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πρᾶγμα, ατος, τό, Ion. πρῆχμα Schwyzer 688 B16, C5 (Chios, v B. C.), GDI5598.4 (Ephesus); also πρῆγμα Hdt.5.33, al., but Hdt. perh. wrote πρῆχμα, which is v. l. in 1.133 ap.Ath.4.144a (cod. A), and in 3.49,57 (POxy.1619.326,379); cf. πρήχματος οὐχ ὁσίου imitated from Hdt. in Epigr.Gr.1092 (Erechtheum): (πράσσω):—
deed, act, the concrete of πρᾶξις, but freq. approaching to the abstract sense, Thgn.116, al.; opp. λόγοι, D.2.12, etc.; πραγμάτων ὀρθὰν ὁδόν Pi.O. 7.46; γυναίου π. ἐποίει did the act of a woman, D.25.57, cf. 18.24, etc.

II. occurrence, matter, affair, πᾶσαν τελευτὰν πράγματος Pi.O. 13.75, cf. P.4.278; τί τοῦδε σοὶ μέτεστι π. λέγε A.Eu.575, cf. 584; π. τοιόνδε συνηνείχθη γενέσθαι Hdt.5.33, cf. 9.92, Th.2.64; ἐς μέσον σφι προετίθεε τὸ π. Hdt.1.206; τί δ' εἰδὼς τοῦδε π. πέρι; S.Aj.747 codd.; τὸ π. εἰς ὑπέρδεινόν μοι περιέστη D.21.111; ὁρᾶτε τὸ π., οἷ προελήλυθε κτλ., Id.4.9, cf. 8.7.

2. thing, concrete reality, ἆρ' ἔστιν αὔλησίς τι π.; Epich.171.1; opp. ὄνομα, Pl.Cra.391b, 436a, And.4.27; δύο π ... τοιάδε, οἷον Κρατύλος καὶ Κρατύλου εἰκών Pl.Cra.432b; ὡς ἀργαλέον π. ἐστίν c. inf., Ar.Pl.1; οὐδὲ π. οὐθέν ἐστι παρὰ τὰ μεγέθη ..τὰ αἰσθητὰ κεχωρισμένον Arist. de An.432a3, cf. Mete.379a32, Ph.226b30, 227b28; διαμάχονται περὶ τοῦ λευκὸν ἢ μὴ λευκὸν εἶναι τὸ π. Plu.2.1109d, cf. 1112d; ἐξ ἀζωί̈ας καὶ ζωῆς συγκείμενον π. Porph.Sent.21: pl., τῶν π. ἀί̈διος ἔσσα Philol.6, cf. Democr.164, Arist.Xen.974a25, Pol.1252a24; τὰ μετέωρα π. Ar.Nu.228, cf. 250, 741; opp. ὀνόματα, Pl.Cra.39oe, D.9.15.

b. contemptuously, thing, creature, κακῷ πράγματι wretched creature, viz. the sophist, Pl.Prt.312c; τούτῳ τῷ π., viz. the demos, Id.Grg.520b; ὁ δῆμος ἀσταθμητότατον π. D.19.136; ἄμαχον π., of a woman, X. Cyr.6.1.36.

3. like πρᾶξις 1.2, ὄφελος 1, in Hdt., πρῆγμά ἐστι or ἐστί μοι, c. inf., it is advantageous for me, εὕρισκε π. οἱ εἶναι ἐλαύνειν 1.79, cf. 4.11: with a neg., εὕρισκέ οἱ οὐ π. εἶναι στρατεύεσθαι Id.7.12: also c. acc. et inf., οὐδὲν ἂν εἴη π. γνώμας ἐμὲ σοὶ ἀποφαίνεσθαι there will be no advantage or need, Id.1.207; π. ἂν ἦν μοῦνον the only thing needful, Id.7.130.

4. thing of consequence or importance, π. ποιήσασθαι [τι] ib.150; π. οὐδὲν ἐποιήσαντο Id.6.63; οὐδὲν π., ὦ Σώκρατες no matter, S., Pl.Grg.447b, cf. E.Med.451; ὡς ..οὐδὲν ὂν π., εἰ καὶ ἀποθάνοι Pl.Euthphr.4d; δῆλον ἦν ὅτι π. τι εἴη that there was something the matter, X.An.4.1.17.

b. π. ἐστί μοι it concerns me, σφίσι τε καὶ Ἀθηναίοισι εἶναι οὐδὲν π. they had nothing to do with the A., Hdt.5.84, cf. D.18.283; ᾧ μὴ π. μὴ εἰσίναι no admittance except on business, Sammelb.6152.22 (i B. C.): c. gen. rei, οἷς μηδὲν ἦν π. τοῦ πολέμου who were not concerned in the war, Plu.Pomp.65; τὸ σὸν τί ἐστι π.; what is your pursuit or business, what are you about? Pl. Ap.20c, cf. Alc.1.104d.

c. μέγα π. a man of consequence, D.35.15; τὸ μέγα π. ἐν τῇ πόλει Men.Sam.175; ἦν μέγιστον π. Δημοκήδης παρὰ βασιλέϊ he was made much of by the king, Hdt.3.132; π. μέγα φρέατος a fine large tank, Alex.179.

5. used of a battle, action, affair, ὡς οἱ σωθέντες ἐκ τοῦ π. ἀπέφυγον X.HG7.1.17.

6. τὸ π. the love-affair of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, Aeschin.1.132.

7. fact, opp. λόγος, ὄνομα, Arist. Top.146a3, SE175a8; πρὸς τὸ π. καὶ τὴν ἀλήθειαν Id.Ph.263a17: pl., οὐκ ἐχρῆν τῶν π. τὴν γλῶσσαν ἰσχύειν πλέον E.Hec.1188.

