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πον-έω, πονέομαι,

A. in early Greek only Med. πονέομαι, inf. -έεσθαι Il.10.116: impf. ἐπονεῖτο, Ep. πονεῖτο 9.12: fut. πονήσομαι 23.159, Hp.Mul.1.4, later πονέσομαι Luc.Asin.9: aor. ἐπονησάμην, Ep. πονήσατο Il.9.348, (δια-) Pl.Lg.966c, X.Eq.5.10; ἐπονήθην f.l. in E.Hel.1509 (lyr.), (δια-) Isoc.15.267: pf. πεπόνημαι, Ion.3pl.
-έαται Hdt.2.63, Ep.-ήαται Arat.82, Att. -ηνται Pl.Phlb.58e: plpf. πεπόνητο Il.15.447, Ep.3pl. -ήατο A.R.2.263:

I. abs., work hard, ὡς ἐπονεῖτο Il.2.409; ὄφελεν πονέεσθαι λισσόμενος he ought to suffer toil in praying, 10.117; ὅπλα .., τοῖς ἐπονεῖτο with which he did his work, of Hephaestus, 18.413, cf. Od.16.13; περὶ δόρπα ..πονέοντο were busied about their supper, Il.24.444, cf. Hdt.2.63, Pl.Phlb.58e; so πεπόνητο καθ' ἵππους was busy with the horses, of a charioteer, Il.15.447; πονέοντο κατὰ κρατερὴν ὑσμίνην were toiling in the fight, 5.84, etc.; hence πονεῖσθαι alone = μάχεσθαι, 4.374, 13.288; π. τινός to be busy with .., Arat.82, cf. 758.

2. suffer from illness, be sick, Th.2.51.

II. c. acc., work hard at, make or do with pains or care, τύμβον Il.23.245; ταῦτ' ἐπονεῖτο ἰδυίῃσι πραπίδεσσι 18.380; ὅπλα ..πονησάμενοι κατὰ νῆα Od.11.9; πονησάμενος τὰ ἃ ἔργα 9.250, cf. Il.9.348, Hes.Op.432 (sc. ἄροτρα); πονεύμενος ἕρκος ἀλωῆς Mosch.4.100; πεπονήατο δαῖτα γέροντι A.R.2.263.

B. after Hom., the act. form πονέω prevails: fut. πονήσω A.Pr. 344, Pl.R.410b, Hp.Mul.1.2,5; later πονέσω Arist.Mech.856b9, Lyr. Alex.Adesp.37.3, LXXIs.19.10, al., and in codd. of Hp.Aph.4.32: aor. ἐπόνησα, Dor. -ᾱσα, E.Hipp.1369 (anap.), Pl.R.462d, Hp.Acut.46, Theoc.15.80; poet. πόνησα Pi.N.7.36; later ἐπόνεσα LXX 1 Ki.23.21, al., Ph.Bel.58.1, al., Polyaen.3.10.6, etc., and in codd. of Hp.Coac. 489, Morb.1.4,14: pf. πεπόνηκα Ar.Pax820, X.Cyr.4.5.22, Hp.Vict. 2.66; later πεπόνεκα PMich.Zen.104.3 (iii B.C.): plpf. ἐπεπονήκει Th. 7.38:—
Pass., aor. ἐπονήθην (ἐξ-) Id.6.31; Dor. subj. πονᾱθῇ Pi.O.6.11: pf. πεπόνημαι S.Tr.985 (anap.), Pl.Phdr.232a (v. infr. 1.3):

I. intr., toil, labour, περὶ λήϊον Hdt.2.14; ἐς ἄκαιρα πονεῖν Thgn.919; πόνει μετ' εὐκλείας Anon ap.Stob.3.1.173 = JHS27.63 (Cyzicus, iv/iii B.C.); ἄλλως, μάτην π., labour in vain, S.OT1151, E.HF501: c.acc., τὰ μηδὲν ὠφελοῦντα μὴ πόνει μάτην do not labour at .., A.Pr.44; ἀνήνυτα π. Pl. R.531a: rarely of things, τίς ..αἶνος ἐπ' ἀνδρὶ θείῳ ..πονήσει; A.Ag. 1550 (lyr., dub., leg. αἶνον).

