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μάλα [μᾰλᾰ; but Hom. sts. uses the ult. long before λ, Il.3.214, 4.379; before μ, 10.172], Adv. very, exceedingly, prefixed or subjoined to Adjectives, Verbs, and Adverbs:

1. strengthening the word with which it stands,

a. with Adjs., in Hom. most freq., μάλα πολλά very many, Od.1.1; μ. πᾶσα, μ. πάντα, every one, all together, Il.13.741, Od.2.306, etc.; μάλ' ἀσκηθής all unhurt, 5.26; ἀβληχρὸς μ. τοῖος quite gentle, 11.135; σαρδάνιον μ. τοῖον a quite sardonic smile, 20.302; μάλα μυρίοι 15.556, 16.121, etc.; ἐμέο πρότερος μ. actually before me, Il.10.124; later, μ. φιλόσοφοι, πλάτανος μάλ' ἀμφιλαφής, etc., Pl.Prm.126b, Phdr.230b, etc.: strengthd., μ. δὴ πρεσβύτης very old, X.Cyr.8.7.1; μ. γέ τινες ὀλίγοι Pl.R.531e.

b. with Advs., πάγχυ μ., μ. πάγχυ, quite utterly, Il.12.165, 14.143; πάνυ μ. Pl.Phd.80c; εὖ μ. right well, Od.22.190, Pl.Phd.92d, etc.; μάλα ..εὖ Od.23.175, cf. Pl.Tht.156a; μάλ' αὐτίκα (v. αὐτίκα); μάλ' αἰεί for ever and aye, Il.13.557, 23.717; ἄχρι μ. κνέφαος until quite dark, Od.18.370; μάλ' ὧδε just in this way, 6.258; μ. διαμπερές right through, Il.20.362; μ. μόλις (v. μόλις); to express repeated action, μάλ' αὖθις A.Ag.1345, Ch.654; μάλ' αὖ S.El.1410, etc.; μ. alone, ἔα, ἔα μ. A.Ch.870; οἲ μ. καὶ τόδ' ἀλγῶ Id.Pers.1045 (lyr.); εἶα μ. Ar.Pax 460sq. (so ἄλλος πύργος .., καὶ ἕτερος μ. ἐπὶ τούτῳ Hdt. 1.181, cf. 7.186): freq. after καί, αὗταί σ' ὁδηγήσουσι καὶ μάλ' ἀσμένως A.Pr.728, cf. Ch.879: with neg., μάλ' οὐ, μάλ' οὔ πως, Il.2.241, Od. 5.103; οὐ μ. Hdt.1.93, 2.37, S.Ph.676 (lyr.).

c. with Verbs, μήτ' ἄρ με μάλ' αἴνεε Il.10.249; μ. τ' ἔκλυον αὐτοῦ 1.218; ἡ δὲ μάλ' ἡνιόχευεν drove carefully, Od.6.319; μ ... προπέμπει in earnest, A.Th.915 (lyr.), cf. Eu.368 (lyr.); καὶ μ. δοκοῦντας φρονίμους εἶναι X.Cyr.6.1.36; μ. πολιορκούμενοι Id.HG7.1.25.

2. strengthening an assertion, νῦν σε μ. χρὴ αἰχμητὴν ἔμεναι, i.e. now or never, Il.16.492; τῷ κε μάλ' ἤ κεν μεῖνε ..then doubtless he would have stayed, Od.4.733; σοὶ δὲ μάλ' ἕψομ' ἐγώ yes indeed .., Il.10.108; ἀλλὰ μάλ' ὤφελλες why plainly .., Od.4.472: freq. with another word, as ἦ μ. δή ..now in very truth, Il.5.422, etc.; ἦ δή που μ. 21.583; freq. ἦ μ. (without δή) 3.204, etc.

3. in Hom. sts. after εἰ, as εἰ μ. μιν χόλος ἵκοι if wrath come on him ever so much, Il.17.399, cf. Od.5.485, al.; καὶ εἰ μ. τις πολεμίζοι Il.9.318; also μ. περ c. part., μ. περ μεμαώς though desiring never so much, 13.317, cf. 14.58, 17.710, al.; καὶ μ. περ 1.217, cf. 17.571; καὶ εὐρέα περ μάλ' ἐόντα Od.18.385.

