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prĕmo, essi, essum, 3, v. a. [etym. dub.; cf. prelum], to press (class.).

I. Lit.: pede pedem alicui premere, Plaut. As. 4, 1, 30: et trepidae matres pressere ad pectora natos, Verg. A. 7, 518: veluti qui sentibus anguem Pressit humi nitens, id. ib. 2, 379: novercae Monstra manu premens, id. ib. 8, 288: pressit et inductis membra paterna rotis, i. e. drove her chariot over her father's body, Ov. Ib. 366: trabes Hymettiae Premunt columnas, press, rest heavily upon them, Hor. C. 2, 18, 3: premere terga genu alicujus, Ov. Am. 3, 2, 24: ubera plena, i. e. to milk, id. F. 4, 769: vestigia alicujus, to tread in, to follow one's footsteps, Tac. A. 2, 14: nudis pressit qui calcibus anguem, Juv. 1, 43: dente frena, to bite, to champ, Ov. M. 10, 704: ore aliquid, to chew, eat, id. ib. 5, 538; cf.: aliquid morsu, Lucr. 3, 663: presso molari, with compressed teeth, Juv. 5, 160: pressum lac, i. e. cheese, Verg. E. 1, 82.—In mal. part.: Hister Peucen premerat Antro, forced, Val. Fl. 8, 256: uxorem, Suet. Calig. 25.—Of animals: feminas premunt galli, Mart. 3, 57, 17.—

B. Transf.

1. Poet., to bear down upon, to touch: premere litora, Ov. M. 14, 416: litus, to keep close to the shore, Hor. C. 2, 10, 3: aëra, i. e. to fly, Luc. 7, 835.—

2. Poet., to hold fast, hold, firmly grasp: premere frena manu, Ov. M. 8, 37: ferrum, to grasp, Sil. 5, 670: capulum, id. 2, 615.—

3. Poet., to press a place with one's body, i. e. to sit, stand, lie, fall, or seat one's self on any thing: toros, Ov. H. 12, 30: sedilia, id. M. 5, 317: hoc quod premis habeto, id. ib. 5, 135: et pictam positā pharetram cervice premebat, id. ib. 2, 421: humum, to lie on the ground, id. Am. 3, 5, 16; cf. id. F. 4, 844: frondes tuo premis ore caducas, id. M. 9, 650; Sen. Hippol. 510.—

4. To cover, to conceal by covering (mostly poet.): aliquid terrā, to conceal, bury in the earth, Hor. Epod. 1, 33: nonumque prematur in annum, kept back, suppressed, id. A. P. 388: omne lucrum tenebris alta premebat humus, Ov. Am. 3, 8, 36: ossa male pressa, i. e. buried, id. Tr. 5, 3, 39; Plin. 2, 79, 81, 191; hence, to crown, to cover or adorn with any thing: ut premerer sacrā lauro, Hor. C. 3, 4, 18: molli Fronde crinem, Verg. A. 4, 147: canitiem galeā, id. ib. 9, 612: mitrā capillos, Ov. F. 4, 517; cf. Verg. A. 5, 556.—

5. To make, form, or shape any thing by pressing (poet.): quod surgente die mulsere horisque diurnis, Nocte premunt, they make into cheese, Verg. G. 3, 400: os fingit premendo, id. A. 6, 80: caseos, id. E. 1, 35: mollem terram, Vulg. Sap. 15, 7; Calp. Ecl. 5, 34.—

6. To press hard upon, bear down upon, to crowd, pursue closely: hostes de loco superiore, Caes. B. G. 7, 19: Pompeiani nostros premere et instare coeperunt, id. B. C. 3, 46: hac fugerent Graii, premeret Trojana juventus, Verg. A. 1, 467: Pergamenae naves cum adversarios premerent acrius, Nep. Hann. 11, 5: hinc Rutulus premit, et murum circumsonat armis, Verg. A. 8, 473: obsidione urbem, Caes. B. G. 7, 32.—Of the pursuit or chase of animals: ad retia cervum, Verg. G. 3, 413: spumantis apri cursum clamore, id. A. 1, 324: bestias venatione, Isid. 10, 282.—

