in Logic, assume, take for granted, ἅπαν ζῷον λαμβάνει ἢ θνητὸν ἢ ἀθάνατον Arist.APr.46b6; λ. τὰς περὶ ἕκαστον ἀρχάς ib.53a2, etc.:—
Pass., τὰ ἐξ ἀρχῆς ληφθέντα ib.26b30; αἱ εἰλημμέναι προτάσεις ib.33a15, cf. Phld.Rh.2.46 S., Sign.35, Oec.p.5 J., S.E.P.2.89.

e. take, i.e. determine, estimate, τὴν ξυμμέτρησιν τῶν κλιμάκων Th.3.20; ἐντεῦθεν τὸ μέγεθος τῶν ἁμαρτημάτων Lycurg.66; τὴν τιμωρίαν ποθεινοτέραν λ. Th.2.42.

10. take in hand, undertake (cf. ληπτέον), λ. τι ἐπὶ τὸ σωφρονέστερον, opp. συνταχύνειν, Hdt.3.71; μηδένα πόνον λαβόντες without taking any trouble, Id.7.24; παλαισμάτων λ. φροντίδα Pi.N.10.22.

11. take in, hold, τὸ στρατόπεδον πεζοὺς λ. περὶ τετρακισχιλίους Plb.3.107.10.

12. part. λαβών freq. seems pleonastic, but adds dramatic effect, λαβὼν κύσε χεῖρα took and kissed, Od.24.398, cf. Il.21.36: so in Trag. and Com., τί μ' οὐ λαβὼν ἔκτεινας; S.OT1391, cf. 641; τῆ νῦν τόδε πῖθι λαβών Cratin.141, etc.

b. ingressive of ἔχων (ἔχω (A) A.1.6), ἑτάρους τε λ. καὶ νῆα ..ἦλθον Od. 15.269, cf. S.Tr.259.

II. receive,

1. have given one, get, receive, prop. of things (AB 106), ἄποινα Il.6.427; τὰ πρῶτα 23.275; ἀντίποινα S.El.592, v. infr.e; παρὰ βασιλέος δῶρα Hdt.8.10, cf. Ar. Eq.439; πρός τινος S.El.12, etc.; ἀπὸ τῶν συκοφαντῶν X.Mem.2.9.4; gain, win, κλέος Od.1.298, S.Ph.1347, etc.; ἀρετάν Pi.O.8.6; κόσμον Id.N.3.31 codd. (v.l. ἔλαχες Sch.); ἀλκήν S.OT218, etc.; πρὸς τὸ μνηστεύεσθαι λ. ἡλικίαν attain .., Isoc.10.39; λ. νόστον E.IT 1016, etc.; λ. τὴν ἀρχὴν τῆς θαλάττης Isoc.5.61; μοναρχίαν S.Ant. 1163; τέρψιν Id.Tr.820; χάριν Id.OT1004; κέρδος Ar.Ach.906: also in bad sense, λ. ὀνείδη S.OT1494; συμφοράν E.Med.43; θάνατον Id.Hel.201 (lyr.); γέλωτα μωρίαν τε incur .., Id.Ion600; αἰτίαν ἀπό τινος Th.2.18, etc.:—
for λ. θυμόν, etc., v. supr.1.2 et infr. 3.

b. receive hospitably, Od.7.255, cf. S.OC284 (ἔλαβες τὸν ἱκέτην ἐχέγγυον) which approaches this sense; καλῶς λ. τινά treat well, BGU843.10 (i/ii A. D.).

c. receive in marriage, Hdt.1.199, 9.108, E.Fr.953.27, X. HG4.1.14, Isoc.10.39, PEleph.1.2 (iv B. C.), Men.Pk.436; τοῖς λαμβάνουσιν ἐξ αὐτῶν, i.e. those who married their daughters, SIG1044.14 (Halic., iv/iii B. C.); also of the father taking a daughter-in-law, τῷ υἱῷ λ. τινά Men.Pk.447.

