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prŏpĭor, ĭus, gen. ōris, adj. comp., and proxĭmus, a, um, adj. sup. (v. below, II.) [from the obsol. propis; whence prope].

I. Comp., nearer, nigher.

A. Lit., of place: portus propior, Verg. A. 3, 530: tumulus, Liv. 22, 24: ut propior patriae sit fuga nostra, Ov. P. 1, 2, 130: domus, Sall. H. 2, 40 Dietsch: cum propior caliginis aër Ater init oculos, Lucr. 4, 338 (314).—With acc.: propior montem suos collocat, Sall. J. 49, 1: propior hostem, Hirt. B. G. 8, 9.—With ab: quisquis ab igne propior stetit, Sen. Ep. 74, 4.—With inf.: propior timeri, Stat. Th. 12, 223.—Neutr. plur, subst.: prŏpĭōra, um, places lying near: propiora fluminis, Tac. H. 5, 16: tenere, Verg. A. 5, 168.—

B. Trop.

1. Of time, nearer, later, more recent: veniunt inde ad propiora, Cic. Tusc. 1, 48, 116: venio ad propiorem (epistulam), id. Att. 15, 3, 2: propior puero quam juveni, Vell. 2, 53, 1: septimus octavo jam propior annus, Hor. S. 2, 6, 40; id. C. 3, 15, 4: mors, Tib. 2, 3, 42: propiore aut longiore tempore aliquid facere, Dig. 23, 4, 17.—

2. Of relationship, nearer, more nearly related; with dat.: quibus propior P. Quintio nemo est, Cic. Quint. 31, 97: ille gradu propior sanguinis, Ov. H. 3, 28; 16, 326; 20, 158: amicus, Hor. Ep. 1, 9, 5.—

3. Of resemblance, more nearly resembling, more like (class.); with dat.: quae sceleri propiora sunt, quam religioni, Cic. Verr. 2, 4, 50, 112: tauro, Verg. G. 3, 57: vero est propius, more probable, Liv. 4, 37; Ov. F. 4, 801; Tac. A. 13, 34; id. G. 45: scribere Sermoni propiora, Hor. S. 1, 4, 42.—With acc. (not in Cic.): propius est fidem, is more credible, Liv. 4, 17: quod tamen vitium propius virtutem erat, Sall. C. 11, 1.—

4. Of relation or connection, nearer, more nearly related, affecting or concerning more nearly, of greater import, closer, more intimate: hunc priorem aequom'st me habere: tunica propior pallio est, proverbially, my shirt is nearer than my coat, Plaut. Trin. 5, 2, 30: propior societas eorum, qui ejusdem civitatis, Cic. Off. 3, 17, 69: sua sibi propiora pericula esse, quam mea, id. Sest. 18, 40: alium portum propiorem huic aetati videbamus, id. Att. 14, 19, 1: damnum propius medullis, Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 28: cura propior luctusque domesticus, Ov. M. 13, 578; id. P. 4, 9, 71: supplemento vel Latium propius esse, Liv. 8, 11: irae quam timori propiorem cernens, more inclined to anger than to fear, Tac. A. 16, 9: oderat Aenean propior Saturnia Turno, more inclined or attached to, Ov. Tr. 1, 2, 7.—Hence, adv.: prŏpĭus, more nearly, nearer, closer (class.).

A. Lit.

1. Absol.: propius accedamus, Ter. Ad. 3, 2, 11; Ov. M. 2, 41: res adspicere, Verg. A. 1, 526: propius spectare aliquid, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 67; stare, id. A. P. 361.—

2. With dat., nearer to: propius grammatico accessi, Cic. ap. Diom. p. 405 P. (not elsewhere in Cic.): propius Tiberi quam Thermopylis, Nep. Hann. 8, 3: propius stabulis armenta tenerent, Verg. G. 1, 355.—

3. With acc.: ne propius se castra moveret, Caes. B. G. 4, 9: pars insulae, quae est propius solis occasum, id. ib. 4, 28: propius aliquem accedere, id. ib. 5, 36: propius urbem, Cic. Phil. 7, 9, 26: mare, Sall. J. 18, 9.—

4. With ab: propius a terris, Cic. N. D. 1, 31, 87: antiquitas quo propius aberat ab ortu et divinā progenie, hoc melius ea cernebat, id. Tusc. 1, 12, 26: ab Urbe, Plin. 17, 25, 38, 243.—

B. Trop.: ut propius ad ea accedam, quae a te dicta sunt, Cic. Fin. 4, 10, 24; Sen. Ira, 3, 42, 4; Cic. Part. 36, 124: propius accedo: nego esse illa testimonia, id. Fl. 10, 23: a contumeliā quam a laude propius fuerit post Vitellium eligi, Tac. H. 2, 76: nec quicquam propius est factum, quam ut illum persequeretur, he was within an ace of following him, Cic. Clu. 21, 59; so, propius nihil est factum, quam ut occideretur, id. Q. Fr. 1, 2, 5, 15.