2. c. acc. cogn., π. πόνον go through, suffer toil, Id.Pers.682, E.Hec.779, cf. S.Ph.1419, E.Hipp.1369 (anap.), Pl.R.410b, etc.; περὶ τῶν παθημάτων ὧν νοσέουσί τε καὶ πονέουσι Hp. VM2, etc.; ἅμιλλαν ποδοῖν E.IA212 (lyr.); π. πολλά Id.Supp.577: with modal words, π. τινί suffer in or by a thing, Pi.N.7.36; δίψῃ A. Pers.484; ὑπὸ χειμῶνος Antipho 2.2.1; τῇ κυήσει Arist.HA570b3; εἰρεσίᾳ Polyaen.l.c.: c.acc. partis, πεπόνηκα ..τὼ σκέλει mylegs ache, Ar.Pax820; π. τὰς κεφαλάς, τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς, τὰ γόνατα, have a pain in .., Arist.HA557a10, Pr.959b21, 882b25: with modal dat. added, π. πλευρὰν πικρᾷ γλωχῖνι S.Tr.681: abs., labour under sickness, suffer, Hp.VM8; suffer damage, ἅπαν ἂν συμπαθὲς ἦν ἑνὸς μορίου πονήσαντος Arist.PA690b4; also, suffer pain, ἀεὶ π. τὸ ζῷον Anaxag.ap eund.EN 1154b7; of an army, to be hard-pressed, suffer, Th.5.73, X.Cyr.1.4.21, etc.; of ships, Th.7.38; of implements, arms, etc., to be worn out, spoilt, or damaged, D.18.194, Plb.3.49.11, Inscr.Délos442 B204, al. (ii B.C.); τὰ σπαρτία ἧττον πονέσει Arist.Mech.l.c.; ῥίζαι πεπονηκυῖαι Thphr.HP3.7.1; of buildings, to be dilapidated, PEnteux.6.3 (iii B.C.), etc.

3. Pass., impers., οὐκ ἄλλως αὐτοῖς πεπόνηται, = πεπονήκασι, Pl.Phdr.232a.

II. trans.,

1. c.acc. pers., afflict, distress, Pi.P. 4.151, cj. in Anacreont.33.14:—
Pass., to be afflicted or worn out, suffer greatly, πεπονημένος ὀδύναις S.Tr.985 (anap.); πόλεως πονουμένης τῷ πολέμῳ Th.4.59; τόν τε θνῄσκοντα καὶ τὸν πονούμενον Id.2.51.

b. Pass., to be trained or educated, δοκεῖ ὁ κατ' ἀλήθειαν πολιτικὸς πεπονῆσθαι περὶ [τὴν ἀρετήν] Arist.EN1102a8; πεπονημένην ἔχειν τὴν ἕξιν Id.Pol.1335b8, cf. Theoc.13.14; πεπονημένον ὑπό μου though he owes his training to me, PCair.Zen.378.16 (iii B.C.).

2. c. acc. rei, gain by toil or labour, [χρήματα] X.An.7.6.41:—
Pass., to be won or achieved by toil, καλὸν εἴ τι ποναθῇ Pi.O.6.11, cf. P.9.93.

b. Pass., of meats, to be dressed, cooked, Ptol.Euerg.9J., Phld.Mort.24; ἄρτος πεπονημένος specially prepared, Sor.1.94.—
The rule of Choerob. in Theod.2.137 H., EM130.3, that when πονέω means toil, the fut. and aor. are πονήσω, ἐπόνησα, when suffer pain, πονέσω, ἐπόνεσα, is not borne out by the examples (v. supr.).—
The fut. Med. κατα-πονήσομαι is used as trans. by D.S.11.15; so aor. Pass. πονήθη in IG9(1).867.6 (Corc., vii/vi B.C.); and the intr. and trans. senses are united in Anacreont. 33.14 (cj.), 15.