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lingua (ante-class. form dingua, like dagrima for lacrima, Mar. Victorin. p. 2457 and 2470 P.; cf. the letter D), ae, f. [Sanscr. jihvā; original Lat. form. dingua; A. -S. tunga; Germ. Zunge; Engl. tongue. Not from the root lih, lich, v. lingo], the tongue.

I. Lit.: fac proserpentem bestiam me duplicem ut habeam linguam (of a kiss in which the tongues touched each other), Plaut. As. 3, 3, 105: lingua haeret metu, Ter. Eun. 5, 5, 7: in ore sita lingua est, finita dentibus, Cic. N. D. 2, 59, 149: linguā haesitantes, id. de Or. 1, 25, 115: linguā properanti legere, Ov. P. 3, 5, 9: linguā titubante loqui, id. Tr. 3, 1, 21: quo facilius verba ore libero exprimeret, calculos lingua volvens dicere domi solebat (Demosthenes), Quint. 11, 3, 54: linguam exserere, to thrust out the tongue, in token of derision or contempt, Liv. 7, 10: so, lingua ejecta, Cic. de Or. 2, 66, 266: lingua minor, the epiglottis, Plin. 11, 37, 66, 175.—Comically, as mock term of endearment: hujus voluptas, te opsecro, hujus mel, hujus cor, hujus labellum, hujus lingua, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 178; cf. v. 175.—In mal. part.: homo malae linguae, a fellow with a bad tongue, i. q. fellator, Mart. 3, 80, 2; Min. Fel. Oct. 28.—

II. Transf.

A. Since the tongue is an organ of speech, a tongue, utterance, speech, language: largus opum, lingua melior, Verg. A. 11, 338: facilem benevolumque lingua tua jam tibi me reddidit, Ter. Hec. 5, 1, 35: non tu tibi istam praetruncari linguam largiloquam jubes? Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 47: Latium beare divite linguā, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 120: lingua quasi flabello seditionis contionem ventilare, Cic. Fl. 23, 54: linguam continere, id. Q. Fr. 1, 1, 13: tenere, Ov. F. 2, 602: moderari, Sall. J. 84: linguae solutio, Cic. de Or. 1, 25, 114: linguam solvere ad jurgia, Ov. M. 3, 261: quidam operarii linguā celeri et exercitatā, Cic. de Or. 1, 18, 83: ut vitemus linguas hominum, id. Fam. 9, 2, 2: Aetolorum linguas retundere, to check their tongues, bring them to silence, Liv. 33, 3; cf.: claudente noxarum conscientiā linguam, Amm. 16, 12, 61: si mihi lingua foret, Ov. H. 21, 205: ne vati noceat mala lingua futuro, Verg. E. 7, 28: favete linguis, i. e. give attention, "be silent that you may hear," Hor. C. 3, 1, 2; Ov. F. 1, 71: linguis animisque faventes, Juv. 12, 83: nam lingua mali pars pessima servi, id. 9, 121: mercedem imponere linguae, i. e. to speak for pay, id. 7, 149: usum linguae reciperare, Amm. 17, 12, 10: linguā debili esse, to stammer, Gell. 1, 12, 2.—Comically: os habeat, linguam, perfidiam, tongue, i. e. readiness in speech, Plaut. Mil. 2, 2, 33. —

2. The tongue or language of a people: lingua Latina, Graeca, Cic. Fin. 1, 3, 10: Graeca et Latina lingua, Varr. R. R. 2, 1, 6: (Massilia) tam procul a Graecorum regionibus, disciplinis linguāque divisa, Cic. Fl. 26, 63: quod quidem Latina lingua sic observat, ut, etc., id. Or. 44, 150: Gallicae linguae scientiam habere, Caes. B. G. 1, 47: qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli, appellantur, id. ib. 1, 1: dissimili linguā, Sall. C. 6, 2: linguā utrāque, i. e. Greek and Latin, Hor. S. 1, 10, 23; so, auctores utriusque linguae, Quint. prooem. 1; 1, 1, 14: Mithridates, cui duas et viginti linguas notas fuisse, id. 11, 2, 50: haud rudis Graecae linguae, Curt. 5, 11, 4; 5, 4, 4; Nep. Milt. 3, 2: Syrus in Tiberim Orontes et linguam et mores vexit, Juv. 3, 63.—

b. Dialect, idiom, mode of speech (post-Aug.): illis non verborum modo, sed. linguarum etiam se inter differentium copia est. Quint. 12, 10, 34: Crassus quinque Graeci sermonis differentias sic tenuit, ut, qua quisque apud eum linguā postulasset, eadem jus sibi redditum ferret, id. 11, 2, 50: utar enim historicā linguā, Sen. Q. N. 1, 13, 3: si philosophorum linguā uti voluissem, id. ib. 2, 2, 4.—

3. Poet. of animals. the voice, note, song, bark, etc.: linguae volucrum, Verg. A. 3, 361; 10, 177: linguam praecludere (canis), Phaedr. 1, 22, 5.—

4. An utterance, expression: lingua secretior, a dark saying, Quint. 1, 1, 35.—

B. Of tongue-shaped things.

1. A plant, also called lingulaca, Plin. 24, 19, 108, 170.—

2. Lingua bubula, a plant, oxtongue, bugloss, Cato, R. R. 40; Plin. 17, 14, 24, 112.—

3. Lingua canina, Cels. 5, 27, 18 init.; and lingua canis, App. Herb. 96, the plant hound's-tongue, also called cynoglossos; q. v.—

4. A tongue of land: id promontorium, Cujus lingua in altum proicit, Pac. ap. Gell. 4, 17 fin.: lingua in altum mille passuum excurrens, Liv. 37, 31, 9; Weissenb. ad Liv. 25, 15, 12: eminet in altum lingua, in qua urbs sita est, Liv. 44, 11: tenuem producit in aequora linguam, Luc. 2, 614; cf.: lingua dicitur promontorii genus non excellentis sed molliter in planum devexi, Paul. ex Fest. p. 121 Müll.—

5. A spoonful, as a measure, Plin. 26, 11, 73, 119 (al. lingulis).—

6. The tongue or reed of a flute, Plin. 10, 29, 43, 84.—

7. The short arm of a lever: vectis lingua sub onus subdita, Vitr. 10, 8 (cf. ligula, VII.).