II. Sup.: proxĭmus (PROXVMVS and PROXSVMEIS, Tab. Bant.; late comp. proximior, Sen. Ep. 108, 16; Ulp. ap. Prisc. p. 607 P.; v. below, B. 2. and 3.; cf. in adv. 2. c.), a, um, adj., the nearest, next (class.).

A. Lit., of place: proxima oppida, Caes. B. G. 3, 12: via, Lucr. 5, 103; cf.: via ad gloriam proxima et quasi compendiaria, Cic. Off. 2, 12, 43: ad proximum mare, dein Romam pergerent, Sall. J. 23, 2: in proximos collis discedunt, id. ib. 54, 10: proximum iter in Galliam, Caes. B. G. 1, 10: paries cum proximus ardet, Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 84: agri termini, id. C. 2, 18, 23: proximus vicinus, one's nearest neighbor, Plaut. Most. 3, 1, 138; Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 49; Cic. Att. 2, 14, 2; Dig. 50, 15, 4.—With dat.: Belgae proximi sunt Germanis, Caes. B. G. 1, 1: huic proximum inferiorem orbem tenet πυρόεις, Cic. N. D. 2, 20, 53: proxima Campano ponti villula, Hor. S. 1, 5, 45.—With acc. (not in Cic.): qui te proximus est, Plaut. Poen. 5, 3, 1: ager proximus finem Megalopolitarum, Liv. 35, 27: Crassus proximus mare Oceanum hiemarat, Caes. B. G. 3, 7, 2: qui proximi forte tribunal steterant, Liv. 8, 32, 12.—With ab, nearest to, next to: dactylus proximus a postremo, next before, Cic. Or. 64, 217: ut quisque proximus ab oppresso sit, Liv. 37, 25: proximus a dominā, Ov. A. A. 1, 139: proxima regio ab eā (urbe), Curt. 10, 5, 18. —Hence, as subst.,

1. proxĭmus, i, m., a neighbor, a fellow-man, Val. Max. 6, 9 init.; Quint. Decl. 259.—As subst.,

2. proxĭmum, i, n., the neighborhood, vicinity: vicinus e proximo, hard by, Plaut. Aul. 2, 4, 11: aquam hinc de proximo rogabo, from the house next door, id. Rud. 2, 3, 73: cum in proximo hic sit aegra, close by, next door, Ter. Hec. 3, 2, 6: huic locum in proximum conduxi, Cic. Fil. Fam. 16, 21, 4: per impluvium huc despexi in proximum, into our neighbor's, Plaut. Mil. 2, 3, 16.—Plur.: traicit in proxima continentis, Liv. 31, 46, 12.—

B. Trop.

1. Of time, the next preceding or following, the previous, last, the next, the following, ensuing: quid proximā, quid superiore nocte egeris, Cic. Cat. 1, 1, 1: his proximis Nonis, cum in hortos Bruti venissemus, id. Lael. 2, 7: Gabinius quem proximis superioribus diebus acerrime oppugnasset, id. Fam. 1, 9, 20: se proximā nocte castra moturum, on the next, i.e. the following night, Caes. B. G. 1, 40 fin.; 2, 12; 3, 18; Liv. 2, 7, 1: proximo anno, Sall. J. 35, 2; Plin. 17, 23, 35, 208: in proxumum annum (se) transtulit, Cic. Mil. 9, 24: proximo, altero, tertio, denique reliquis consecutis diebus, id. Phil. 1, 13, 32: bello tanto majore quam proximo conatu apparatum est, Liv. 4, 23, 6 Weissenb. ad loc.: IN DIEBVS V. PROXSVMEIS QVIBVS QVISQVE EORVM MAG (istratum) INIERIT, Tab. Bantin. lin. 14; so ib. lin. 12; Cic. Fam. 10, 26, 2; id. Att. 11, 11, 1: censor qui proximus ante me fuerat, id. Sen. 12, 42: die proximi, old abl. form for proximo, Cato ap. Gell. 10, 24, 10, and ap. Non. 153, 11; cf.: crastinus, pristinus, etc., but proximo a. d. VI. Kal. Octobr., recently, last of all, Cic. Att. 18, 5.—

2. In order of succession, rank, estimation, worth, etc., the next: summa necessitudo videtur esse honestatis: huic proxima incolumitatis: tertia ac levissima commoditatis, Cic. Inv. 2, 58, 173: observat L. Domitium maxime, me habet proximum, id. Att. 1, 1, 3: proximos dentes eiciunt, Varr. R. R. 2, 7, 2: prima vulnera ... Proxima, Ov. M. 3, 233: proximos illi tamen occupavit Pallas honores, Hor. C. 1, 12, 19: proximum est, ut, it follows that, remains that, the next point is: proximum est ergo, ut, opus fuerit classe necne quaeramus, we must next inquire, Cic. Fl. 12, 27: proximum est, ut doceam, deorum providentiā mundum administrari, id. N. D. 2, 29, 73.—Of value or quality, the next, most nearly approaching, most like or similar: id habendum est antiquissimum et deo proximum, quod est optimum, Cic. Leg. 2, 16, 40: ficta voluptatis causā sint proxima veris, Hor. A. P. 338: proxima Phoebi Versibus ille facit, Verg. E. 7, 22.—Comp.: ut quorum abstinentiam interrupi, modum servem et quidem abstinentiae proximiorem, Sen. Ep. 108, 16.—

