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θῡμός, ὁ, soul, spirit, as the principle of life, feeling and thought, esp. of strong feeling and passion (rightly derived from θύω (B) by Pl.Cra. 419e ἀπὸ τῆς θύσεως καὶ ζέσεως τῆς ψυχῆς):

I. in physical sense, breath, life, θ. ἀπηύρα, ἀφελέσθαι, ἐξαίνυσθαι, ὀλέσαι, freq. in Hom., Il.6.17, 5.852, 155, 1.205: c. dupl. acc., ἄμφω θ. ἀπηύρα 6.17; ἐπεί κε ..ῥεθέων ἐκ θ. ἕληται 22.68; λίπε δ' ὀστέα θ. 12.386; ἀπὸ δ' ἔπτατο θ. Od.10.163; ὀλίγος δ' ἔτι θ. ἐνῆεν Il.1.593; μόγις δ' ἐσαγείρετο θυμόν 21.417; ἄψορρόν οἱ θ. ἐνὶ στήθεσσιν ἀγέρθη 4.152; θυμοῦ καὶ ψυχῆς κεκαδών 11.334; of animals, 3.294, 12.150, etc.: less freq. in Trag., A. Ag.1388, E.Ba.620 (troch.).

2. spirit, strength, τείρετο δ' ἀνδρῶν θ. ὑπ' εἰρεσίης Od.10.78; ἐν δέ τε θ. τείρεθ' ὁμοῦ καμάτῳ τε καὶ ἱδρῷ Il.17.744.

3. πάτασσε δὲ θ. ἑκάστου each man's heart beat high, 23.370, cf. 7.216.

II. soul, as shown by the feelings and passions; and so,

1. desire or inclination, esp. desire for meat and drink, appetite, πιέειν ὅτε θ. ἀνώγοι Il.4.263; πλησάμενος ..θυμὸν ἐδητύος ἠδὲ ποτῆτος Od.17.603: generally, τά με θ. ἐνὶ στήθεσσι κελεύει Il.7.68; βαλέειν δέ ἑ ἵετο θ. 8.301; αἲ γάρ με μένος καὶ θ. ἀνείη 22.346; θ. ἐποτρύνῃ [τινά] Od.9.139; θ. ἐπέσσυταί τινι, ἐφορμᾶται, Il.1.173, 13.73; ἤθελε θυμῷ he wished in his heart or with all his heart, 16.255, 21.65; ἵετο θυμῷ 2.589; so later θυμῷ βουλόμενοι wishing with all their heart, Hdt. 5.49; [ὄσσα f] οι θ. κε θέλῃ γένεσθαι Sapph.Supp.1.3; θυμὸς ὥρμα Pi. O.3.25, cf. 38; θυμὸς ἡδονὴν φέρει S.El.286; ὧν ἐρᾷ θυμός Herod.7.61; τῶν σφι θ. ἦν μάλιστα Hdt.1.1; ἄλλως σφι θ. ἐγένετο θεήσασθαι τὸν πόλεμον Id.8.116, etc.: with Verb omitted, σὲ γάρ μοι θῦμος ὔμνην Alc. 5; ἄρχ' αὐτὸς ὥς σοι θ. S.El.1319; ὅπου ὑμῖν θ. X.Cyr.3.1.37; βῆξαι θυμός ἐγγίνεται Hp.Prog.8.

2. mind, temper, will, θ. πρόφρων, ἵλαος, Il. 8.39, 9.639; θ. ὑπερφίαλος καὶ ἀπηνής, νηλέα θ. ἔχοντας, σιδήρεος θ., 15.94, 19.229, Od.5.191; ἕνα θ. ἔχειν to be of one mind, Il.15.710, etc.; οὐδὲ λύκοι τε καὶ ἄρνες ὁμόφρονα θ. ἔχουσιν 22.263; ἕτερος δέ με θ. ἔρυκε Od.9.302; ἐμὸν θ. ἔπειθεν ib.33; θωπείας κολακικάς, αἳ ..τοὺς θ. ποιοῦσιν κηρίνους Pl.Lg.633d.