7. To press down, burden, load, freight: nescia quem premeret, on whose back she sat, Ov. M. 2, 869: tergum equi, id. ib. 8, 34; 14, 343: et natat exuviis Graecia pressa suis, Prop. 4, 1, 114 (5, 1, 116): pressae carinae, Verg. G. 1, 303: pressus membra mero, Prop. 2, 12 (3, 7), 42: magno et gravi onere armorum pressi, Caes. B. G. 4, 24: auro phaleras, to adorn, Stat. Th. 8, 567.—

8. To press into, force in, press upon: (caprum) dentes in vite prementem, Ov. F. 1, 355: presso sub vomere, Verg. G. 2, 356; cf.: presso aratro, Tib. 4, 1, 161: alte ensem in corpore, Stat. Th. 11, 542: et nitidas presso pollice finge comas, Prop. 3, 8 (4, 9), 14: et cubito remanete presso, leaning upon, Hor. C. 1, 27, 8. —

b. To make with any thing (poet.): aeternā notā, Ov. F. 6, 610: littera articulo pressa tremente, id. H. 10, 140: multā via pressa rotā, id. ib. 18, 134.—

9. To press down, let down, cause to sink down, to lower: nec preme, nec summum molire per aethera currum, Ov. M. 2, 135: humanaeque memor sortis, quae tollit eosdem, Et premit, id. Tr. 3, 11, 67: mundus ut ad Scythiam Rhiphaeasque arduus arces Consurgit, premitur Libyae devexus in Austros, sinks down, Verg. G. 1, 240; Sen. Herc. Fur. 155. —

b. In partic.

(a). To set, plant: virgulta per agros, Verg. G. 2, 346; 26.—

(b). To make or form by pressing down, to make any thing deep, to dig: vestigio leviter presso, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 24, 53; cf. (trop.): vestigia non pressa leviter, sed fixa, id. Sest. 5, 13: sulcum premere, to draw a furrow, Verg. A. 10, 296: fossam transversam, inter montes pressit (al. percussit), Front. Strat. 1, 5: fossa pressa, Plin. Ep. 10, 69, 4: cavernae in altitudinem pressae, Curt. 5, 1, 28.—

(g). To strike to the ground, to strike down: tres famulos, Verg. A. 9, 329: paucos, Tac. H. 4, 2.—

10. To press closely, compress, press together, close: oculos, Verg. A. 9, 487: alicui fauces, Ov. M. 12, 509: laqueo collum, to strangle, Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 37: angebar ceu guttura forcipe pressus, Ov. M. 9, 78: presso gutture, compressed, Verg. G. 1, 410; cf.: siquidem unius praecordia pressit ille (boletus) senis, i. e. stopped his breath, Juv. 6, 621: quibus illa premetur Per somnum digitis, choked, id. 14, 221: amplexu presso, united, in close embrace, Sen. Oedip. 192: oscula jungere pressa, to exchange kisses, Ov. H. 2, 94; so, pressa basia, Mart. 6, 34, 1: presso gradu incedere, in close ranks, foot to foot, Liv. 28, 14: pede presso, id. 8, 8.—

b. In partic.

(a). To shorten, tighten, draw in: pressis habenis, Verg. A. 11, 600 (cf.: laxas dure habenas, id. ib. 1, 63).—

(b). To keep short, prune: Calenā falce vitem, Hor. C. 1, 31, 9: luxuriem falce, Ov. M. 14, 628: falce premes umbras (i. e. arbores umbrantes), Verg. G. 1, 157; 4, 131: molle salictum, Calp. Ecl. 5, 110.—

(g). To check, arrest, stop: premere sanguinem, Tac. A. 15, 64: vestigia pressit, Verg. A. 6, 197: attoniti pressere gradum, Val. Fl. 2, 424' dixit, pressoque obmutuit ore, was silent, Verg. A. 6, 155.—

