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πολύς, Att. πολλή, πολύ; gen. πολλοῦ, ῆς, ou=; dat. πολλῷ, ῇ, ῷ; acc. πολύν, πολλήν, πολύ:—
Ion. πολλός Anacr.43.3, πολλή, πολλόν Xenoph.9, Democr.219, Hp.VM1, Herod.3.19; also in Trag., S.Ant.86, Tr.1196; acc. πολλόν, πολλήν, πολλόν: Hdt. uses the Ion. forms, but codd. have πολύν 2.121.δ́, 3.57, v.l. in 6.125, πολύ 2.106,3.38,6.72,7.46,160 (πολύ also in Heraclit.114, Democr. 244):—
both sets of forms are found in Ep., also gen. sg. πολέος Il.4.244, etc.: nom. pl. πολέες 2.417, al., once contr. πολεῖς 11.708; gen. πολέων (trisyll.) 5.691, (disyll.) 16.655; dat. πολέσι 10.262,al.; πολέσσι 13.452, al.; πολέεσσι 9.73, Od.5.54, Hes.Op.119, etc.; acc. πολέας (trisyll.) Il.3.126, etc., (disyll.) 1.559,2.4, Hes.Op.580 (freq. with v.l. πολεῖς Il.15.66, etc.); in later Ep. πολέες is used as fem., Call.Del.28, also πολέας Id.Dian.42, A.R.3.21; neut. πολέα Q.S.1.74 (v. infr.):—
Ep. also have πουλύς (once in Hes., Th.190, also Thgn. 509, sts. fem. in Hom., πουλὺν ἐφ' ὑγρήν Il.10.27, ἠέρα πουλύν 5.776), neut. πουλύ Od.19.387; these forms are found in codd. of Hp. and Aret. (who uses πολύ, πουλύ and πολλόν in neut.), but not in Hdt.:—
Lyr. and Trag. (lyr.) sts. use Ep. forms, dat. sg. πολεῖ A.Supp.745; nom. pl. πολέες B.10.17; neut. πολέα A.Ag.723; πολέων E.Hel.1332 (fem., B.5.100); dat. pl. πολέσι E.IT1263. [ῠalways.]

I. of Number, many, Il.2.417, etc.; ἐκ πολλῶν, opp. ἐξὀλίγων, Hes.Th.447; τριηκόντων ἐτέων πόλλ' ἀπολείπων wanting many of thirty years, Id.Op.696; παρῆσάν τινες, καὶ πολλοί γε Pl.Phd.58d; οὐ πολλοί τινες A.Pers.510: with Nouns of multitude, πουλὺς ὅμιλος Od.8.109; πλῆθος πολλόν Hdt.1.141; ἔθνος πολλόν Id.4.22; later πουλὺ ..ἐπ' ἔτος many a year, AP6.235 (Thall.); π. ἦν ὁ καταπλέων Plb.15.26.10; of anything often repeated, περὶ σέο λόγος ἀπῖκται π. Hdt.1.30; πολλὸν ἦν τοῦτο τὸ ἔπος Id.2.2, cf. 3.137, etc.; πολὺ ..τὸ σὸν ὄνομα διήκει πάντας S.OC305; τούτῳ πολλῷ χρήσεται τῷ λόγῳ often, D.21.29; τοῦτο ἐπιεικῶς πολὺ νῦν ἐστι is fairly frequent, Luc.Hist.Conscr.15.

2. of Size, Degree, Intensity, much, mighty, ὄμβρος, νιφετός, Il.10.6; π. ὕπνος Od.15.394; πῦρ ..π. 10.359; π. ὑμέναιος a loud song, Il.18.493; π. ὀρυμαγδός, ῥοῖζος, etc., 2.810, Od.9.315, etc.; π. ἀνάγκη strong necessity, E.Ph.1674; π. γέλως, βοή, much or great, S.Aj.303, 1149; μωρία ib. 745; ὄλβος, αἰδώς, A.Pers.251, Ag.948; ἀσφάλεια Th.2.11; ἀλογία, εὐήθεια, Pl.Phd.67e, Phdr.275c, etc.

