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πρίν, Adv. and Conj., before, until. [πρῐν 19 times in Hom., Il.2.344, al.; πρῑν in Il.6.81, 13.172, al.; once written πρείν, Leg.Gort.7.40, but πρίν IG12.60.11, 94.9, 114.46, etc.; Trag. and Com. always πρῐν (πρίν γ' must be read in Ar.Ach.176).]

A. Adv. of Time, before, either in the sense of sooner or in that of formerly, erst (implying duration up to a certain time):

I. of future time, with fut. Indic., πρίν μιν καὶ γῆρας ἔπεισιν Il.1.29, cf. 18.283, Od.2.198, etc.: with Subj. = fut., πρὶν καὶ κακὸν ἄλλο πάθῃσθα Il.24.551: with Opt. and κεν, πρίν κεν ἀνιηθεὶς σὴν πατρίδα γαῖαν ἵκοιο Od.3.117, cf. 11.330, 14.155, Ar.Pax1076, 1112: with Opt., Il. 24.800: with Imper., 9.250: with Inf. (expressing a wish), 2.413, (expressing an oath) Od.4.254.

II. of past time,

1. formerly, once, πρὶν μέν μοι ὑπέσχετο .., νῦν δὲ .. Il.2.112, v.l. in 9.19, cf. 23.827; πρὶν μὲν πόσιν ἐσθλὸν ἀπώλεσα Od.4.724, cf. 3.408.

2. formerly (up to a certain point), before, in this sense freq. with Art., τὸ πρίν γ' ἐκέκαστο Il.5.54; τὸ πρίν γε .., νῦν δὲ .. 13.105; νῦν δὲ ..τὸ πρίν γε 16.208, cf. A.Pr.443, Hdt.1.129: without Art., τὰς ἐπιστήμας ἅς ποτε καὶ π. εἴχομεν Pl.Phd.75e: with ellipsis of part. γενόμενος, τὰ π. πελώρια (sc. γενόμενα) the giants of old, A.Pr.151 (lyr.); τοῦ π. Αἰγέως Aegeus gone before, S.OC69; ἐν τῷ π. χρόνῳ Id.Ph.1224; ἐν τοῖς π. λόγοις Th.2.62: with part. expressed, τὸ π. γενόμενον τέρας Hdt.8.37; τοὺς πρὶν φυλαττομένους Pl.R.547c, etc.

3. hitherto, π. μέν .. B.12.114; until that time, and so meanwhile, Id.15.13.

4. sts. folld. by gen., π. ὥρας Pi.P.4.43; π. ἀνηκέστου πάθους J.BJ1.6.1; π. γενέσεως Thd.Su.42; π. τῆς συνόδου S.E.M.9.371; π. φάους Arr.An. 3.18.6; π. τοῦ βλέψαι, π. τοῦ ἀποθανεῖν, S.E.P.7.162, v.l. in LXX To. 14.15; also πρὶν οὗ c. inf., SIG953.16 (Calymna, ii B.C.); c. indic., Test. ap. D.46.21.

B. Conj. before, ere: freq. following an antecedent clause with adverbial π. (chiefly in Ep.), or its equivalents πρότερον, πρόσθεν, πάρος (poet.), esp. with negat., οὐδὲ π... , π... Il.1.98,7.481, Od.19.475; μὴ π... , π... Il.2.355, E.HF605; π... , π... Il.2.348, 8.453, Od.19.586; οὐ πρότερον .., π ... Ar.Ec.620, And.4.17, D.9.61; μὴ πρότερον ..π ... S.Ph.199 (anap.), Pl.Phd.62c, Aeschin.1.10; πρότερον .., π... And.4.1, X.Cyr.5.2.9; οὐ πρόσθεν.., π... Od. 17.9, X.Cyr.1.4.23; μὴ πρόσθεν .., π... Id.An.1.1.10; πρόσθε . , π. τυχεῖν Pi.P.2.92; οὐ πάρος.., π... Od.2.128, Il.5.219; preceded by φθάνω, 16.322, Antipho 1.29, Th.4.79, 104, 6.97, 8.12, X.An.4.1.21, Cyr.2.4.25; sts. folld. by ἤ, οὐ ..πρίν γ' ἀποπαύσεσθαι πρίν γ' ἢ ἕτερόν γε πεσόντα αἵματος ἆσαι Ἄρηα Il.5.288, cf. 22.266, Hdt.1.136, 165, al.; dub. and perh. always corrupt in Att. and X., Th.5.61, Lys.6.11, Isoc.4.19 (v.l.), Lycurg.128, Aeschin.2.132 (v.l.), X.Cyr.1.4.23, An. 4.5.1, but freq. in later Greek, LXX Ge.29.26, etc.

