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servus, a, um, adj. [referred by the ancients to servo: servi ex eo appellati sunt, quod imperatores servos vendere, ac per hoc servare, nec occidere solent, Just. Inst. 1, 3, 3; but prob. from root svar-; Lith. svaras, a weight; cf. Gr. ἕρμα; O. H. Germ. swari, burdensome; Germ. schwer, heavy; cf. also serius], slavish, servile, subject.

I. In gen.

A. With homo (= 2. servus; mostly ante-class.): non decet superbum esse hominem servom, Plaut. As. 2, 4, 64; id. Mil. 2, 6, 80; id. Stich. 1, 2, 1; 5, 4, 10; id. Ep. 1, 1, 58; 3, 1, 7; Ter. Phorm. 2, 1, 62.—

B. With other subjects (not freq. till after the Aug. per.): octo milia liberorum servorumque capitum sunt capta, Liv. 29, 29: corpori, quod servum fortuna erat, vim fecit, id. 38, 24: Graeciae urbes servae et vectigales (opp. liberae), id. 34, 58: civitas, id. 25, 31: Lacedaemon, id. 34, 41: serva manus, Ov. F. 6, 558: o imitatores, servum pecus! Hor. Ep. 1, 19, 19: serva aqua, i. e. servorum, Ov. Am. 1, 6, 26; cf. Petr. 71: servam operam, linguam liberam herus me jussit habere, Plaut. Pers. 2, 4, 9: omnia non serva et maxime regna hostilia ducunt (Romani), Sall. H. 4, 61, 17 Dietsch: reges serva omnia et subjecta imperio suo esse velint, Liv. 37, 54; 42, 46: statu libera quicquid peperit, hoc servum heredis est, Dig. 40, 7, 16.—

II. Jurid. t. t., of buildings, lands, etc., liable to certain burdens, subject to a servitude: libera (praedia) meliore jure sunt quam serva, Cic. Agr. 3, 2, 9: fundus, Dig. 8, 6, 6: aedes, ib. 8, 2, 35: area, ib. 8, 2, 34 al.; cf. servio, II. B., and servitus, II B.—Hence,