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pūnĭo or (in archaic form) poenĭo, īvi or ii, ītum, 4 (sync. imp. poenibat, Lucr. 6, 1238), v. a., and pūnĭor (poen-), ītus, 4, v. dep. a. [poena].

I. To inflict punishment upon, to punish (syn.: castigo, animadverto, plecto, multo).

(a). In act. form: peccata punimus, Cic. Inv. 2, 22, 66: punire sontes, id. Off. 1, 24, 82: Philemonem morte puniit, Suet. Caes. 74: alio punito, id. Calig. 30: lex omnis aut punit aut jubet, etc., Quint. 7, 5, 5; cf. id. 7, 1, 48.—Pass.: tergo ac capite puniri, Liv. 3, 55 fin.; Ov. M. 9, 778.—

(b). In dep. form: qui punitur aliquem, Cic. Off. 1, 25, 88: inimicos puniuntur, id. Tusc. 1, 44, 107: hominum necem, id. Phil. 8, 2, 7: crudelius poeniri quam erat humanitatis meae postulare, id. Mil. 13, 33; id. Inv. 2, 27, 80; 2, 28, 83; Quint. 9, 3, 6; Gell. 20, 1, 7: punita sum funestum praedonem, App. M. 8, p. 207, 17.—

(g). In indeterm. form: ipse se puniens, Cic. Tusc. 3, 27, 65: prohibenda autem maxime est ira in puniendo, id. Off. 1, 25, 89 fin.

II. To take vengeance for, to avenge, revenge,= ulcisci (rare): Graeciae fana punire, Cic. Rep. 3, 9, 15: iracundia est cupiditas puniendi doloris, id. de Or. 1, 51, 220: meam domum a judicibus puniendam putavit, Cic. Har. Resp. 8, 16.—Dep.: ut clarissimorum omnium crudelissimam puniretur necem, Cic. Phil. 8, 2, 7.