b. rarely of a single person, great, mighty, μέγας καὶ πολλὸς ἐγένεο Hdt.7.14, cf. E.Hipp.1; ὁ π. σοφιστής, στρατηγός, Chor.p.23 B., Id.in Rev.Phil.1.68; ὁ πάντα π. Id.p.27 B.; ὁ πολύς alone, of Hippocrates, Gal.19.530; of Trajan, Lyd.Mag.2.28; ῥώμην σώματος πολύς D.H.2.42.

c. joined with a Verb, Κύπρις γὰρ οὐ φορητός, ἢν πολλὴ ῥυῇ if she flow with full stream, metaph. from a river, E.Hipp.443; θρασυνομένῳ καὶ πολλῷ ῥέοντι D. 18.136; from the wind, ὡς π. ἔπνει καὶ λαμπρός was blowing strong and fresh, Id.25.57, cf. Ar.Eq.760, AP11.49 (Even.): generally, with might or force, ὅταν ὁ θεὸς ..ἔλθῃ πολύς E.Ba.300; ἢν π. παρῇ Id.Or.1200; π. καὶ τολμηρὸς ἅνθρωπος D.40.53: with part. and εἰμί, πολλὸς ἦν λισσόμενος was all entreaties, Hdt.9.91; ἦν πολλὸς ὑπὸ παντὸς ἀνδρὸς αἰνεόμενος Id.1.98; Ἐτεοκλέης ἂν εἷς π... ὑμνοῖθ' A.Th.6; π. ἐνέκειτο λέγων Hdt.7.158; π. τοῖς συμβεβηκόσιν ἔγκειται D.18.199; also π. ἦν ἐν τοῖσι λόγοισι Hdt.8.59; πρὸς ταῖς παρασκευαῖς Plb.5.49.7; ἐπὶ τῇ τιμωρίᾳ D.S.14.107: without a Prep., π. ἦν τοῖς ἐπαίνοις καὶ ἐπαχθής Aeschin.2.41; π. μὲν γὰρ ὁ Φίλιππος ἔσται will be often mentioned, Id.1.166.

3. of Value or Worth, πολέος δέ οἱ ἄξιος ἔσται Il.23.562, cf. Od.8.405; πολλοῦ ἄξιος X.An.4.1.28, etc.; πολλῶν ἄξιος Ar.Pax918; περὶ πολλοῦ ποιεῖσθαί τι, Lat. magni facere, cf. περί A. IV; ἐπὶ πολλῷ at a high price, D.8.53; ἐπὶ π. ἐρραθυμηκότες Id.1.15; πολύ ἐστί τι it is worth much, of great conscquence, X.Oec.18.7.

4. of Space, large, wide, π. χώρη, πεδίον, Il.23.520,4.244, etc.; πόντος, πέλαγος, Hes.Op.635, S.Ph.635; χῶρος πλατὺς καὶ π. Hdt.4.39; λίμνη μεγάλη τε καὶ π. ib.109; π. ἡ Σικελία Th. 7.13; π. ἡ Ἑλλάς Pl.Phd.78a, etc.; πολλὸς ἔκειτο he lay outstretched wide, Il.7.156, cf. 11.307; π. κέλευθος a far way, A.Pers.748 (troch.): without ὁδός, πολλὴ μὲν εἰς Ἡράκλειαν .., πολλὴ δὲ εἰς Χρυσόπολιν .. X.An.6.3.16: διὰ πολλοῦ, ἐκ πολλοῦ, v. infr. IV.

5. of Time, long, χρόνος S.Aj.1402 (anap.), etc.; πολὺν χρόνον Il.2.343, etc.; οὐ π. χρ. S.Ph.348, etc.; so πολλοῦ χρόνου Ar.Pl.98; χρόνῳ πολλῷ S.Tr.228; διὰ πολλοῦ (sc. χρόνου) Luc.Nec.15; ἐκ πολλοῦ Th.1.58, D. 21.41; πρὸ πολλοῦ long before, D.S.14.43; οὐ μετὰ πολύ Luc.Tox.54; ἔτι πολλῆς νυκτός while still quite night, Th.8.101; πολλῆς ὥρας late in the day, Plb.5.8.3; ἤδη ὥρα πολλή Ev.Marc.6.35; ἔτι ἔστιν ἡμέρα πολλή LXX Ge.29.7.