11. To press out, bring out by pressure: tenerā sucos pressere medullā, Luc. 4, 318; cf.: (equus) collectumque fremens volvit sub naribus ignem, Verg. ap. Sen. Ep. 95, 68, and id. G. 3, 85 Rib.—

12. To frequent: feci ut cotidie praesentem me viderent, habitavi in oculis, pressi forum, Cic. Planc. 27, 66.—

II. Trop.

A. To press, press upon, oppress, overwhelm, weigh down; to urge, drive, importune, pursue, to press close or hard, etc. (class.): ego istum pro suis factis pessumis pessum premam, Plaut. Most. 5, 2, 49 Lorenz ad loc.: quae necessitas eum tanta premebat, ut, etc., Cic. Rosc. Am. 34, 97: ea, quae premant, et ea, quae impendeant, id. Fam. 9, 1, 2: aerumnae, quae me premunt, Sall. J. 14, 22: pressus gravitate soporis, bound by heavy, deep sleep, Ov. M. 15, 21: cum aut aere alieno, aut magnitudine tributorum, aut injuriā potentium premuntur, Caes. B. G. 6, 13: invidia et odio populi premi, Cic. de Or. 1, 53, 228: premi periculis, id. Rep. 1, 6, 10: cum a me premeretur, id. Verr. 2, 1, 53, 139; cf.: aliquem verbo, id. Tusc. 1, 7, 13: criminibus veris premere aliquem, Ov. M. 14, 401: cum a plerisque ad exeundum premeretur, exire noluit, was pressed, urged, importuned, Nep. Ages. 6, 1: a Pompeii procuratoribus sescentis premi coeptus est, Cic. Att. 6, 1, 3: numina nulla premunt; mortali urgemur ab hoste, Verg. A. 10, 375: premere reum voce, vultu, Tac. A. 3, 67: crimen, to pursue obstinately, Quint. 7, 2, 12: confessionem, to force a confession from one, id. 7, 1, 29: argumentum etiam atque etiam, to pursue steadily, Cic. Tusc. 1, 36, 88: ancipiti mentem formidine pressus, Verg. A. 3, 47: maerore pressa, Sen. Oct. 103: veritate pressus negare non potuit, overcome, overpowered, Lact. 4, 13.—

B. Transf.

1. To repress, hide, conceal (mostly poet.): dum nocte premuntur, Verg. A. 6, 827: curam sub corde, id. ib. 4, 332: odium, Plin. Pan. 62: iram, Tac. A. 6, 50: pavorem et consternationem mentis vultu, id. ib. 13, 16: interius omne secretum, Sen. Ep. 3, 4: dolorem silentio, Val. Max. 3, 3, 1 ext.; cf. silentia, Sil. 12, 646: aliquid ore, Verg. A. 7, 103: jam te premet nox, Hor. C. 1, 4, 16.—

2. To lower, diminish, undervalue, disparage, depreciate: premendorum superiorum arte sese extollebat, Liv. 22, 12: arma Latini, Verg. A. 11, 402: opuscula ( = deprimere atque elevare), Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 36: famam alicujus, Tac. A. 15, 49: premere ac despicere, Quint. 11, 1, 16: premere tumentia, humilia extollere, id. ib. 10, 4, 1.—

b. To surpass, exceed: facta premant annos, Ov. M. 7, 449: ne prisca vetustas Laude pudicitiae saecula nostra premat, id. P. 3, 1, 116: quantum Latonia Nymphas Virgo premit, Stat. S. 1, 2, 115.—

c. To rule (poet.): dicione premere populos, Verg. A. 7, 737: imperio, id. ib. 1, 54: Mycenas Servitio premet, id. ib. 1, 285.—

3. To suppress, pull down, humble, degrade: quae (vocabula) nunc situs premit, Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 118: nec premendo alium me extulisse velim, Liv. 22, 59, 10; cf. id. 39, 41, 1: premebat reum crimen, id. 3, 13, 1.—

