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πνεῦμα, ατος, τό, (πνέω) blast, wind, first in Anaximen.2, ὅλον τὸν κόσμον π. καὶ ἀὴρ περιέχει: freq. in Trag., etc., ἀνέμων πνεύματα πάντων A.Pr.1086 (anap.), cf. 1047 (anap.); θαλάσσας ..πνεύματι λάβρῳ Id.Pers.110(lyr.); πνευμάτων ἐπομβρίᾳ Id.Fr.300.3; τέως δὲ κούφοις πνεύμασιν βόσκου S.Aj.558; πνεύμασιν θαλασσίοις ἐξωσθέντες E.Cyc. 278 (but πνοή is commoner in Poets; Hom. uses πνοιή); πνεύματα ἀνέμων Hdt.7.16.ά; τὸ π. κατῄει Th.2.84; κατὰ πρύμναν ἵσταται τὸ π. ib.97; τὸ π. λεῖον καὶ καθεστηκὸς λαβεῖν Ar.Ra.1003; τὸ π. ἔλαττον γίγνεται Id.Eq.441; εἰ φορὸν π. εἴη X.HG6.2.27; κατὰ πνεῦμα στῆναι τοῦ ἄρρενος to leeward of him, Arist.HA560b14; but κατὰ π. προσιόντες down wind, ib.535a19; πνεύματος ἀνείλησις, ἐκπύρωσις, Epicur. Ep.2pp.44,45 U.; as an element, air, Corp.Herm.1.9, 16; τὸ π. τὸ περὶ τὴν ψυχήν Plot.2.2.2, cf. Porph.Sent.29.

2. metaph., θαλερωτέρῳ π. with more genial breeze or influence, A.Th.708(lyr.); λύσσης π. μάργῳ Id.Pr.884(anap.); αἰδοίῳ π. χώρας with air or spirit of respect on the part of the country, Id.Supp.29(anap.); π. ταὐτὸν οὔποτ' ..ἐν ἀνδράσιν φίλοις βέβηκεν the wind is constantly changing even among friends, S.OC612; π. συμφορᾶς E.IT1317; ὅταν θεοῦ σοι π. μεταβαλὸν τύχῃ Id.HF216.

II. breathed air, breath, σάλπιγξ βροτείου πνεύματος πληρουμένη A.Eu.568; αὐλῶν, λωτοῦ π., E.Ba.128(lyr.), Ph.787 (lyr., pl.); π. ἀπέρρηξεν βίου the breath of life, A.Pers.507; π. ἀπώλεσεν Id.Th.984 (lyr.); π. ἄθροισον collect breath, E.Ph.851; π. ἀφεῖναι, ἀνεῖναι, μεθεῖναι, to give up the ghost, Id.Hec.571, Or.277, Tr.785 (anap.); π. δειμαίνων λιπεῖν Id.Supp.554; π... δυσῶδες ἠφίει Th.2.49; πνεύματος διαρροαί the wind-pipe, E.Hec.567; τὰς τοῦ π. διεξόδους ἀποφράττον Pl.Ti.91c (v. πνεύμων); πνεύματος ῥώμη Plu.2.804b: prov., ἄνθρωπός ἐστι π. καὶ σκιὰ μόνον S.Fr.13.

2. breathing, respiration, freq. in Hp., π. πυκνόν, ἀραιόν, ἐκτεῖνον, κατεπεῖγον, Epid.2.3.7; π. πυκνότερον Acut.16; π. προσκόπτον checked, difficult breathing, Aph.4.68; π. ἄσημον indistinct, feeble breathing, Epid.6.7.8; π. βηχῶδες Coac.622; π. μετέωρον shallow breathing, Epid.2.3.1; τὸ π. ἔχειν ἄνω to be out of breath, Men.23, cf. Sosicr.1; τὸ π. ἀνήνεγκαν recovered their breath, Hp.Prorrh.2.12 (so without τὸ π. Aph.2.43); but ἀναφέρουσιν ..κλαίοντά τε καὶ ἐς τὰς ῥῖνας ἀνέλκοντα τὸ π. they sob .., Id.Hebd.51.

b. pl., of the air imagined as filling the veins, πνευμάτων ἀπολήψιες ἀνὰ φλέβας Id.Acut.(Sp.)7,al.

3. flatulence, in pl., Eub.107.9, Arist.Pr. 948b25, Dsc.2.112, D.L.6.94.

4. breath of life, π. ζωῆς LXXGe.6.17, 7.15, cf. Plu.Per.13,etc.; π. ἔχειν retain life, Plb.31.10.4; living being, ἐγὼ Νίνος πάλαι ποτ' ἐγενόμην π. Phoen.1.16; οὐ π. πάντα βρότεια σοὶ (sc. Πλούτωνι) νέμεται; IG14.769 (Naples).

5. that which is breathed forth or exhaled, odour, ὦ θεῖον ὀδμῆς π. E.Hipp.1391; π. βαρὺ ἀφιεῖσα, of a tree, Plu.2.647b.

6. Gramm., breathing with which a vowel is pronounced, ib. 1009e (pl.), A.D.Adv.147.18; π. δασύ, ψιλόν, Id.Pron. 78.6, Adv.148.9.

III. divine inspiration, ἄγρια ..πνεύματα θευφορίης AP6.220.4 (Diosc.); εἰ μή τι θεῖον ..ἐνῆν π. τῇ ψυχῇ Pl.Ax.370c; τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ δαιμόνιον ἐν μούσαις π. Plu.2.605a; καθαρὸν δίκαιον ..π. θεοῦ σωτῆρος BMus.Inscr.1062(Cyrene, ii A. D.).

IV. the spirit of God, π. θεοῦ LXXGe.1.2, etc.: freq. in NT, τὸ π. τὸ ἅγιον Ev.Marc.3.29,al.

2. spirit of man, εἴτ' ἐστὶ τοῦτο π. θεῖον εἴτε νοῦς Men.482.3: in NT, opp. ψυχή, 1 Ep.Thess.5.23, cf. Ep.Rom.8.2; τῷ π., opp. τῷ σώματι, 1 Ep.Cor.5.3; also, opp. γράμμα, Ep.Rom.2.29.

V. spiritual or immaterial being, angel, Ep.Hebr.1.14, Apoc.1.4; τὰ ἄχραντα π., τὰ κακὰ π., Iamb.Myst.3.31; π. πονηρόν, ψευδές, LXX Jd.9.23, 3 Ki.22.21, cf. Act.Ap.19.12, 15, Apoc.16.14, Porph. ap. Eus.PE4.23, etc.; ἀλάλου καὶ κακοῦ π. οὖσα πλήρης (sc. ἡ Πυθία) Plu.2.438b.

VI. Rhet., sentence declaimed in one breath, Hermog.Inv.3.10,4.4,al.