II. Special usages:

1. c. partit.gen., e.g. πολλοὶ Τρώων, for πολλοὶ Τρῶες, Il.18.271, etc.; neut., πολλὸν σαρκός, for πολλὴ σάρξ, Od.19.450: in Prose, the Adj. generally takes the gender of the gen., τὸν πολλὸν τοῦ χρόνου Hdt.1.24; τῆς γῆς οὐ πολλήν Th.6.7; τῆς ἀθάρης πολλήν Ar.Pl.694; πολλὴν τῆς χώρας X.Cyr. 3.2.2; ὁ π. τοῦ λόγου D.44.6; v. infr. 3.

2. joined with another Adj., πολλὰ δυστερπῆ κακά A.Ch.277, cf. 585 (lyr.), etc.: more freq. joined to another Adj. by καί, πολέες τε καὶ ἐσθλοί many men and good, Il.6.452, etc.; πολέες τε καὶ ἄλκιμοι 21.586; πολλὰ καὶ ἐσθλά Od.2.312; παλαιά τε πολλά τε ib.188; ἄκοσμά τε π. τε Il.2.213; πολλαί γε ..καὶ ἄλλαι Hes.Th.363; π. τε καὶ κακά Hdt.4.167, etc.; π. κἀγαθά Ar.Th.351 (but π. ἀγαθά IG12.76.45); π. καὶ ἀνόσια Pl.R.416e; π. καὶ μακάρια Id.Plt.269d; π. καὶ πονηρά X.Mem.2.9.6; πολλά τε καὶ δεινά Id.An.5.5.8; μεγάλα καὶ π. D.36.22; π. καὶ καλοὺς (s.v.l.) κινδύνους, π. καὶ καλὰ παραδείγματα, Din.1.109.

3. with the Art. (in Hom. without the Art., Il.2.483, 5.334, 22.28), of persons or things well known, Ἑλένα μία τὰς πολλάς, τὰς πάνυ π. ψυχὰς ὀλέσασ' those many lives, A.Ag.1456 (lyr.), cf. S.OT845, Th.3.87, Pl.Phd.88a, Ti.54a, Act.Ap.26.24: with abstract Nouns, τᾶς πολλᾶς ὑγιείας A. Ag.1001 (lyr., dub.); τὸ πολλόν numbers, Hdt.1.136.

b. οἱ π. the many, i.e. the greater number, Ἀθηναῖοι ..ἀπῆλθον οἱ πολλοί Th. 1.126, cf. 3.32, etc. (so in sg., ὁ πολλὸς λόγος the prevailing report, Hdt.1.75); τοῖς π. κριταῖς S.Aj.1243: with gen., τοῖς π. βροτῶν ib.682; οἱ π. τῶν ἀνθρώπων X.Cyr.8.2.24; οἱ πολλοὶ ἅπαντες far the most, Hp.Aër.20 (v.l. μάλιστα for ἅπαντες); for τὰ πολλὰ πάντα, v. infr. 111.1a: hence οἱ πολλοί the people, the commonalty, opp. οἱ μείζω κεκτημένοι, Th.1.6; opp. οἱ κομψότεροι, Pl.R.505b; οἱ π., = Lat. plebs, D.S.20.36; τῶν πολλῶν εἷς one of the multitude, D.21.96; also ὁ π. λεώς Luc.JTr.53, cf. Rh.Pr.17; ὁ π. ὅμιλος Id.Luct.2. Hdn.1.1.1, etc.; ὁ π. δῆμος Luc.Apol.15; ὁ π. ὄχλος Ph. 2.4; ὁ π. alone, = vulgus, v.l. in D.S.2.29; the ordinary man, Epicur.Fr.478, Phld.Rh.2.154S.; νίμμα ὁ π. λέγει, ἡμεῖς ἀπόνιπτρον λέγομεν Phryn.170, cf.369; ὁ ἐμπαθὴς καὶ π. ἄνθρωπος 'l'homme moyen sensuel', Herm.in Phdr.p.146A.; ὁ π. ἄνθρωπος (with pl. Verb) the average man, opp. τὸ ἐξαίρετον, Eun.Hist.p.216 D.

