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pugno, āvi, ātum, 1, v. n. and very rarely a. [root pug-, to thrust, strike, whence pugil, pungo, etc.], to fight, either singly or in armies, to combat, give battle, engage, contend (very freq. and class.).

I. Lit.: neque sinistrā impeditā satis commode pugnare poterant, Caes. B. G. 1, 25: scutum manu emittere et nudo corpore pugnare, id. ib. 1, 25: eminus lapidibus, Sall. J. 57, 4: cominus in acie, Cic. Balb. 9, 23: ex equo, on horseback, id. N. D. 2, 2, 6: de loco, Ter. Hec. alt. prol. 33: de ponte, Hirt. B. Afr. 33: pro muro toto, id. ib. 13: ex iniquiore loco, id. ib. 42: pro commodis patriae, Cic. Inv. 1, 1, 1 al.—With cum and abl.: elige, cum cive an hoste pugnare malis, Liv. 10, 36, 8: cum hoste in acie, Cic. Balb. 9, 22.—With in and acc.: ne quis extra ordinem in hostem pugnaret, Liv. 8, 6, 16: in hostem imparem ex aequo pugnabant, id. 10, 43, 6: qui contra imperium in hostem pugnaverant, Sall. C. 9, 4; 52, 30.—With adversum and acc.: saepe ante paucis strenuis advorsum multitudinem bene pugnatum, Sall. J. 107, 1: advorsum Gallos, id. ib. 114, 1.—With a homogeneous object: magnam pugnavimu' pugnam, Lucil. ap. Don. Ter. Eun. 5, 2, 60; cf.: haec pugna est pugnata, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 97: pugna summā contentione pugnata, Cic. Mur. 16, 34; Nep. Hann. 5, 1: inclitam in ponte pugnam ... pugnatam, Liv. 6, 42, 5: proelia, Hor. C. 4, 9, 19; Sall. J. 54, 7: bella, Hor. C. 3, 19, 4; id. Ep. 1, 16, 25.— Impers. pass.: pugnatur uno tempore omnibus locis, the battle is fought, they fight, Caes. B. G. 7, 84: cominus gladiis pugnatum est, id. ib. 1, 52: ut in mari quoque pugnetur velut e muris, Plin. 32, 1, 1, 3.—

II. Transf.

A. In gen., to contend, conflict, disagree, oppose, contradict; usu. with dat. of person, or with cum: pugnant Stoici cum Peripateticis, Cic. Fin. 2, 21, 68. —With acc. and inf.: pugnare non destitit, non esse rerum controversiam, sed nominum, Cic. Fin. 3, 12, 41: non magno opere pugnare, to contend not very strongly, id. N. D. 3, 1, 3: noli pugnare duobus, Cat. 62, 64: ne cupias pugnare puellae, Prop. 1, 12 (10), 21; cf.: placitone etiam pugnabis amori? Verg. A. 4, 38: pressis pugnat habenis, id. ib. 11, 600: ne pugnet vulgus habenis, Stat. Th. 8, 289: tam eras excors, ut totā in oratione tuā tecum ipse pugnares, you contradicted yourself, Cic. Phil. 2, 8, 18. —Of things: pugnat sententia secum, Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 97: pugnavit monitis furor, Sil. 10, 284: pugnatura fretis pila, id. 4, 298: frigida pugnabant calidis, umentia siccis, Mollia cum duris, etc., cold bodies contended with hot, moist with dry, etc., Ov. M. 1, 19: humus, Petr. poët. Sat. 123.—

B. To struggle, strive, to endeavor, take pains, exert one's self for any thing (rare but class.): illud pugna et enitere, ne, etc., Cic. Fam. 3, 10, 3: id ne impetremus, pugnabis, id. Lig. 5, 13; cf.: hoc solum hoc tempore pugnatur, ut, etc., id. Rosc. Am. 3, 8: pugnas, ne reddar, Achille, Ov. H. 3, 25 Ruhnk.: pugnaremque collegae, ut, etc., Liv. 3, 64.—Poet., with inf.: pugnat molles evincere somnos, Ov. M. 1, 685; 7, 772; id. H. 13, 77: incerto pedum pugnat non stare tumultu, Luc. 4, 753; Claud. Rapt. Pros. 2, 196; cf., of things, Lucr. 2, 205.—P. a. as subst.: pugnan-tĭa, ium, n., contradictions, inconsistencies: pugnantia te loqui non vides? Cic. Tusc. 1, 7, 13; cf. Hor. S. 1, 2, 73; 1, 1, 102.