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μάχομαι [ᾰ], Ion. pres. opt. μαχέοιτο Il.1.272, μαχέοιντο ib.344 (v.l. μαχέονται); part. μαχεόμενος v.l. in Hdt.7.104 (elsewh. μαχόμενος, 9.75,al.); Ep. μαχειόμενος Od.17.471, μαχεούμενος 11.403, 24.113: Ep.impf. μαχέσκετο Il.7.140: fut. μαχήσομαι 23.621, Hdt.7.209; μαχέσομαι, δια-μαχεσόμεθα (as v.l.) Id.9.48; also in late Prose, J.AJ 11.8.3, Plu.2.215f; μαχοῦμαι S.OC837, Ar.Pl.1076, etc., μαχεῖται even in Il.20.26, but μαχέονται 2.366; Ep. μαχέσσομαι v.l. for μαχήσομαι 1.298: aor. ἐμαχεσάμην Hdt.1.18, etc.; opt. μαχέσαιο Il.6.329; inf. μαχέσασθαι 17.178, also μαχέσσασθαι 15.633; opt. μαχεσσαίμεσθα Theoc.22.74; part. μαχεσσαμένω Il.1.304; later μαχήσασθαι Paus.1.27.1, (ἀνα-) D.S.19.93: pf. μεμάχημαι Th.7.43, Lys.7.41, Isoc.6.54: late aor. ἐμαχέσθην Plu.2.970f, Paus.5.4.9: fut. μαχεσθήσομαι only Sch.rec.A.Th.672:—
fight, Hom., etc.; ὑσμῖνι μ. Il.2.863; πολεμίζειν ἠδὲ μ. ib.452, etc.; μάχην μ. X.Ages.5.5: in Hom. mostly of armies and persons fighting as parts of armies, but sts. of single combat, Il.3.91,433, 7.51, 111,279, Od.18.31,39; between men and beasts, Il.15.633, Od.20.15; between beasts, Il.16.824:—
Constr.: c. dat. pers., fight with, i. e. against, one, ἀνδράσιν ἶφι μ. Il.1.151, cf. S.Ph. 1253, etc.; μ. ἀντία, ἐναντίον τινός, Il.20.88,97; ἐπί τινι 5.124, etc.; πρός τινα 17.471, but πρὸς δαίμονα against heaven's will, ib.98 (in Att. Prose, mostly c. dat. or πρός, μ. τοῖς πολεμίοις D.4.47; πρὸς ἀλλήλους Isoc.4.116); μ. σὺν σοί, ..θεά, with thy help, Od.13.390; μετὰ πρώτοισι μ. among the foremost, Il.5.575; μετὰ Βοιωτῶν μ. with them, in their ranks, 13.700; πρός τινας μετ' ἀλλήλων Isoc. 10.53, cf. Pl.Smp.179a; κατὰ σφέας γὰρ μαχέονται will fight by themselves, Il.2.366 (but κατ' ἕνα μ. fight in single combat, Hdt. 7.104); μ. πρό τινος before him: hence, metaph., for him, in his defence, Il.4.156, 8.56, X.HG5.4.33, etc.; ὑπὲρ τοῦ νόμου Heraclit. 44; πάτρας ὕπερ E.Ph.1002; Ἕλλησιν ὑπὲρ Ἑλλήνων Pl.Mx.239b; περὶ δαιτί Od.2.245; but later usu. περί τινος, A.Supp.740, Cratin. 163, Hdt.1.95; ἀμφί τινι Il.3.70,91; ἀμφὶ νέκυι 16.565; εἵνεκά τινος 2.377: c. dat. instrum., τόξοισι, πελέκεσσι μ., 7.140, 15.711 (χερσὶ μαχέσσασθαι, of boxers, Od.18.39); μ. ἀπ' ἵππου fight from horseback, Hdt.9.63; τὸ μήπω μεμαχημένον the force that had not yet come into action, Th.7.43.

2. c. acc., fight against, only f.l. in Philostr.Im. 2.23.

II. generally, quarrel, wrangle, ἔριδι μ. Il.1.8; μ. ἐπέεσσιν ib.304, etc.; τινι 5.875, 13.118; τῷ παιδὶ μ. make a scene with .., Thphr.Char.23.8; dispute, argue, περί τι μ. Pl.R.342d, etc.

III. contend for the mastery in games, etc., πὺξ μ. Il.23.621; measure oneself with or against, τινι 1.272; παγκράτιον μ. Ar.V.1190, 1195; μ. Ὀλυμπιάδα Philostr.Gym.21.

IV. after Hom., struggle against a force, ἀνάγκᾳ δ' οὐδὲ θεοὶ μ. Simon.5.21; ὄμβρῳ Alc.Supp.26.4; πρὸς ἡνίας μ. A.Pr.1010; πρὸς ἐπιθυμίας ἢ ἡδονάς Pl.La.191e; μ. τῷ λιμῷ, τῷ δίψει, X.Cyr.3.1.5.

V. c. inf., struggle, make an effort to do, Arist.HA552a23.

VI. of arguments, propositions, etc., to be in contradiction or inconsistent, τρία ὁμολογήματα μ. αὐτὰ αὑτοῖς Pl.Tht. 155b, cf. Plb.16.28.4; μαχόμενα Phld.Mus.p.95 K., S.E.P.1.198, al.