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lībertas (old form, loebertas; v. 1. liber init.), ātis, f. [1. liber], the state or condition of a freeman, a being free, freedom, liberty, freedom from restraint or obligation, free will, etc.

I. In gen.: quid est enim libertas? potestas vivendi, ut velis, Cic. Par. 5, 1, 34: ne majorem largiar ei, qui contra dicturus est, libertatem et licentiam, id. Ac. 2, 10, 30: praecidere sibi libertatem vivendi, id. Verr. 2, 3, 1, 3: tabella dat populo eam libertatem, ut, quod velint, faciant, id. Planc. 6, 16: libertas in ridendo, in plorando, id. ib. 14, 33: omnium rerum impunitam libertatem tenere, id. de Or. 1, 52, 226: libertas est naturalis facultas ejus quod cuique facere libet, nisi si quid vi aut jure prohibetur, Just. Inst. 1, 3, 1.—With gen.: feminae omnium rerum libertatem desiderant, Liv. 34, 2 fin: testamentorum, Quint. 3, 6, 84: verborum (with licentia figurarum), id. 10, 1, 28: dialogorum, id. 10, 5, 15: caeli, the open air, id. 10, 3, 22.—Poet. with inf sit modo libertas, quae velit ira, loqui, Prop. 1, 1, 28: nec mihi libertas imis freta tollere arenis, Val. Fl. 1, 601.—

II. In partic.

A. Civil freedom, liberty, opp. to slavery: Scaevae, servo Q. Crotonis, libertas data est, Cic. Rab. Perd. 11, 31: alicujus libertati parcere, Enn. ap. Cic. Off. 1, 12, 38 (Ann. v. 206 Vahl.): omnes homines naturā libertati studere et condicionem servitutis odisse, Caes. B. G. 3, 10 fin.: patriam et libertatem perdidi, Plaut. Capt. 2, 2, 50: libertas paenulast tergo tuo, id. Most. 4, 2, 74: haruspex his promisit libertatem, id. Poen. 5, 4, 54: aliquem in libertatem asserere, Suet. Vit. 10: petitur puer in libertatem, id. Rhet. 1: libertatis condicio, Ulp. Fragm. 2, 3: favor libertatis, Gai. Inst. 1, 21; Paul. Sent. 2, 23, 2: libertatem dare, Gai. Inst. 2, 200: amittere, id. ib. 1, 160 sq.—

(b). In plur. (anteand post-class.): tribus non conduci possim libertatibus, Quin, etc., Plaut. Cas. 2, 8, 70: pecunias et libertates servis et ante dono datas, Tac. A. 15, 55: in libertatibus dandis, Gai. Inst. 2, 228: libertatium conservandarum causa, Dig. 38, 1, 13, 1: lex (Fufia Caninia) cavet ut libertates servis testamento nominatim dentur, Ulp. Fragm. 1, 25.—

2. Trop.: se in libertatem vindicare, Cic. de Or. 2, 33, 145; cf.: in libertatem vindicati, id. N. D. 1, 20, 56.—

B. Political freedom, liberty, or independence of a people not under monarchical rule, or not subject to another people (opp. servitus and dominatus): aut exigendi reges non fuerunt: aut plebi re, non verbo danda libertas, Cic. Leg. 3, 10 fin.: aliae nationes servitutem pati possunt: populi Romani est propria libertas, id. Phil. 6, 7 fin.; cf. id. ib. 3, 11 fin.: in optimatium dominatu vix particeps libertatis potest esse multitudo, id. Rep. 1, 27, 43: et a regum et a patrum dominatione solere in libertatem rem populi vindicari, etc., id. ib. 1, 32, 48: alicui eripere libertatem, id. ib. 1, 17, 28: in libertate permanere, Caes. B. G. 3, 8: libertatem accipere, recuperare, id. ib. 7, 1 fin.: plus communi libertati tribuere, id. ib. 7, 37: per dolum ac proditionem prope libertas amissa est, Liv. 2, 3, 1: conditor Romanae libertatis, id. 8, 34.—

C. The spirit of liberty, consciousness of freedom: dolor animi, innata libertas, prompta excellensque virtus, Cic. Sest. 41, 88: timefacta libertas, id. Off. 2, 7, 24.—

D. Freedom of speech or thought, frankness, boldness, candor (mostly post-Aug.): hoc mihi libertas, hoc pia lingua dedit, Ov. H. 15, 68: vera de exitu ejus magna cum libertate ominatus est, Vell. 2, 71, 2: quae in aliis libertas est, in aliis licentia vocatur, Quint. 3, 8, 48: affectatores libertatis, id. 6, 2, 16; 10, 1, 94: antiqua comoedia facundissimae libertatis, id. 10, 1, 65: vox honestissimae libertatis, id. 11, 1, 37: libertas ingenii, Sall. J. 30, 3.—

E. Freedom from taxation, exemption: aedium, Dig. 8, 6, 18.—

F. Personified: Līber-tas, tatis, f., the goddess of Liberty, whose temple on the Aventine Hill was founded by the father of Tiberius Gracchus in the second Punic war; in the atrium of this temple the census-tables were preserved, Ov. F. 4, 624; Liv. 24, 17; 25, 7; 34, 44; 45, 15; Cic. Mil. 22, 59; id. Att. 4, 16, 14; id. N. D. 2, 23, 61. A statue of Libertas was erected by Clodius on the site of Cicero's house after it was pulled down, Cic. Att. 4, 2, 3.