I. c. inf., the prevailing constr. in Hom., after positive and negative clauses alike: in Att. mostly after positive clauses, and always used with them when the action does not or is not to take place: the tense is,

I. regularly aor.,

a. after a positive clause, ναῖε δὲ Πήδαιον, πρὶν ἐλθεῖν υἷας Ἀχαιῶν Il.13.172, cf. 8.453, 16.322, Od.1.210; Ζεὺς ὀλέσειε βίην, πρὶν ἥβης μέτρον ἱκέσθαι 4.668, cf. Il.6.465, 24.245, Pi.P.2.92.3.9, N.8.19, Hdt.6.119, A.Pers.712, Ag.1539 (anap.). S.Ant.120 (lyr.), Tr.396, E.Alc.281, Ar.Eq.258, al., Antipho 5.67, Th.1.125, X.An.4.1.7, Pl.Prt.350b, al.; after negat. questions which expect a posit. answer, E.Andr.1069, Ion524, Rh.684, Ar.Ra.481, etc.

b. after a negat. clause, οὐδ' ὅ γε πρὶν Δαναοῖσιν ἀεικέα λοιγὸν ἀπώσει, πρίν γ' ἀπὸ πατρὶ φίλῳ δόμεναι ἑλικώπιδα κούρην Il.1.98, cf. 19.423, Od.2.128, 4.747: after Hom. a negat. antecedent is commonly folld. by πρίν with finite Verb (v. infr. 11); but Inf. is found where π. precedes, π. ἰδεῖν δ', οὐδεὶς μάντις S.Aj.1419 (anap.); π. μὲν γὰρ κριθῆναι, οὐ ῥᾴδιον ἦν εἰδέναι τὰς αἰτίας And.4.8; π. νικῆσαι .., οὐκ ἦν .. Lys.19.28; π. δὲ ταῦτα πρᾶξαι, μὴ σκοπεῖτε D.3.12, cf. Lycurg. 135; also, οὔτε ..π. ἱδρῶσαι δεῖπνον ᾑρεῖτο X.Cyr.8.1.38; also after Verbs of fearing (the positive being the thing dreaded), ὅταν ..δεδίωσι μὴ πρότερόν τι μάθῃς, π. τέλος ἐπιθεῖναι τοῖς πραττομένοις Isoc.5.70, cf. E.Fr.453.6, S.Tr. 632; in unfulfilled conditions and wishes, οὔθ' ὁ Πλούτωνος κύων οὔθ' οὑπὶ κώπῃ ψυχοπομπὸς ἂν Χάρων ἔσχον π. εἰς φῶς σὸν καταστῆσαι βίον E.Alc.362, cf. Rh.61; otherwise not common, ὤφθην οὐδεπώποτε π. ταύτην τὴν συμφορὰν γενέσθαι Lys.19.55; οὐδὲ παύσεται χόλου .., π. κατασκῆψαί τινα E.Med.94, cf. HF605; καί μοι μὴ θορυβήσῃ μηδεὶς π. ἀκοῦσαι D.5.15, cf. X.Oec.4.24: after neg. opt. with ἄν, οὕτω γένοιτ' ἂν οὐδ' ἂν ἔκβασις στρατοῦ καλή, π. ὅρμῳ ναῦν θρασυνθῆναι a.Supp.772, cf. Pl.Lg.769e: after a past tense (in orat. obliq.), ὤμοσαν μὴ π. ἐς Φώκαιαν ἥξειν, π. ἢ τὸν μύδρον τοῦτον ἀναφανῆναι Hdt.1.165, cf. 4.9, Th. 7.50, X.HG6.5.23, Pl.Phd.61a.

