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sĕmĕl, adv. num. [root sam-, one; Sanscr. sa-, sam-, with, together; Gr. ἅμα, ἅπαξ; cf.: sem-per, sim-ilis, sim-plex, sin-gulus, etc.].

I. Lit., once, a single time: ter sub armis malim vitam cernere, Quam semel modo parere, Enn. ap. Varr. L. L. 6, 81 Müll.; and ap. Non. 261, 9 (Trag. v. 298 Vahl.); so, potin' ut semel modo huc respicias? Plaut. Ps. 1, 3, 30: satis sum semel deceptus, id. Capt. 3, 5, 99: semel fugiendi si data est occasio, Satis est, id. ib. 1, 2, 8; so, semel si, id. As. 1, 3, 66 (but cf.: si semel, infra, II. B. 2 fin.): qui vel semel ita est usus oculis, ut vera cerneret, is, etc., Cic. Div. 2, 52, 107: ut attendant, semel bisne signum canat in castris, Liv. 27, 47, 3: semel in mense sulcos sarrito, Cato, R. R. 43, 2: semel die, Cels. 1, 3 fin.: in diebus, Col. 12, 30, 1: semel anno, Plin. 12, 14, 32, 58: in anno, id. 4, 12, 26, 89: quem (Crassum) semel ait in vitā risisse Lucilius, Cic. Fin. 5, 30, 92; so, semel in vitā, Plin. 7, 13, 11, 58: semel adhuc, id. 2, 25, 22, 90: semel umquam, id. 2, 35, 35, 100 et saep.: M. Valerius Corvinus sellā curuli semel ac vicies sedit, id. 7, 48, 49, 157; for which also: vicies et semel, id. 2, 108, 102, 243: sol omni terrarum ambitu non semel major, not greater by once, i. e. not as large again, not twice as large, Sen. Q. N. 6, 16: haud semel sed centies, Plaut. Poen. 1, 2, 148; cf. id. As. 2, 4, 15: non semel, sed bis, Cic. Verr. 2, 3, 77, 179; Val. Max. 1, 8, 4: non semel, sed saepe, Cic. Att. 1, 19, 7; id. Tusc. 5, 19, 56: non semel sed saepius, id. Phil. 2, 21, 52; id. N. D. 1, 40, 113; Nep. Epam. 7, 2; Lact. 3, 17, 12; Aug. Ep. 43, 15; 102, 7: non plus quam semel eloqui, Cic. Off. 3, 15, 61; Vell. 2, 40, 4; also without quam: plus semel, more than once, Varr. ap. Plin. 14, 14, 17, 96: Janum Quirinum semel atque iterum clausum, once and again, i. e. twice, Suet. Aug. 22 (for which: Janus bis clausus, Liv. 1, 19; Flor. 4, 12, 64; cf. also Plut. Num. 20); Suet. Aug. 27; but also in a more gen. sense: pecuniam semel atque iterum dare coacti sunt, time and again, i. e. repeatedly, Cic. Font. 12, 26 (8, 16): hoc semel ille iterumque neglexit, id. Div. 1, 25, 54; cf.: cum his Aeduos semel atque iterum armis contendisse, Caes. B.G. 1, 31; Liv. 27, 16 fin.; so too Suet. Claud. 46; for which: semel iterumque, Petr. 34, 9; 115, 12: Piso saepe dicebat, minus saepe Pomponius, raro Carbo, semel aut iterum Philippus, only once or twice, Cic. Brut. 90, 308; Sen. Contr. 1, 7, 12: semel et saepius, Cic. Phil. 14, 8, 22; Varr. L. L. 10, 33 Müll.; cf.: an quod semel jus est, idem et saepius? Quint. 7, 8, 3.—Late Lat.: semel et bis, repeatedly, Vulg. Phil. 4, 16; Greg. M. Ep. 5, 18 fin.

II. Transf.

A. Pregn., like the Gr. ἅπαξ, of that which occurs no more than once, but once, but a single time, once for all: cum facile orari, Caesar, tum semel exorari soles, Cic. Deiot. 3, 9: quibus semel ignotum a te esse oportet, id. ib. 14, 39: hostis est datus, cum quo dimicantes aut vitam semel aut ignominiam finirent, Liv. 25, 6: totas semel absorbere placentas, to swallow entire cakes at once, Hor. S. 2, 8, 24: procubuit moriens et humum semel ore momordit, once for all, Verg. A. 11, 418; cf.: nulla reparabilis arte Laesa pudicitia est; deperit illa semel, Ov. H. 5, 104: semel aeternā nocte premenda fui, id. ib. 10, 112: nobis vero homicidio semel interdicto, once for all, Tert. Apol. 9: sic et semel Christus oblatus est, Vulg. Heb. 9, 28; id. 1 Pet. 3, 18: quoniam se semel a caeli contemplatione averterunt, Lact. 6, 1, 7; hence in Florus: semel in perpetuum, Flor. 2, 12, 2: semel et in perpetuum, id. 3, 6, 7.—Of speech, at once, once for all, in a word, briefly: cum postulasset, ut sibi fundus, cujus emptor erat, semel indicaretur, Cic. Off. 3, 15, 62 (for which, just before: non plus quam semel): interim, quod pluribus collegit adversarius, satis est semel proponere, Quint. 5, 13, 14; cf.: ut semel, plura complectar, id. 11, 1, 66; 1, 2, 24; 2, 15, 34: ut semel dicam, id. 10, 1, 17: ut, quod sentio, semel finiam, id. 5, 13, 3; cf.: quisquam denique, ut semel finiam, in lite cantat? id. 11, 3, 59; so (after denique) id. 10, 3, 22.—