8. matter in hand, question, Hp.Acut.39; πρὸς τὸ π. Pl.Men.87a, Arist.APr.70a32, D.54.26; διαιρεῖν κατὰ τὸ π. Arist. Pol.1299b18; ἔξω τοῦ π., v. ἔξω 1.2b.

III. in pl., πράγματα,

1. circumstances, affairs, τὰ ἀνθρωπήϊα π. Hdt.1.207; ἐν εἰρήνῃ καὶ ἀγαθοῖς π. Th.3.82, cf. 1.89; τοῖς π. τέθνηκα τοῖς δ' ἔργοισιν οὔ by circumstances, not by acts, E.Hel.286; ἐν τοιούτοις π. X.Mem.2.7.2, An.2.1.16, etc.; δεινὸς πράγμασι χρῆσθαι D.1.3, cf. X.HG3.5.1; τύχη τὰ θνητῶν πράγματ', οὐκ εὐβουλία Chaerem.2; ἀποτυγχάνειν τῶν π. fail to prosper, X.Mem.4.2.28; the condition of a patient, τὰ τῶν νοσεύντων π. Hp.Prog.1 (also in sg., ἐξαπίνης ὅλῳ τῷ π. μεταβάλλειν Id.Acut. 35; so also poet., ποῦ ποτ' εἰμὶ πράγματος; S.Tr.375, cf.Aj.314).

2. state-affairs, τὰ πολιτικὰ π. Pl.Ap.31d; ἔστ' ἐν ἡμῖν τῆς πόλεως τὰ π. the fortunes of the state, Ar.Lys.32; a state or empire, τὰ Περσικὰ π. the Persian power, Hdt.3.137; τὰ Περσέων π. Id.7.50, etc.; διαπεπόρθηται τὰ Περσῶν π. A.Pers.714; ἐν ταῖς ναυσὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων τὰ π. ἐγένετο Th.1.74; μὴ ὥσπερ θεῷ νομίζετ' ἐκείνῳ τὰ παρόντα πεπηγέναι π. ἀθάνατα D.4.8, cf. 44, etc.; παρασπάσασθαί τι τῶν ὅλων π. Id.1.3; of government, καταλαμβάνειν τὰ π. Hdt.6.39, cf. Th.3.30 (Pass.); ἔχειν τὰ π. ib.62,72, cf. Hdt.6.83; κατέχειν τὰ π. Th.4.2; ἐς μέσον Πέρσῃσι καταθεῖναι τὰ π. Hdt.3.80; οἱ ἐν τοῖς π. those who are in power or office, Th.3.28, D.9.56, Arist.Pol.1307b10; οἱ ἐπὶ τοῖς π. ὄντες D.9.2; οἱ ἐπὶ τῶν π. Id.18.247, cf. Plb.3.69.4, LXX 1 Ma.3.32; ἐν τυραννίδι καὶ πλούτῳ καὶ πράγμασι Plu.2.150c; τριῶν ἀνδρῶν δημοσίων π. ἀποκαταστάσεως, = Lat. triumvir reipublicae constituendae, Sammelb. 4224.2 (i B. C.); κοινωνοὶ τῶν π. X.HG2.3.17; νεώτερα π. innovations, Lys.13.6, Isoc.7.59, etc., cf. Hdt.5.19; but εὐνούστατος τοῖς π. a friend to things as they are, Lys.12.65.

3. fortunes, cause, circumstances, Hdt.7.236, 237; κοινὰ π. E.IT1062; τέρας γὰρ ὁ βίος καὶ τὰ π. ἐστί μου Id.Hel.260; ἔρρει τἀμὰ π. X.Smp.1.15, cf. E.Alc.280: τὰ π. alone, one's all, one's fortunes, ἐν ᾧπέρ ἐστι πάντα μοι τὰ π. Ar.Ach. 474; = κτήματα, Hp.(Lex5?) ap.Erot.: in sg., φαῦλον γὰρ ἂν εἴη τὸ ἐμὸν π. Pl.Hp.Ma.286e, cf. Cri.53d, Ap.42a.

4. business, esp. lawbusiness, πρός τινα Antipho 6.12, Th.1.128; οὔτε ἐμαυτοῦ οὔτε ἀλλότρια π. πράξας Lys.12.3; δικῶν γὰρ οὐ δέομ' οὐδὲ πραγμάτων Ar.V.1426; πράγματα κἀντιγραφάς Id.Nu.471: metaph. in sg., πονηρὸν τὸ π. ἔχειν to have a bad case, Arist.Rh.1415b22.

5. in bad sense, trouble, annoyance, ἁπάντων αἰτίους τῶν π. Ar.Ach.310; πρήγματα ἔχειν, c. part., to have trouble about a thing, Hdt.7.147, cf. Pl.Tht.174b, etc.; π. ἔχειν ἐν τῷ δείπνῳ X.Cyr.1.3.4, etc.; π. λαμβάνειν Id.Lac.2.9; π. παρέχειν τινί to cause one trouble, Hdt.1.155, Ar.Pl.20, al.: c. inf., cause one the trouble of doing, Pl.Phd.115a, X.Cyr.4.5.46, Ar.V.313; πραγμάτων ..ἀπαλλαγείς Id.Ach.269 (lyr.), cf. Pl.Ap.41d, R.406e; ἄνευ πραγμάτων, σὺν πράγμασι, D.1.20, X.An.6.3.6: less freq.in sg., μηδὲν πρῆγμα παρέχειν Hdt.7.239.