d. λ. ὄνομα, ἐπωνυμίαν, receive a name, Pl. Plt.305d, Smp.173d.

e. λ. δίκην receive, i.e. suffer, punishment, Hdt.1.115; τὴν ἀξίην λ. get one's deserts, Id.7.39; δίκην γὰρ ἀξίαν ἐλάμβανεν E.Ba.1312; λ. ζημίας D.11.11.

f. λ. ὅρκον receive an oath, Arist. Rh.1377a8; λ. πιστά X.An.3.2.5, al.; λ. λόγον demand an account, τινος for a thing, παρά τινος from a person, Id.Cyr.1.4.3, D.8.47.

g. λ. ἐν γαστρί conceive, Hp.Prorrh.2.24; κῦμα λ., of the earth, A.Ch. 128.

h. receive as produce, profit, etc., οἶνον ἐκ τοῦ χωρίου Ar.Nu. 1123; [χρήματα] ἐκ τῆς ἀρχῆς Pl.R.347b; λ. ἑκατὸν τῆς δραχμῆς, ὀβολοῦ, purchase for .., Ar.Pax1263, Ra.1235, cf. Nu.1395; πόθεν ἄν τις τοῦτο τὸ χρῖμα λάβοι; X.Smp.2.4.

i. λ. πεῖράν τινος, v. πεῖρα.

2. admit of, ὁ μέγας κίνδυνος ἄναλκιν οὐ φῶτα λαμβάνει Pi.O.1.81.

b. admit, initiate, τοὺς ἐς τὰ τῆς τέχνης εἰλημμένους Hp.Decent.17.

3. of persons conceiving feelings and the like , λ. θυμόν take heart, Od. 10.461: freq. in periphrasis, λ. φόβον, = φοβεῖσθαι, S.OC729; αἰδῶ λ., = αἰδεῖσθαι, Id.Aj.345; λ. ὀργήν, = ὀργίζεσθαι, E.Supp.1050: so generally λ. ἀρχήν, = ἄρχεσθαι, Id.IA1124; λ. ὕψος, ἐπίδοσιν, αὔξησιν, = ὑψοῦσθαι, ἐπιδιδόναι, αὐξάνεσθαι, Th.1.91, Isoc.4.10, Arist.GA732b5, etc.; λ. κακόν τι Ar.Nu.1310; λ. νόσον take a disease, Pl.R.610d; λ. μορφήν, τέλος, etc., Arist.GA762a13, 744a21, etc.; αἱ οἰκίαι ἐπάλξεις λαμβάνουσαι receiving battlements, having battlements added, Th.4.69, cf. 115.

4. c. inf., receive permission to .., SIG996.6 (Smyrna, i A. D.).

B. Med., take hold of, lay hold on, c. gen., [σχεδίης] Od.5.325; τῆς κεφαλῆς, τῶν γουνάτων, Hdt.4.64, 9.76; χειρός E.Med.899, etc.; τοῦ βωμοῦ And.1.126, etc.: c. dupl.gen., μου λαβόμενος τῆς χειρός Pl. Chrm.153b.

2. seize and keep hold of, obtain possession of, ἀρχῆς S.OC373; καιροῦ λαβόμενος seizing the opportunity, Is.2.28; λ. ἀληθείας Pl.Plt.309d: rarely c. acc., τόν ..λελαβέσθαι Od.4.388.

3. lay hands upon, χαλεπῶς λαμβάνεσθαί τινος lay rough hands on him, deal hardly with him, Hdt.2.121. δ́.

4. of place, λ. τῶν ὀρῶν take to the mountains, Th.3.24, cf. 106; Δήλου λαβόμεναι (sc. αἱ νῆες) reaching Delos, Id.8.80.

5. find fault with, censure, τινος Pl.Lg. 637c, Philostr.VA4.22.

6. λαβέσθαι ἑαυτοῦ check oneself, Hld.2.24.