c. τὸ πολύ, c. gen., τῆς στρατιῆς τὸ πολλόν Hdt.8.100; τὸ π. τοῦ χρόνου Hp.Aër. 20; τῶν λογάδων τὸ π. Th.5.73; τῶν ὅπλων τὸ π. Pl.Plt.288b; also ὁ στρατὸς ὁ πολλός Hdt.1.102; ἡ δύναμις ἡ π. Th.1.24; ὁ π. βίοτος the best part of life, S.El.185 (lyr.).

d. τὰ πολλά the most, Od.22.273, and perh. 2.58, 17.537 (elsewh. in Hom. πολλά, as Subst., means much riches, great possessions, Il.11.684, Od.19.195); τὰ π. τοῦ πολέμου Th.2.13; πρὸς τὸ τῶν π. μέγεθος in regard to the size of the average, Arist.Rh.1363b11.

4. pl. πολλά very much, too much, πολλὰ πράσσειν, = πολυπραγμονεῖν, E.Supp.576, Ar.Ra.228; π. ἔπαθεν Pi.O.13.63, etc.; π. ἔρξαι τινά to do one much harm, A. Th.923 (lyr.).

5. πολλάς with Verbs of beating (πληγάς being omitted), v. πληγή 1.

6. πολύς repeated, ἦ πολλὰ πολλοῖς εἰμι διάφορος βροτῶν E.Med.579, cf. A.Supp.451; τὰ μὲν οὖν πολλὰ πολλοῦ χρόνου διηγήσασθαι Pl.R.615a, etc.; πολλοῦ πολύς, v. infr. 111.1b: with Advbs. πολλάκις, πολλαχῇ, etc. (qq. v., cf. 111.1 e).

III. Adverbial usages:

a. neut. πολύ (Ion. πολλόν), πολλά, much, πόλλ' ἀεκαζομένη Il.6.458, etc.; strengthd., μάλα πολλά 8.22, al.; πάνυ πολύ Pl.Alc.1.119c; πολύ τι Id.R.484d; esp. of repetition, often, Il.2.798, Od.13.29, Hes.Op.322; so of earnest commands and entreaties, πολλὰ κελεύων, πόλλ' ἐπέτελλον, πολλὰ λισσομένη, πολλὰ μάλ' εὐχομένω, Il.5.528, 11.782, 5.358, 9.183: with the Art., τὸ πολύ for the most part, Pl.Prt.315a, etc. (but with numerals, at most, Vett. Val.9.5); ὡς τὸ π. X.Mem.1.1.10, etc.; τὰ πολλά Th.1.13, 2.11,87, etc.; ὡς τὰ π. Id.5.65, etc.; τὰ π. πάντα Hdt.1.203, 2.35, 5.67.

b. of Degree, far, very much, ἀπέφυγε πολλὸν τοὺς διώκοντας Id.6.82: also abs. gen. πολλοῦ very, θρασὺς εἶ πολλοῦ Ar.Nu.915, cf. Eup.74; πολλοῦ δύνασθαι Alciphr.1.9 (s.v.l.); πολλοῦ πολύς, πολλὴ πολλοῦ, much too much, Ar.Eq.822,Ra.1046.

c. of Space, a great way, far, οὐ πολλόν Hdt.1.104; πολὺ οὐκ ἐξῄεσαν Th.1.15, etc.

d. of Time, long, ὡς πολλὸν τοῦτο ἐγίνετο Hdt.4.126, cf. 6.129.

e. of Probability, ἐὰν πολλὰ πολλῶν τέκῃς, perh. = ἐὰν πολλάκις τέκῃς,POxy. 744.9 (i B.C./i A.D.); ἐάν τι πολλὰ πολλάκις πάθω Ar.Ec.1105.