4. To compress, abridge, condense: haec enim, quae dilatantur a nobis, Zeno sic premebat, Cic. N. D. 2, 7, 20.—

5. To check, arrest, repress, restrain: cursum ingenii tui, Brute, premit haec importuna clades civitatis, Cic. Brut. 97, 332: sub imo Corde gemitum, Verg. A. 10, 464: vocem, to be silent, id. ib. 9, 324: sermones vulgi, to restrain, Tac. A. 3, 6.—

6. To store up, lay up in the mind, muse upon: (vocem) ab ore Eripuit pater ac stupefactus numine pressit, Verg. A. 7, 119.—Hence, pressus, a, um, P. a.

I. Moderate, slow, suppressed, kept down.

A. Lit.: presso pede eos retro cedentes principes recipiebant, Liv. 8, 8, 9: presso gradu, id. 28, 14, 14; cf.: pressoque legit vestigia gressu, Ov. M. 3, 17.—

B. Trop.

1. Of the voice or manner, subdued: haec cum pressis et flebilibus modis, qui totis theatris maestitiam inferant, Cic. Tusc. 1, 44, 106.—

2. Of color, lowered, depressed; hence, dark, gloomy: color pressus, Pall. 4, 13, 4: color viridi pressior, Plin. 35, 6, 13, 32: spadices pressi, Serv. Verg. G. 3, 82.—

II. Esp., of an orator or of speech.

A. Compressed, concise, plain, without ornament (class.): fiunt pro grandibus tumidi, pressis exiles, fortibus temerarii, etc., Quint. 10, 2, 16: cum Attici pressi et integri, contra Asiani inflati et inanes haberentur, id. 12, 10, 18.—Of style: pressa et tenuia, et quae minimum ab usu cotidiano recedant, Quint. 10, 1, 102: pressus et demissus stilus, Plin. Ep. 1, 8, 5; Quint. 4, 2, 117.—Comp.: in concionibus pressior, et circumscriptior, et adductior, more moderate, keeping more within bounds, Plin. Ep. 1, 16, 4.—

B. Close, exact, accurate: Thucydides ita verbis aptus et pressus, ut, Cic. de Or. 2, 13, 56: quis te fuit umquam in partiundis rebus pressior? more exact, more accurate, id. Fragm. ap. Non. 364, 24: sicuti taxare pressius crebriusque est, quam tangere, Gell. 2, 6, 5: quod (periculum) observandum pressiore cautelā censeo, stricter, greater, App. M. 5, p. 160, 36: cogitationes pressiores, id. ib. 5, p. 163, 32.—So of sounds, precise, intelligible: (lingua) vocem profusam fingit atque sonos vocis distinctos et pressos facit, Cic. N. D. 2, 59, 149.—Hence, adv.: pressē, with pressure, violently (class.): artius pressiusque conflictata, Atei. Capito ap. Gell. 10, 6, 2.—

B. Closely, tightly.

1. Lit.: vites pressius putare, Pall. 12, 9: pressius colla radere, Veg. Vet. 1, 56.—

2. Trop.

a. Of pronunciation, shortly, neatly, trimly: loqui non aspere, non vaste, non rustice, sed presse, et aequabiliter, et leniter, Cic. de Or. 3, 12, 45; id. Off. 1, 37, 133.—

b. Of the mode of expression, etc., concisely, not diffusely: definire presse et anguste, Cic. Or. 33, 117: abundanter dicere, an presse, Quint. 8, 3, 40: pressius et astrictius scripsi, Plin. Ep. 3, 18, 10.—

(b). Without ornament, simply: unum (genus oratorum) attenuate presseque, alterum sublate ampleque dicentium, Cic. Brut. 55, 202: aliquid describere modo pressius, modo elatius, Plin. Ep. 4, 14, 3.—

(g). Closely, exactly, correctly, accurately: mihi placet agi subtilius, et pressius, Cic. Fin. 4, 10, 24: definiunt pressius, id. Tusc. 4, 7, 14: anquisitius, et exactius pressiusque disserere, Gell. 1, 3, 21.