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θεός, ὁ, Boeot. θιός, Lacon. σιός (v. infr.), Cypr., Cret. θιός Inscr.Cypr.135.27 H., Leg.Gort.1.1, Dor. also θεύς Call.Cer.58; acc. θεῦν v.l. ib.130; voc. (only late) θεός, also θεέ LXXDe.3.24, Ev.Matt. 27.46, PMag.Lond.121.529, etc.; but classical in compd. names, Ἀμφίθεε, Τιμόθεε:—
God, the Deity, in general sense, both sg. and pl. (εἰ καὶ ἐπὶ θεοὺς καὶ ἔτι μᾶλλον ἐπὶ θεὸν ἁρμόζει μεταφέρειν Plot.6.8.1), θ. δὲ τὸ μὲν δώσει τὸ δ' ἐάσει God will grant .., Od.14.444; οὐδέ κεν ἄλλως οὐδὲ θ. τεύξειε 8.177, cf. 3.231, Il.13.730 (also θεὸς Ζεύς Od.4.236, 14.327); θ. καὶ ἀγαθὴ τύχη Pl.Lg.757e, cf. Timocl.3 D.; σὺν θεῷ Il.9.49, S.Aj.765, etc. (less freq. ξὺν τῷ θ. ib.383); σὺν θ. εἰρημ�; νον Hdt.1.86, cf. 3.153; σὺν θ. εἰπεῖν Pl.Prt.317b: so in pl., σύν γε θεοῖσιν Il.24.430; οὔ τοι ἄνευ θεοῦ Od.2.372; οὐ θεῶν ἄτερ pi.P.5.76; ἐκ θεόφι Il.17.101; ὑπὲρ θεόν against his will, 17.327; ἂν θ. θέλῃ Alex. 231; θ. θέλοντος Men.Mon.671: in pl., ἂν θεοὶ θέλωσιν Alex.247; θεῶν συνεθελόντων, βουλομένων, X.Eq.Mag.9.8, Luc.Macr.29; εἰ ὀρθῶς ἢ μή, θ. οἶδε Pl.Phdr.266b, cf.R.517b, etc.; in oaths, θ. ἴστω S.OC522 (lyr.), etc.; πρὸς θεῶν Hdt.5.49, D.1.15, etc.: τοὺς θεούς σοι bless you! good heavens! for heaven's sake! M.Ant.7.17, Arr.Epict.2.19.15, al.; τὸν θ. σοι ib.3.7.19, al.: qualified by τις, Od.9.142, etc.; οὐκ ἄνευ θεῶν τινος A.Pers.164 (troch.), E.Ba.764; κατὰ θεόν τινα Id.IA411, Pl. Euthd.272e; κατὰ θεόν πως εἰρημένα Id.Lg.682a: doubled in poets, θεὸν θεόν τις ἀγλαϊζέτω B.3.21, cf. Diagor.1; θεοὶ θεοὶ τῶν ἀδίκων μέλουσι E.HF772, cf. Paus.Gr.Fr.203; θεοί (Cret. θιοί) as an opening formula in Inscrr. (sc. τύχην ἀγαθὴν διδοῖεν), Leg.Gort.1.1, IG 12.52, etc.: sg., θ. τύχη ib.5(2).1, etc.: in Prose also with the Art., ὁ θ. πάντων ἂν εἴη αἴτιος Pl.R.379c, cf. Lg.716c, etc.; τὰ πρὸς τοὺς θ., τὰ παρὰ τῶν θ., X.Mem.1.3.1, 2.6.8.

b. θεοί, opp. ἄνδρες, πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε Il.1.544; ὃν Ξάνθον καλέουσι θ., ἄνδρες δὲ Σκάμανδρον 20.74: in Comparisons, θεοῖσιν ἶσ' ἔθελε φρονέειν 5.440; θεοῖς ἐναλίγκια μήδεα Od.13.89; also in sg., θεῷ ἐναλίγκιος αὐδήν Il.19.250; θεὸς ὥς 5.78; ὥς τε θεός 3.381: prov., θεὸς πρὸς ἀνθρώπους, of an 'angel's visit', Herod.1.9.

c. of special divinities, νέρτεροι θ. A.Pers.622, S.Ant.602 (lyr.); ἐνέρτεροι θ. Il.15.225; οἱ κάτωθεν θ. S.Ant.1070; θ. οὐράνιοι h.Cer.55, A.Ag.90 (anap.); οἱ δώδεκα θ. Ar.Eq.235, X.Eq.Mag.3.2, IG22.30, etc.; μὰ τοὺς δώδεκα θ. Men.Sam.91; in dual, τὼ σιώ (Lacon.), of Castor and Pollux, ναὶ τὼ σ. X.An.6.6.34, HG4.4.10, Ar.Lys.81: so in Boeot., of Amphion and Zethus, νεὶ τὼ σιώ (leg. θιώ) Id.Ach.905.