4. in Att. freq. in answers, yes, certainly, μ. γε Pl.R.555d, 564e, etc.; μ. τοι X.Mem.1.2.46; καὶ μ. Pl.Phdr.258c; καὶ μ. γε Id.Tht.148c, etc.; καὶ μ. δή ib.177a; καὶ μ. ἐπαύσατο certainly it stopped, Id.Smp.189a, etc.

II. Comp. μᾶλλον [ᾱ by nature, Hdn.Gr.2.932], Ion. μάλιον [ᾰ] only in Tyrt.12.6, cf. Choerob.in An.Ox.2.240; late Dor. μαλλότερον Pempel. ap. Stob.4.25.52:—
more, rather, Il.5.231, Od.1.351, al.: mostly folld. by ἤ, but in Prose also by a gen., μ. τοῦ ξυμφέροντος more than is expedient, Antipho 5.1; μ. τοῦ δέοντος Pl.Grg.487b, X.Mem.4.3.8 (sts. expressed by μᾶλλον alone, Pl. Phd.63d); οὐπώποτ' ἔργου μ. εἱλόμην λόγους E.Fr.394; παντὸς μ. most assuredly, Pl.Lg.715d (v. infr. 8); in Id.Ap.36d, οὐκ ἔσθ' ὅτι μ. πρέπει οὕτως, ὡς .., ὡς is prob. = ἤ (v. ὡς): denoting a constant increase, more and more, sts. doubled, μ. μ. E.IT1406, Ar.Ra.1001 (lyr.), Alex.29: in positive sense, exceedingly, κηρόθι μ. Il.9.300, Od.15.370, al.:—
Usage:

1. freq. strengthened by other words, πολὺ μ. Il.9.700, etc.; ἔτι μ. 14.97, al.; μ. ἔτ' ἢ τὸ πάροιθεν Od.1.322; καὶ μ. Il.8.470; καὶ μ. ἔτι Od.18.22; ἔτι καὶ μ. Pi.P.10.57; ἔτι καὶ πολὺ μ. Il.23.386, 429, Hes.Th.428; ἐπὶ μ. Hdt.3.104; ἔτι ἐπὶ μ. Id.1.94; πολλῷ μ. Pl.Phd.80e, 1 Ep.Cor.12.22: also modified, μᾶλλόν τι somewhat more, μ. τι περιημέκτεε Hdt.1.114, cf.50, etc.; μ. ἤδη προσδεχομένου Th.8.71.

2. sts. with a second Comp., ῥηί̈τεροι μ. Il.24.243, cf. Hdt.1.32, A.Th.673, Supp.279, S.Ant.1210, E.El.222, Pl. Phd.79e, Is.4.14 (s.v.l.), Arist.Top.116b24.

3. μᾶλλον δέ much more .., or rather .., to correct a statement already made, ὁ δεσπότης πέπραγεν εὐτυχέστατα, μ. δ' ὁ Πλοῦτος αὐτός Ar.Pl.634; πολλοί, μ. δὲ πάντες D.18.65, cf. Pl.Smp.173e; so ἢ μ. Corn.ND20, Simp.in Ph.25.16; οὐχὶ μ. ἤ ..not so, but rather so .., Th.2.87.

4. μ. δὲ καὶ ἡσυχαίτερα more or less violent, Id.3.82.

5. οὐδὲν μ. none the more, ib.79; οὐδέν τι μ. Pl.Phd.87d; μηδέν τι μ. ἤ ..S.Aj.280.

6. μ. ἤ ..folld. by οὐ in comparisons, where preference implies rejection or denial, πόλιν ὅλην διαφθεῖραι μᾶλλον ἤ οὐ τοὺς αἰτίους Th.3.36: preceded by another neg., Hdt.4.118, 5.94, 7.16. γ́, etc.: by an interrog. which conveys a neg. force, τίδεῖ ..μᾶλλον, ἤ οὐ ..; X.HG6.3.15.

7. τὸ μ. καὶ ἧττον, a form of argument, a fortiori, Arist.Rh.1397b12.

8. παντὸς μ., v. πᾶς 111.4.