3. spirit, courage, μένος καὶ θ. Il.20.174; θ. ἐνὶ στήθεσσι λαβεῖν Od.10.461; πᾶσιν δὲ παραὶ ποσὶ κάππεσε θ. Il.15.280; ψῦχρος ἔγεντο θ., of doves, Sapph.16; θ. ἔχειν ἀγαθόν Hdt.1.120; θ. οὐκ ἀπώλεσεν S.El.26; ὁ θυμὸς εὐθὺς ἦν Ἀμυνίας Ar.Eq.570; ἴωμεν ῥώμῃ καὶ θυμῷ ἐπί ..X.Cyr.4.2.21; φρονήματός τε καὶ θυμοῦ ἐμπίπλασθαι Pl.R.411c: so in Philos., opp. λόγος, ἐπιθυμία, ib.440b, al., cf. Arist.Pol.1328a7, 1327b24, Phld.Mus.p.26K., etc.; personified, Passion, Emotion, opp. Λογισμός, Cleanth.Stoic.1.129.

4. the seat of anger, χωόμενον κατὰ θυμόν Il.1.429; νεμεσιζέσθω ἐνὶ θυμῷ 17.254; θυμὸν ἐχώσατο 16.616, etc.: hence, anger, wrath, δάμασον θυμόν 9.496; εἴξας ᾧ θυμῷ ib.598; θυμὸς μέγας ἐστὶ ..βασιλήων 2.196; θ. ὀξύς S.OC 1193; θ. κρείσσων τῶν ἐμῶν βουλευμάτων E.Med.1079, etc.; θυμῷ f.l. for θυμοῦ in S.Ant.718; οἱ τῷ θ. πραχθέντες φόνοι Pl.Lg.867b; opp. λογισμός, Th.2.11, etc.; ἐπανάγειν τὸν θ. Hdt.7.160; ἐκτείνειν And.3.31; καταθέσθαι Ar.V.567; δακεῖν Id.Nu.1369; θυμῷ χρᾶσθαι Hdt.1.137, al.; ὀργῆς καὶ θυμοῦ μεστοί Isoc.12.81 (so τὴν ὀργὴν καὶ τὸν θ., i.e. the outward manifestation of ὀ., Phld.Ir.p.90W.); of horses, X.Eq. 9.2: pl. (not earlier than Pl., f.l. in S.Aj.718 (lyr.)), fits of anger, passions, περὶ φόβων τε καὶ θυμῶν Pl.Phlb.40e; οἵ τε θ. καὶ αἱ κολάσεις Id.Prt.323e, cf. Arist.Rh.1390a11.

5. the heart, as the seat of the emotions, esp. joy or grief, χαῖρε, γήθησε δὲ θυμῷ, Il.14.156, 7.189; θ. ἐνὶ στήθεσσι γεγήθει 13.494; μιν ἄχος κραδίην καὶ θ. ἵκανεν 2.171; ἄχνυτο θ. 14.39, etc.; δόκησε δ' ἄρα σφίσι θ. ὣς ἔμεν ὡς εἰ ..they felt as glad at heart as if .., Od.10.415; μηδ' ὀνίαισι δάμνα ..θ. Sapph.1.4; of fear, δέος ἔμπεσε θυμῷ Il.17.625, cf. 8.138; of love, τὴν ἐκ θυμοῦ φίλεον 9.343; ἐκ θυμοῦ στέργοισα Theoc.17.130; ἐμῷ κεχαρισμένε θυμῷ my heart's beloved, Il.5.243; reversely, ἀπὸ θ. μᾶλλον ἐμοὶ ἔσεαι wilt be alien from my heart, 1.562; ἐκ θ. πεσέειν, i.e. to lose thy favour, 23.595; ἔρωτι θυμὸν ἐκπλαγεῖσα E.Med.8; ἐκ θ. κλαῦσαι Philet. 11.

6. mind, soul, as the seat of thought, ταῦθ' ὥρμαινε κατὰ φρένα καὶ κατὰ θ. Il.1.193, etc.; ᾔδεε γὰρ κατὰ θ. 2.409, cf. 4.163, etc.; φράζετο θυμῷ 16.646; ἐν θ. ἐβάλοντο ἔπος 15.566; τοὺς λόγους θυμῷ βάλε A.Pr.706; εἰς θ. βαλεῖν τι S.OT975; οὐκ ἐς θ. φέρω I bring him not into my mind or thoughts, Id.El.1347.