3. In relationship, connection, or resemblance, the nearest, next, most nearly or closely related, next of kin, most like: AGNATVS PROXIMVS, Fragm. XII. Tabularum: hic illi genere est proximus, Ter. Ad. 4, 5, 17: proximus cognatione, Cic. Inv. 2, 49, 144: id des proximum, id. Leg. 2, 16, 40: proxima virtutibus vitia, Quint. 10, 2, 16: propinquitate, Nep. Ages. 1, 3: proximae necessitudines, Petr. 116.— Comp.: si quis proximior cognatus nasceretur, Ulp. ap. Prisc. p. 607 P.—Subst.: proxĭmi, ōrum, m., one's nearest relatives, next of kin: injuriosi sunt in proximos, Cic. Off. 1, 14, 44; Caes. Fragm. ap. Gell. 5, 13, 6; Phaedr. 5, 1, 16: cum haec omnia cumulate tuis proximis plana fecero, i.e. to your friends, intimates, Cic. Verr. 2, 5, 64, 165; id. Pis. 32, 79; Gell. 3, 8, 3.—

b. In gen., one's neighbor, fellow-man: sive nostros status, sive proximorum ingenia contemplamur, Val. Max. 6, 9, 1; Quint. Decl. 2, 59: quis est mihi proximus? Aug. in Psa. 118; Serm. 8, 2; 90, 7 init.

4. That is nearest at hand, i. e. apt, fit, suitable, convenient, easy (anteand post-class.): argumentum, App. Mag. p. 278: cum obvium proximumque esset dicere, etc., Gell. 3, 14, 12: eamus ad me; ibi proximum est, ubi mutes, there is the fittest, most convenient place, Ter. Eun. 3, 5, 64.—Adv.: proxĭmē (proxume; comp. proximius, v. below, 2. c.), nearest, very near, next.

1. Lit., of place, with dat. (not in Cic., rare in Livy): quam proxime potest hostium castris castra communit, Caes. B. C. 1, 72 fin.; Liv. 25, 14, 4.—With acc.: exercitum habere quam proxime hostem, Cic. Att. 6, 5, 3: proxime Pompeium sedebam, id. ib. 1, 14, 3: proxime Hispaniam Mauri sunt, Sall. J. 19, 4.—With ab: a Surā proxime est Philiscum oppidum Parthorum, Plin. 5, 26, 21, 89: omnes tamen quam proxime alter ab altero debent habitare, Col. 1, 6, 8.—

2. Trop.

a. Of time, shortly before or after, last, next: civitates quae proxime bellum fecerant, Caes. B. G. 3, 29: Tito fratre suo censore, qui proximus ante me fuerat, Cic. Sen. 12, 42; id. Part. 39, 137; Plin. Ep. 4, 13, 3: cum proxime judices contrahentur, id. ib. 5, 7, 3.—With acc.: proxime abstinentiam sumendus est cibus exiguus, Cels. 3, 2: proxime solis occasum, Pall. 9, 8, 5.—

b. Of order, rank, estimation, condition, etc., next to, next after, next: proxime et secundum deos homines hominibus maxime utiles esse possunt, Cic. Off. 2, 3, 1: me huic tuae virtuti proxime accedere, id. Fam. 11, 21, 4: proxime a nobilissimis viris, Vell. 2, 124, 4; id. 2, 127, 1: proxime valent cetera lauri genera, Plin. 23, 8, 80, 158: utilissimum esse omphacium; proxime viride, id. 23, 4, 39, 79.—With acc.: esse etiam debent proxime hos cari, qui, etc., Cass. ap. Cic. Fam. 12, 13, 2: proxime morem Romanum, closely following the Roman method, Liv. 24, 48, 11: erat res minime certamini navali similis, proxime speciem muros oppugnantium navium, closely resembling, id. 30, 10.—In this sense also with atque: proxime atque ille aut aeque, nearly the same as he, Cic. Fam. 9, 13, 2.—

c. Very closely, nicely, accurately: ut proxime utriusque differentiam signem, Quint. 6, 2, 20 Spald.; cf.: analogia, quam proxime ex Graeco transferentes in Latinum proportionem vocaverunt, id. 1, 6, 3. —Comp.: nonne apertius, proximius, verius? Min. Fel. Oct. 19.