III. Sup. μάλιστα most of all, above all, Hom., etc.; πᾶσι, μάλιστα δ' ἐμοί Od.21.353; μ. μὲν .., ἔπειτα or ἔπειτα δέ .., first and above all .., next .., S.OT647, cf. Ph.1285; μ. μὲν .., δεύτερον δὲ ..Is.2.20; μ. μὲν .., εἰ δὲ μὴ ..Hdt.8.22, Th.1.40, Pl.R.590d, D.20.25, etc.; τοῦτο δ' ἐστὶ μ. μὲν θάνατος, εἰ δὲ μή, πάντα τὰ ὄντα ἀφελέσθαι Id.21.152; μάλιστα μὲν .., μᾶλλον μέντοι ..Pl.Smp.180b; μάλιστα .., εἰ μὴ δ' ..S.Ph.617; δοκέων μιν μ. ταύτης ἂν πείθεσθαι certainly, Hdt.3.53; τί μ.; what precisely? Pl.Grg.448d, cf. Men.80b, Smp.218c: c. gen. partit., μ. πάντων Hdt.2.37, Pl.Prt.327a, cf. Th. 4.86; τὸ μ. πάντων the supreme reality, Plot.5.5.11; τὸ μ. εἶναι the highest degree of being, Id.6.2.7.

1. strengthd., ὡς μ. certainly, A.Supp.294, Pl.R.460a, etc.; ὅσον μ. A.Pr.524; ὅσα ἐδύνατο μ. Hdt.1.185; ὡς δύναμαι μ. Pl.R.367b; ὡς οἷόν τε μ. Id.Grg.510b; εἰς ὅσον ἀνθρώπῳ δυνατὸν μ. Id.Phdr.277a; ὅτι μ. δύνασαι Id.Sph.239b; μακρῷ μ. Hdt.1.171; πολλῷ μ. Paus.1.42.3; παντὸς μ. D.H.3.35, etc.

2. with the Art., ἐς τὰ μ. in the highest degree, Hdt.1.20, 2.76, Th.6.104, 8.6, D.21.212: without ἐς, φίλοι τὰ μ. Hdt.2.147, cf.Th. 1.92, D.21.62; τά γε μ. Pl.Lg.794d; εἰ τὰ μ. ἦσαν ἀληθεῖς if they were ever so true, D.18.95; εἰ τὰ μ. μὴ τινές, ἀλλὰ πάντες ..if (to put an extreme case) not some, but all .., Id.20.2; εἰ ..δοκοίη τὰ μ. Id.18.21; ἀνὴρ δόκιμος ὁμοῖα τῷ μ. as famous as he that is most [famous], Hdt.7.118, cf. 3.8; τοῖς μάλισθ' ὁμοίως D.Ep.2.24.

b. ἐν τοῖς μ. especially, as much as any, Th.8.90, Pl.Smp.173b, etc.: with a Sup., ἐν τοῖς μ. ὠμότατος Ael.VH14.40; φιλτάτη καὶ ἀναγκαιοτάτη ἐν τοῖς μ. Procop.Arc.4.

3. added to a Sup. (v. μάλα 11.2, πλεῖστον), ἔχθιστος μ., μ. φίλτατος, Il.2.220, 24.334; μ. κῃ ἐμφερέστατα Hdt.2.76; μ. φίλτατος E.Hipp.1421: to a Comp. (?), μ. δὴ ὀκνηρότεροι ἐγένοντο Th.4.55.

4. μάλιστα for μᾶλλον, μ. τῆς κόρης E.IA[1594]; μ. ἤ ἐμοί A.R.3.91.

5. with numerals, in round numbers, about, Th.3.29, 92, X.HG5.2.31, etc.; πεντήκοντα μάλιστα is 49 in Th.1.118; ἑκατοστὸς μ. 99th, Id.8.68; ἐς μέσον μάλιστά κῃ about the middle, Hdt. 1.191, cf. 76; ἥμισυ μ. Th.1.93; μ. σφᾶς μεσοῦν δειπνοῦντας that they were about the middle of supper, Pl.Smp.175c; κου μ. Hdt.7.22; μ. πως Plb.2.41.13.

6. in answers, most certainly, Ar.Pl.827, etc.; μ. γε S.OT994, Ar.Nu.253; μ. πάντων Id.Av.1531; πάντων μ. Pl.Grg.453d; v. supr.1.4. (Orig. perh. fiercely, cf. μαλερός.)