2. also pres., to convey a special sense of continuance, effort, or the like , 'before undertaking to', 'before proceeding to', π. ἐξοπλίζειν Ἄρη A.Supp.702 (lyr.), cf. Ag. 1067; π. νυν τὰ πλείον' ἱστορεῖν .., ἔξελθε S.OC36, cf. El.20; π. κλαίειν τινά E.Andr.577, cf. Or.1095; π. λέγειν Ar.Th.380, cf. Ach.383, Hdt. 8.3, And.4.1, Th.3.24, Pl.Lg.666a, X.Cyr.2.4.25, Mem.1.2.40, etc.

3. also perf., after a fut., π. τόδ' ἐξηντληκέναι E.Med.79; after pres. or impf., Id.El.1069, cf. Hdt.3.25; π... , τί μέλλετ' ..; E.Ph.1145; π. καὶ τεθύσθαι Ar.Av.1034, cf. V.1156, Pax375, Lys.322 (lyr.), Ra.1185, X. An.4.1.21, Pl.Tht.164c, Prt.320a, etc.; with ἥκειν in pf. sense, Hdt.6.116; οὐ βουλόμενος διαγωνίσασθαι π. οἱ τοὺς βοηθοὺς ἥκειν Th.5.10.

II. with a finite Verb:

1. with Ind., chiefly aor.: not in Hom. (first in h.Ap.357), who uses Ind. only with πρίν γ' ὅτε, πρίν γ' ὅτε δή, after both posit. and neg. clauses, ἠλώμην .., πρίν γ' ὅτε ..ἤγαγες Od.13.322; πρίν γ' ὅτε δή με ..κάλεσσεν 23.43, cf. Il.12.437; οὐδέ κεν ἡμέας ἄλλο διέκρινεν .., πρίν γ' ὅτε δὴ θανάτοιο ..νέφος ἀμφεκάλυψεν Od.4.180: rarely with impf., οὐδ' ὧς τοῦ θυμὸν ..ἔπειθον, πρίν γ' ὅτε δὴ θάλαμος πύκ' ἐβάλλετο (began to be hit) Il.9.588: freq. after Hom., with aor.,

a. after neg. clauses: of a fact in the past, οὐκ ἦν ἀλέξημ' οὐδὲν .., πρίν γ' ἐγώ σφισιν ἔδειξα A.Pr.481; οὐ πρότερον ἀπανέστη ..Μαρδόνιος, πρὶν ἤ σφεας ὑποχειρίους ἐποιήσατο Hdt.6.45; ἀλλ' οὐδ' ὣς ..ἠξίωσαν νεώτερόν τι ποιεῖν ἐς αὐτο'̀ν .., πρίν γε δὴ αὐτοῖς ..μηνυτὴς γίγνεται (histor. pres. = aor.) Th.1.132, cf. 3.101, 5.61, Hdt.6.79, Ar.Av.700, X.Cyr.1.4.23,4.5.13 (histor. pres.), HG5.4.58, etc.; once in Pl., Phdr.266a; as part of an unfulfilled condition, οὐκ ἂν κατέσχε δῆμον οὐδ' ἐπαύσατο π. ἀνταράξας πῖαρ ἐξεῖλεν γάλα Sol. ap. Arist.Ath.12.5; οὐκ ἂν ἐσκεψάμεθα πρότερον .., πρὶν ἐζητήσαμεν Pl.Men.86d, cf. Tht.165e; χρῆν τοίνυν Αεπτίνην μὴ πρότερον τιθέναι τὸν ἑαυτοῦ νόμον, πρὶν τοῦτον ἔλυσε γραψάμενος D.20.96; after verbs implying a neg., ἀμφιγνοεῖν X.An.2.5.33, θαυμάζειν Th.1.51, λανθάνειν Id.3.29; also with impf., οὔπω ᾔδει ..π. ἐν τῷ κακῷ ἦν Antipho 1.19, cf. And.4.17, D.9.61.