2. πολύ is freq. joined with Adjs. and Advbs.,

a. with a Comp. to increase its comp. force, πολὺ μεῖζον, πολλὸν παυρότεροι, Il.1.167, Od.14.17; πολὺ μᾶλλον much more, Il.9.700; πολύ τι μᾶλλον f.l. in D.H. Comp.4 (p.22 U.-R.): with words, esp. Preps., between πολύ and its Adj., π. ἐν πλέονι, π. ἐπὶ δεινοτέρῳ, Th.1.35, Pl.R.589e; πολὺ ἔτι ἐκ λαμπροτέρων Id.Phd.110c; π. σὺν φρονήματι μείζονι X.An.3.1.22, cf.3.2.30, Smp.1.4 (but the Prep. freq. comes first, ἐκ π. ἐλάττονος And.1.109, etc.); so πολλῷ is freq. used with the Comp., by far, A.Pr.337, Hdt. 1.134, etc.; π. μᾶλλον S.OT1159, Pl.Phd.80e; οὐ πολλῷ τεῳ ἀσθενέστερον not a great deal weaker, Hdt.1.181, cf. 2.48,67, etc.: πολύ with all words implying comparison, πολὺ πρίν much sooner, Il.9.250; π. πρό 4.373: with the comp. Verb φθάνω, ἦ κε πολὺ φθαίη 13.815; so πολὺ προβέβηκας ἁπάντων, πολὺ προμάχεσθαι ἁπάντων, 6.125, 11.217; προὔλαβε πολλῷ Th.7.80: with βούλομαι, = prefer, ἡμῖν πολὺ βούλεται ἢ Δαναοῖσι νίκην Il.17.331, cf. Od.17.404; πολύ γε in answers, after a Comp. or Sup., ἀργὸς ..γενήσεται μᾶλλον; Answ. πολύ γε Pl.R.421d, cf. 387e, etc.

b. with a Sup., πολὺ πρώτιστος, πολλὸν ἄριστος, far the first, etc., Il.2.702, 1.91, etc.; προθυμία π. τολμηροτάτη Th.1.74, etc.; πολλόν τι μάλιστα Hdt.1.56; π. δή, π. δὴ γυναῖκ' ἀρίσταν E.Alc.442 (lyr.), cf. Ar.Av.539, Archestr.Fr.34.9; also πολλῷ πλεῖστοι Hdt.5.92.έ, 8.42; π. μεγίστους Id.4.82.

c. with a Positive, to add force to the Adj., ὦ πολλὰ μὲν τάλαινα, πολλὰ δ' αὖ σοφή A.Ag.1295; also ἐς πόλλ' ἀθλία πέφυκ' ἐγώ E.Ph.619 (troch.); πολὺ ἀφόρητος Luc.DMeretr. 9.3; cf. πλεῖστος.

IV. with Preps.,

1. διὰ πολλοῦ at a great interval of Space or Time, v. διά A.1.5, 11.2.

2. εἰς πολύ for a long time, Plot.2.1.3.

3. ἐκ πολλοῦ from a great distance, Th.4.32, etc.; for a long time, v. ἐκ 11.1.

4. ἐπὶ πολύ,

a. over a great space, far, οὐκ ἐπὶ πολλόν Hdt.2.32; ἐπὶ π. τῆς θαλάσσης, τῆς χώρας, Th.1.50,4.3, etc.; to a great extent, Id.1.6,18,3.83; cf. ποιέω B.11.2.

b. for a long time, long, Id.5.16; τῆς ἡμέρας ἐπὶ π. Id.7.38, cf. 39.

c. ὡς ἐπὶ π. very generally, Id.1.12 (v.l.), Archyt. ap. Stob.3.1.195; ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ π. for the most part, Th.2.13, Pl.Plt.294e, etc.; μὴ καθ' ἓν ἕκαστον, ἀλλ' ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ π. Isoc.4.154; τό γ' ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ π. Id.8.35.

5. παρὰ πολύ by far, v. παρά C.111.5.

6. περὶ πολλοῦ, v. supr. 1.3.

7. πρὸ πολλοῦ far before, τῆς πόλεως D.H.9.35; also of Time, οὐ πρὸ π. not long before, Id.5.62.

8. σὺν πολλῷ in no small degree, only too much or too well, Hld.2.8,9.20, 10.9 (cf. CR41.53).

V. for Comp. πλείων, πλέων, Sup. πλεῖστος, v. sub vocc. (Cf. Skt. purú-, Goth. filu 'much'.)