B. In a succession = primum, primo, the first time, first: demonstravimus, L. Vibullium Rufum bis in potestatem pervenisse Caesaris, semel ad Corfinium, iterum in Hispaniā, Caes. B. C. 3, 10; so after bis, with iterum, Liv. 1, 19, 3; Suet. Caes. 36; id. Aug. 25; id. tib. 6 Oud.; 72; id. Claud. 6; after ter, with iterum and tertio, Liv. 23, 9, 11.—Without iterum, etc.: cum ad idem, unde semel profecta sunt, cuncta astra redierint, Cic. Rep. 6, 22, 24; cf.: uti exorta est semel, Plaut. Am. 1, 1, 118.—

2. In gen., like primum, to denote the simple antecedence of an occurrence; hence, most freq. with the particles ut, ubi, quando, cum, si, etc., once, ever, at some time, at any time: quod semel dixi, haud mutabo, what I have once said, Plaut. Bacch. 5, 2, 85: quod Complacitum est semel, id. Am. prol. 106: satis sum semel deceptus, id. Capt. 3, 5, 99: verebamini, ne non id facerem quod recepissem semel? Ter. Phorm. 5, 7, 9: nec accidere, ut quisquam te timere incipiat eorum, qui semel a te sint liberati timore, Cic. Deiot. 14, 39: in id, quod semel invasit, incumbit, Quint. 2, 12, 2: retrahi nequitum, quoquo progressa est semel, Plaut. Fragm. ap. Fest. s. v. nequitum, p. 162 Müll.—So too in the comically formed proper name: Quodsemelarripides, Plaut. Pers. 4, 6, 23.—With particles; with ut: in hasce aedes pedem Nemo intro tetulit, semel ut emigravimus, Plaut. Most. 2, 2, 40: ut occepi semel, id. Am. 3, 1, 13: ut semel eloquentia evecta est, Cic. Brut. 13, 51: ut semel gloriam consecutus sum, id. Att. 1, 19, 6; Caes. B. G. 1, 31: denique ut semel finiam, Quint. 9, 4, 138.—With ubi: ubi erit accubitum semel, Plaut. Bacch. 4, 4, 105: ubi animus semel cupiditate se devinxit malā, Ter. Heaut. 1, 2, 34; 2, 4, 12; Liv. 22, 2.—With quandoquidem: perge, quandoquidem occepisti semel, Plaut. Merc. 3, 4, 34.—With quando: quando in apertum semel discrimen evasura esset res, Liv. 10, 14, 8.—With cum: quae proclivius ad perniciem, cum semel coepit, labitur, Cic. Lael. 12, 41.—With quoniam: (Antonius) quoniam semel induxit animum, sibi licere quod vellet, etc., Cic. Att. 14, 13, 6; Ov H. 12, 11: illam partem, quoniam semel ita vobis placuit, non recusabo quominus perpoliam, Cic. de Or 2, 28, 121; id. Rosc. Am. 11, 31; id. Phil. 12, 7, 18; Liv. 40, 13, 7.—With si: si semel amoris peculum accepit, Extemplo et ipsus periit et res, Plaut. Truc. 1, 1, 22; so, si semel, id. Mil. 3, 3, 42: si istam semel amiseris libertatem, id. ib. 3, 1, 106 Brix ad loc.; Ov. M. 13, 101: si illum semel prehendero, Plaut. Ep. 3, 1, 6: si semel animum tuom perspexerit, Ter. Heaut. 3, 1, 69: et semel emissum volat inrevocabile verbam, Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 71 (but, semel si, if once, if ever, whenever, as an emphatic numeral, Plaut. As. 1, 3, 66; id. Capt. 1, 2, 8; v. supra, I. init.).—With participles (several times in Liv. and Quint.): ut adversando remorandoque incitato semel militi adderent impetum, Liv. 2, 45, 7; so id. 5, 6, 8; 25, 6, 15; Quint. 4, 2, 115; 7, 10, 9; 10, 7, 24 al.