b. after posit. clauses (both combined, A.Pr.481, Th.1.118), with the sense until, ἠγόμην δ' ἀνὴρ ἀστῶν μέγιστος .., πρίν μοι τύχη τοιάδ' ἐπέστη S.OT 776; σπουδαὶ δὲ λόγων ἦσαν ἴσαι πως, πρὶν ..πείθει (histor. pres.) E. Hec.131 (anap.); πρίν γ' ὁρᾷ Id.Med.1173; freq. folld. by δή, π. δή τις ἐφθέγξατο Id.Andr.1147; τὰ περὶ τοὺς ἀγῶνας κατελύθη (neg. idea) ὑπὸ ξυμφορῶν, πρὶν δὴ οἱ Ἀθηναῖοι τότε τὸν ἀγῶνα ἐποίησαν Th.3.104, cf.7.39 (histor. pres.), 71.

2. with Subj. only after negs. or equiv. of neg., = ἕως or ἢν μή (in Isoc.4.173 ἢν μή and πρὶν ἄν are used almost as synonyms); οὐ καταδυσόμεθ', ἀχνύμενοί περ .., πρὶν μόρσιμον ἦμαρ ἐπέλθῃ Od.10.175; μή πω καταδύσεο .., πρίν γ' ἐμὲ ..ἴδηαι Il.18.135, cf. 190, 24.781; ἀλλ' ὄμοσον μὴ μητρὶ φίλῃ τάδε μυθήσασθαι, πρίν γ' ὅτ' ἂν ἑνδεκάτη τε δυωδεκάτη τε γένηται Od.2.374, cf. 4.477: in Prose usu. πρὶν ἄν (πρίν κα Berl.Sitzb.1927.161 (Cyrene)), rarely π. alone, as also πρὶν ἤ:

a. generally with aor., to express an action preceding the action of the anteced. clause, the Verb in which is fut. (or some equiv. of the fut.) or imper., οὐ γαμέεται παρθένος οὐδεμία, πρὶν ἂν τῶν πολεμίων ἄνδρα ἀποκτείνῃ Hdt.4.117, cf. 1.82 (v.l.), 3.109 (v.l.); νῦν δ' οὐδέν ἐστι τέρμα μοι προκείμενον μόχθων (the sense here is fut.), πρὶν ἂν Ζεὺς ἐκπέσῃ τυραννίδος A.Pr.756, cf. 166 (lyr.), 177 (anap.); οὐ γάρ ποτ' ἔξει τῆσδε τῆς χώρας, πρὶν ἂν ..στήσῃς ἄγων S.OC909, cf. 48, 1041, OT1529, etc.; οὐκ ἂν ἐκμάθοις .., πρὶν ἂν θάνῃ τις Id.Tr.2; οὐκ ἄπειμι πρὸς δόμους πάλιν, πρὶν ἄν σε ..ἔξω βάλω E.Med.276, cf. 680, Alc.1145, IA324, IT19,1302; μὴ προκαταγίγνωσκε .., π. ἄν γ' ἀκούσῃς ἀμφοτέρων Ar.V.920, cf. Ach.176, 230, X.Hier.6.13, Cyr.1.2.8, An.1. 1.10, 5.7.12, Pl.Phdr.228c, La.187e (ἂν added in later codd.), etc.; μηδέν' ὀλβίζειν π. ἀ'̀ν τέρμα τοῦ βίου περάσῃ S.OT1529 (troch.); οὐχὶ μὴ παύσησθε, π. ἄν ..ὑμᾶς τις ἐκτραχηλίσῃ Ar.Lys.704: π. without ἄν, μὴ στέναζε, π. μάθῃς S.Ph.917, cf. Ant.619 (lyr.), Aj.742, 965, Tr.608, 946; οὐκ ἔστιν ὅστις αὐτὸν ἐξαιρήσεται .., π. γυναῖκ' ἐμοὶ μεθῇ E.Alc. 849, cf. Or.1218, 1357 (lyr.); π. χαρίσωνται Ar.Ec.629 (s.v.l.); οὐ γὰρ δή σφεας ἀπίει τῆς ἀποικίης, πρὶν δὴ ἀπίκωνται Hdt.4.157; π. διαγνῶσι Th.6.29; π ... βεβαιωσώμεθα ib.10 (dub.l.); πρὶν ἀνάγκην τινὰ θεὸς ἐπιπέμψῃ Pl.Phd.62c codd.; π. ἐξετάσωσιν Hyp.Eux.4: πρὶν ἤ (never with ἄν), π. ἢ ἀνορθώσωσι Hdt.1.19, cf. 136, Pl.Ti.57b, etc.: with neg. implied, ὁ δὲ ἀδικέει ἀναπειθόμενος π. ἢ ἀτρεκέως ἐκμάθῃ Hdt.7.10.ή; αἰσχρὸν ἡγοῦμαι πρότερον παύσασθαι, π. ἂν ..ψηφίσησθε Lys. 22.4; ὅστις οὖν οἴεται τοὺς ἄλλους πράξειν τι .., π. ἂν ..διαλλάξῃ, λίαν ἁπλῶς ἔχει Isoc.4.16 (where ὅστις οὖν οἴεται = οὐ δεῖ οὔεσθαι, as is shown by ἀλλὰ δεῖ in the next sentence, cf. D.38.24).

b. less freq. (never in Hom.) with pres. subj.: μήπω π. ἂν τῶν ἡμετέρων ἀί̈ῃς (the Verb has no aor.) μύθων S.Ph.1409 (anap.); ὁ νομοθέτης τὰ διδασκαλεῖα ἀνοίγειν ἀπαγορεύει μὴ πρότερον π. ἂν ὁ ἥλιος ἀνίσχῃ Aeschin.1.10, cf. Antipho 1.29, X.Cyr.2.2.8, Pl.Phdr.271c.

3. πρίν with Opt.:

a. representing subj. after histor. tenses, οὐκ ἔθελεν φεύγειν π. πειρήσαιτ' Ἀχιλῆος Il.21.580; πρίν γ' ὅτε, as with subj., 9.488; ἔδοξέ μοι μὴ σῖγα π. φράσαιμί σοι τὸν πλοῦν ποεῖσθαι S. Ph.551, cf. Th.3.22, X.Cyr.1.4.14, HG6.5.19 (cf. 2.4.18), An.1.2.2, Pl.Ap.36c, etc.

b. by assimilation, ὄλοιο μήπω π. μάθοιμι S.Ph. 961, cf. Tr.657 (lyr.); οὐδὲ γὰρ εἰδείης (potential opt.) ..π. πειρηθείης Thgn.126; after opt. with ἄν, οὐκ ἂν πρότερον ὁρμήσειε π. βεβαιώσαιτο Pl.Lg.799d, cf. S.OT505 (lyr.).

4. π. ἄν c. opt. is doubtful, and (if not corrupt) due to the change required by orat. obl., ἀπαγορευόντων τῶν φίλων τῶν ἐμῶν μὴ ἀποκτείνειν τὸν ἄνδρα, πρὶν ἄν ἐγὼ ἔλθοιμι Antipho 5.34 (s.v.l.), cf. X.HG2.3.48, 2.4.18.

5. without a Verb, πρὶν ὥρη (sc. γένηται) Od.15.394.