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πρόσθεν, and in Poets πρόσθε, also in Ion. Prose (Hdt.1.11, al., cf. ἐπίπροσθε); Dor. and Aeol. πρόσθα A.D.Adv.153.20, E.M.424.12 (in elision πρόσθ', Alcm.73, Sapph.Supp.1.5); Dor. also πρόθεν (cf. ὄπιθεν), Greg.Cor.p.222S.: Adv.

A. as Prep. with gen.:

I. of Place or Space, before, στῆ πρόσθ' αὐτοῖο Il.5.170; πεζὸς πρόσθ' ἵππων 13.385, cf. 392, etc.; κατὰ τεύχε' ἔθηκε πρόσθεν Ἀχιλλῆος 19.13; π. ποδῶν Od.22.4, cf. Il.23.877; ἐκ δὲ τὼ ἀί̈ξαντε πυλάων π. μαχέσθην before, i.e. outside, 12.145, cf. 9.473; νῆσος ..π. Σαλαμῖνος τόπων A.Pers.447; π. Μυρμιδόνων πολεμιζέμεν in front of them, at their head, Il.16.220; ἐν τῷ π. τοῦ στρατεύματος in front of .., X.Cyr.5.3.52; εἰς τὸ π. τῶν ὅπλων ἐκαθέζοντο Id.An.3.1.33; εἰς τὸ π. τινῶν θεῖναί τι ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν Pl.R.618a: with collat. notion of defence, [σάκος] πρόσθε στέρνοιο φέρων Il.7.224; στὰς πρόσθεν νέκυος 16.321; τάων οὔτοι π. ἵσταμαι I defend them not, 4.54: hence, for, on behalf of, π. φίλων τοκέων ἀλόχων τε καὶ υἱῶν 21.587, cf. 16.833; ὅς τε ἑῆς π. πόλιος λαῶν τε πέσῃσιν Od.8.524.

2. with Verbs of motion, π. ἕθεν φεύγοντα Il.5.56, 80, 20.402; π. δὲ κί' αὐτοῦ 15.307.

3. metaph., οὐδὲν ἐς π. κακῶν E.Hec.961: of preference, ἄγειν τινὰ π. τινός Id.Ba.225; π. τιθέναι τί τινος Id.Hec.129 (anap.), cf. IG22.1299.58; αἰσχρὰ π. τοῦ καλοῦ ζητεῖν E.Fr.659.7.

II. of Time, before, πρόσθ' ἄλλων Il.2.359, cf.S.Ph.778; τοῖιν δ' ἔγνω π. first of the twain, Il.13.66, cf. Hes.Th. 746; ἐμοῦ π. A.Pers.529; τοῦ χρόνου π. θανοῦμαι S.Ant.462; π. ἑσπέρας X.Cyr.7.5.43.—
The gen. sts. stands before πρόσθεν, Il.4.54, etc., cf. supr. When it seems to be folld. by a dat., this dat. must be connected with the Verb, and πρόσθεν taken as Adv., v. infr. B. 1.1.

B. as Adv.:

I. of Place or Space, before, in front, π. λέων ὄπιθεν δὲ δράκων Il.6.181, Hes.Th.323; π. δέ οἱ δόρυ τ' ἔσχε καὶ ἀσπίδα Il.5.300, cf. 315; π. δέ οἱ ποίησε γαλήνην Od.5.452; πρόσθ' ὁρόων θάνατον Il.20.481; ὁ π. the front rank man, X.Cyr.2.2.8; τὰ π. ib.6.3.2; τὰ π. (sc. σκέλη) the forelegs (of a horse), Id.Eq.1.12; ἡ χώρα ἡ π. Plb. 3.80.3; προῆγε εἰς τὸ π. on, forward, Id.4.66.5; ἀεὶ τοῦ π. ὀρεγόμενοι Id.3.84.12: with collat. notion of defence, π. σάκεα σχέθον Il.4.113; ἥ τοι π. στᾶσα βέλος ἄμυνεν ib.129.

2. with Verbs of motion, before, in front, π. ἔφευγε 22.158; ἥ οἱ π. ἰοῦσα 20.95; π. ἡγεμονεύειν Od.22.400, 24.155; ἵππους π. βαλεῖν, v. βάλλω A.11.5; ἐς τὸ πρόσθε παριέναι forward, Hdt.8.89; πάριτ' εἰς τὸ π. Ar.Ach.43; εἰς τὸ π. προί̈ωμεν Pl.R.437a, etc.; μηδεμίαν αἰσχύνην π. ποιεῖσθαι allow to stand in the way, Id.Lg.732b.

3. metaph., εἰς τὸ π. ἔτι ζητήσαντες Id.Sph.258c; τοὺς ὄπισθεν εἰς τὸ π. ἄξομεν S.Aj.1249.

II. of Time, before, formerly, erst, οὗ καὶ π. ἀρίστη φαίνετο βουλή Il.7.325, etc.; οὔποτε π. S.Aj.318; οὔπω π. X.An.5.4.18; ἔτι π. Pl.Sph.242d; σμικρῷ π. Id.Lg.969b; οἱ π. ἄνδρες the men of old, Il.9.524; τοῦ π. Κάδμου τοῦ πάλαι τ' Ἀγήνορος S.OT268; ὁ π. γεννηθείς Id.OC375; ἡ π. the elder, E.Ph.58; of things, οἱ π. πόνοι the former, earlier labours, A.Supp.52 (lyr.); ἁ π. ἱππεία S.El.504 (lyr.); ὁ π. λόγος Id.OT851; ἡ π. ἡμέρα X.An.2.3.1, etc.; τὰ π. what was said above, Pl.Phdr.238b; also τὸ π., as Adv., formerly, Il.23.583, Od.4.688; ταὐτὰ τῷ π. the same as before, Pl.Phdr.241b; τὰ π. A. Ag.19.

C. folld. by a Particle, πρόσθεν, πρὶν ..before .., mostly with a neg., οὐ πρόσθεν .., πρίν γε ..με ἴδηται Od.17.7, cf. X.An.1.1.10, Cyr. 1.2.8, etc.; οὐ π. πρὶν ἤ ..ib.1.4.23: without a neg., π. πρὶν τυχεῖν Pi.P.2.91: also π. ἢ .. S.OT736, El.82, 1333; ποτιτάσσει ..μὴ π. ἐξελθεῖν ἢ τὰν ματέρα κατακάνῃ Anon.Mythogr. in PSI9.1091.3.

2. sooner, rather, π. ἂν ἀποθάνοιεν ἢ τὰ ὅπλα παραδοίησαν would die sooner than .., X.An.2.1.10.