d. ὁ θ., of natural phenomena, ὁ θ. ὕει (sc. Ζεύς) Hdt.2.13; ὁ θ. ἐνέσκηψε βέλος Id.4.79; ἔσεισεν ὁ θ. (sc. Ποσειδῶν) X.HG4.7.4; of the sun, Hdt.2.24, A.Pers. 502, E.Alc.722; δύνοντος τοῦ θ. App.BC4.79; the weather, τί δοκεῖ τὰ τοῦ θεοῦ; Thphr.Char.25.2.

e. Astrol., θεοί,= ἀστέρες, Jul. Laod.in Cat.Cod.Astr.8(4).252.

f. θεός (sc. Ἥλιος), name of the 9th τόπος, Rhetor.ib.163, etc.

2. metaph., of abstract things, τὸ δ' εὐτυχεῖν τόδ' ἐν βροτοῖς θεός τε καὶ θεοῦ πλέον A.Ch.60; ἡ φρόνησις ἁγαθὴ θ. μέγας S.Fr.922; θ. γὰρ καὶ τὸ γιγνώσκειν φίλους E.Hel.�;60; ὁ πλοῦτος τοῖς σοφοῖς θ. Id.Cyc.316; φθόνος κάκιστος θ. Hippothoon 2.

3. as title of rulers, θεῶν ἀδελφῶν (sc. Ptolemy Il and Arsinoe), Herod.1.30, etc.; Πτολεμαῖος ὑπάρχων θεὸς ἐκ θεοῦ καὶ θεᾶς OGI90.10(Rosetta, ii B.C.); Ἀντίοχος ὅτῳ θεὸς ἐπώνυμον γίγνεται App.Syr.65; θεὸς ἐκ θεοῦ, of Augustus, OGI655.2 (Egypt, 24 B.C.); θ. ἡμῶν καὶ δεσπότης IPE4.71 (Cherson., ii A.D.).

b. = Lat. Divus, Mon.Anc.Gr.10.4, Str.4.1.1, etc.; οἱ ἐν θεοῖς αὐτοκράτορες,= divi Imperatores, IG12(1).786 (Rhodes).

c. generally of the dead, καὶ ζῶντός σου καὶ εἰς θεοὺς ἀπελθόντος PPetr.2p.45 (iii B.C.); θεοῖς χθονίοις,= Lat. Dis Manibus, IG14.30,al.

4. one set in authority, judge, τὸ κριτήριον τοῦ θ., ἐνώπιον τοῦ θ., LXXEx.21.6, 22.8; θεοὺς οὐ κακολογήσεις ib.22.28(27).

II. θεός fem., goddess, μήτε θήλεια θεός, μήτε τις ἄρσην Il.8.7, cf. Hdt.2.35, al.; τοῖς θεοῖς εὔχομαι πᾶσι καὶ πάσαις D.18.1, cf. 141, Orac.ib.21.52; esp. at Athens, of Athena, Decr. ap. And.1.77, Pl.Ti.21a, etc.; ἁ Διὸς θεός, Ζηνὸς ἡ θ., S.Aj.401 (lyr.), 952 (ἡ Διὸς θεά ib.450); of other goddesses, ποντία θεός Pi.I. 8(7).36; ἡ νερτέρα θ.,= Περσεφόνη, S.OC1548, etc.; of Thetis, Pl. Ap.28c; of Niobe, S.El.150 (lyr.), Ant.834 (anap.): in dual, of Demeter and Persephone, τὰ τοῖν θεοῖν ψηφίσματα Ar.V.378 (lyr.); οὐδ' ἔδεισε τὼ θεώ And.1.125; freq. in oaths, νὴ τὼ θεώ Ar.Lys.112; μὰ τὼ θεώ Id.Ec.155,532.

III. as Adj. in Comp. θεώτερος, divine, θύραι θ., opp. καταιβαταὶ ἀνθρώποισιν, Od.13.111; χορὸς θ. Call.Ap. 93, cf.Dian.249, D.P.257. (Derived by Hdt.2.52 fr. τίθημι (κόσμῳ θέντες τὰ πρήγματα), by Pl.Cra.397d fr. θεῖν. Etym. dub.) [In Ep. (twice in Hom.) and Trag. (E.Ba.47, 1347, al., not in Com.), as monosyll. by synizesis, θεοί Il.1.18, Thgn.142; θεῶν h.Cer.55, 259; θεοῖς Thgn.171; θεοῖσιν Od.14.251; θεούς h.Cer.325: even in nom. θεός before a vowel, E.Or.399 (cf. Pors. ad loc.), HF347; in Pi.P. 1.56 apptly. a short monosyll.]